CHAPTER 715A FORGERY AND RELATED FRAUDULENT CRIMINAL ACTS
715A.1 DEFINITIONS.
715A.2 FORGERY.
715A.2A ACCOMMODATION OF FORGERY -- PENALTY.
715A.3 SIMULATING OBJECTS OF ANTIQUITY OR RARITY.
715A.4 FRAUDULENT DESTRUCTION, REMOVAL, OR CONCEALMENT OF RECORDABLE INSTRUMENTS.
715A.5 TAMPERING WITH RECORDS.
715A.6 CREDIT CARDS.
715A.6A PROHIBITIONS RELATING TO FALSE ACADEMIC DEGREES, GRADES, OR HONORS.
715A.7 FILING MULTIPLE COUNTS IN ONE INFORMATION, INDICTMENT, OR COMPLAINT.
715A.8 IDENTITY THEFT.
715A.9 VALUE FOR PURPOSES OF IDENTITY THEFT.
715A.9A IDENTITY THEFT PASSPORT.
715A.10 ILLEGAL USE OF SCANNING DEVICE OR REENCODER.



        

715A.1 DEFINITIONS. 1. As used in this chapter the term "writing" includes printing or any other method of recording information, and includes money, coins, tokens, stamps, seals, credit cards, badges, trademarks, and other symbols of value, right, privilege, or identification. 2. As used in this chapter the term "credit card" means a writing purporting to evidence an undertaking to pay for property or services delivered or rendered to or upon the order of a designated person or bearer and includes a debit card or access device used to engage in an electronic transfer of funds through a satellite terminal as defined in section 527.2, subsection 20.

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 150, §1
        

715A.2 FORGERY. 1. A person is guilty of forgery if, with intent to defraud or injure anyone, or with knowledge that the person is facilitating a fraud or injury to be perpetrated by anyone, the person does any of the following: a. Alters a writing of another without the other's permission. b. Makes, completes, executes, authenticates, issues, or transfers a writing so that it purports to be the act of another who did not authorize that act, or so that it purports to have been executed at a time or place or in a numbered sequence other than was in fact the case, or so that it purports to be a copy of an original when no such original existed. c. Utters a writing which the person knows to be forged in a manner specified in paragraph "a" or "b". d. Possesses a writing which the person knows to be forged in a manner specified in paragraph "a" or "b". 2. a. Forgery is a class "D" felony if the writing is or purports to be any of the following: (1) Part of an issue of money, securities, postage or revenue stamps, or other instruments issued by the government. (2) Part of an issue of stock, bonds, credit-sale contracts as defined in section 203.1, or other instruments representing interests in or claims against any property or enterprise. (3) A check, draft, or other writing which ostensibly evidences an obligation of the person who has purportedly executed it or authorized its execution. (4) A document prescribed by statute, rule, or regulation for entry into or as evidence of authorized stay or employment in the United States. b. Forgery is an aggravated misdemeanor if the writing is or purports to be a will, deed, contract, release, commercial instrument, or any other writing or other document evidencing, creating, transferring, altering, terminating, or otherwise affecting legal relations.

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 150, § 2; 92 Acts, ch 1239, § 80; 96 Acts, ch 1181, §
      2, 3
         Referred to in § 715A.2A
        

715A.2A ACCOMMODATION OF FORGERY -- PENALTY. 1. An employer is subject to the civil penalty in this section if the employer does either of the following: a. Hires a person when the employer or an agent or employee of the employer knows that the document evidencing the person's authorized stay or employment in the United States is in violation of section 715A.2, subsection 2, paragraph "a", subparagraph (4), or knows that the person is not authorized to be employed in the United States. b. Continues to employ a person when the employer or an agent or employee of the employer knows that the document evidencing the person's authorized stay or employment in the United States is in violation of section 715A.2, subsection 2, paragraph "a", subparagraph (4), or knows that the person is not authorized to be employed in the United States. 2. An employer who establishes that it has complied in good faith with the requirements of 8 U.S.C. § 1324a(b) with respect to the hiring or continued employment of an alien in the United States has established an affirmative defense that the employer has not violated this section. 3. a. An employer who violates this section shall cease and desist from further violations and shall pay the following civil penalty: (1) For a first violation, not less than two hundred and fifty dollars and not more than two thousand dollars for each unauthorized alien hired or employed. (2) For a second violation, not less than two thousand dollars and not more than five thousand dollars for each unauthorized alien hired or employed. (3) For a third or subsequent violation, not less than three thousand dollars and not more than ten thousand dollars for each unauthorized alien hired or employed. b. In addition, an employer found to have violated this section shall be assessed the costs of the action to enforce the civil penalty, including the reasonable costs of investigation and attorney fees. 4. A civil action to enforce this provision shall be by equitable proceedings instituted by the attorney general or county attorney. 5. Penalties ordered pursuant to this section shall be paid to the treasurer of state for deposit in the general fund of the state.

         Section History: Recent Form

         96 Acts, ch 1181, §4; 2008 Acts, ch 1031, § 69
        

715A.3 SIMULATING OBJECTS OF ANTIQUITY OR RARITY. A person commits a serious misdemeanor if, with intent to defraud anyone or with knowledge that the person is facilitating a fraud to be perpetrated by anyone, the person makes, alters, or utters any object so that it appears to have value because of antiquity, rarity, source, or authorship which it does not possess.

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 150, §3
        

715A.4 FRAUDULENT DESTRUCTION, REMOVAL, OR CONCEALMENT OF RECORDABLE INSTRUMENTS. A person commits an aggravated misdemeanor if, with the intent to deceive or injure anyone, the person destroys, removes, or conceals a will, deed, mortgage, security instrument, or other writing for which the law provides public recording.

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 150, §4
        

715A.5 TAMPERING WITH RECORDS. A person commits an aggravated misdemeanor if, knowing that the person has no privilege to do so, the person falsifies, destroys, removes, or conceals a writing or record, with the intent to deceive or injure anyone or to conceal any wrongdoing.

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 150, §5
        

715A.6 CREDIT CARDS. 1. A person commits a public offense by using a credit card for the purpose of obtaining property or services with knowledge of any of the following: a. The credit card is stolen or forged. b. The credit card has been revoked or canceled. c. For any other reason the use of the credit card is unauthorized. It is an affirmative defense to prosecution under paragraph "c" if the person proves by a preponderance of the evidence that the person had the intent and ability to meet all obligations to the issuer arising out of the use of the credit card. 2. An offense under this section is a class "C" felony if the value of the property or services secured or sought to be secured by means of the credit card is greater than ten thousand dollars. If the value of the property or services secured or sought to be secured by means of the credit card is greater than one thousand dollars but not more than ten thousand dollars, an offense under this section is a class "D" felony, otherwise the offense is an aggravated misdemeanor. 3. For purposes of this section, the value of the property or services is the highest value of the property or services determined by any reasonable standard at the time the violation occurred. Any reasonable standard includes but is not limited to market value within the community, actual value, or replacement value. If property or services are secured by two or more acts from the same person or location, or from different persons by two or more acts which occur in approximately the same location or time period so that the acts are attributable to a single scheme, plan, or conspiracy, the acts may be considered as a single act and the value may be the total value of all property or services involved.

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 150, § 6; 92 Acts, ch 1060, § 7; 2003 Acts, ch 12, §1,
      2
        

715A.6A PROHIBITIONS RELATING TO FALSE ACADEMIC DEGREES, GRADES, OR HONORS. 1. As used in this section, "academic degree" means a diploma, certificate, license, transcript, or other document which signifies or purports to signify completion of the academic requirements of a secondary, postsecondary, professional, or governmental program of study. 2. A person commits a serious misdemeanor if the person, knowingly and willingly, does any of the following: a. Falsely makes or alters, procures to be falsely made or altered, or assists in falsely making or altering, an academic degree. b. Uses, offers, or presents as genuine, a falsely made or altered academic degree. c. Sells, gives, purchases, or obtains, procures to be sold, given, purchased, or obtained, or assists in selling, giving, buying, or obtaining, a false academic degree. d. Makes a false written representation relating to the person's academic grades, honors, or awards, or makes a false written representation that the person has received an academic degree from a specific secondary, postsecondary, professional institution, or governmental program of study, in an application for any of the following: (1) Employment. (2) Admission to an educational program. (3) An award or other recognition. (4) The issuance of an academic degree to the person.

         Section History: Recent Form

         96 Acts, ch 1039, §1
        

715A.7 FILING MULTIPLE COUNTS IN ONE INFORMATION, INDICTMENT, OR COMPLAINT. A single information, indictment, or complaint charging a violation of a provision of this chapter may allege more than one such violation against a person. The multiple charges shall be set out in separate counts, and the accused person shall be acquitted or convicted upon each count by a separate verdict. A convicted person shall be sentenced upon each verdict of guilty. The court may consider separate verdicts of guilty returned at the same time as one offense for the purpose of sentencing.

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 150, §7; 88 Acts, ch 1134, §114
        

715A.8 IDENTITY THEFT. 1. a. For purposes of this section, "identification information" includes, but is not limited to, the name, address, date of birth, telephone number, driver's license number, nonoperator's identification card number, social security number, student identification number, military identification number, alien identification or citizenship status number, employer identification number, signature, electronic mail signature, electronic identifier or screen name, biometric identifier, genetic identification information, access device, logo, symbol, trademark, place of employment, employee identification number, parent's legal surname prior to marriage, demand deposit account number, savings or checking account number, or credit card number of a person. b. For purposes of this section, "financial institution" means the same as defined in section 527.2, and includes an insurer organized under Title XIII, subtitle 1, of this Code, or under the laws of any other state or the United States. 2. A person commits the offense of identity theft if the person fraudulently uses or attempts to fraudulently use identification information of another person, with the intent to obtain credit, property, services, or other benefit. 3. If the value of the credit, property, or services exceeds one thousand dollars, the person commits a class "D" felony. If the value of the credit, property, or services does not exceed one thousand dollars, the person commits an aggravated misdemeanor. 4. A violation of this section is an unlawful practice under section 714.16. 5. Violations of this section shall be prosecuted in any of the following venues: a. In the county in which the violation occurred. b. If the violation was committed in more than one county, or if the elements of the offense were committed in more than one county, then in any county where any violation occurred or where an element of the offense occurred. c. In the county where the victim resides. d. In the county where the property that was fraudulently used or attempted to be used was located at the time of the violation. 6. Any real or personal property obtained by a person as a result of a violation of this section, including but not limited to any money, interest, security, claim, contractual right, or financial instrument that is in the possession of the person, shall be subject to seizure and forfeiture pursuant to chapter 809A. A victim injured by a violation of this section, or a financial institution that has indemnified a victim injured by a violation of this section, may file a claim as an interest holder pursuant to section 809A.11 for payment of damages suffered by the victim including costs of recovery and reasonable attorney fees. 7. A financial institution may file a complaint regarding a violation of this section on behalf of a victim and shall have the same rights and privileges as the victim if the financial institution has indemnified the victim for such violations. 8. Upon the request of a victim, a peace officer in any jurisdiction described in subsection 5 shall take a report regarding an alleged violation of this section and shall provide a copy of the report to the victim. The report may also be provided to any other law enforcement agency in any of the jurisdictions described in subsection 5.

         Section History: Recent Form

         99 Acts, ch 47, §2; 2003 Acts, ch 49, §1; 2005 Acts, ch 18, §3, 4
         Referred to in § 714.16B, 714G.1, 715A.9A, 715C.1
        

715A.9 VALUE FOR PURPOSES OF IDENTITY THEFT. The value of property or services is its highest value by any reasonable standard at the time the identity theft is committed. Any reasonable standard includes but is not limited to market value within the community, actual value, or replacement value. If credit, property, or services are obtained by two or more acts from the same person or location, or from different persons by two or more acts which occur in approximately the same location or time period so that the identity thefts are attributable to a single scheme, plan, or conspiracy, the acts may be considered as a single identity theft and the value may be the total value of all credit, property, and services involved.

         Section History: Recent Form

         99 Acts, ch 47, §3
        

715A.9A IDENTITY THEFT PASSPORT. 1. The attorney general, in cooperation with any law enforcement agency, may issue an identity theft passport to a person who meets both of the following requirements: a. Is a victim of identity theft in this state as described in section 715A.8. b. Has filed a police report with any law enforcement agency citing that the person is a victim of identity theft. 2. A victim who has filed a report of identity theft with a law enforcement agency may apply for an identity theft passport through the law enforcement agency. The law enforcement agency shall send a copy of the police report and the application to the attorney general, who shall process the application and supporting report and may issue the victim an identity theft passport in the form of a card or certificate. 3. A victim of identity theft issued an identity theft passport may present the passport to any of the following: a. A law enforcement agency, to help prevent the victim's arrest or detention for an offense committed by someone other than the victim who is using the victim's identity. b. A creditor of the victim, to aid in the creditor's investigation and establishment of whether fraudulent charges were made against accounts in the victim's name or whether accounts were opened using the victim's identity. 4. A law enforcement agency or creditor may accept an identity theft passport issued pursuant to this section and presented by a victim at the discretion of the law enforcement agency or creditor. A law enforcement agency or creditor may consider the surrounding circumstances and available information regarding the offense of identity theft pertaining to the victim. 5. An application made with the attorney general under subsection 2, including any supporting documentation, shall be confidential and shall not be a public record subject to disclosure under chapter 22. 6. The attorney general shall adopt rules necessary to implement this section, which shall include a procedure by which the attorney general shall assure that an identity theft passport applicant has an identity theft claim that is legitimate and adequately substantiated.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2006 Acts, ch 1067, §1
        

715A.10 ILLEGAL USE OF SCANNING DEVICE OR REENCODER. 1. A person commits a class "D" felony if the person does any of the following: a. Uses a scanning device to access, read, obtain, memorize, or store, temporarily or permanently, information encoded on the magnetic strip or stripe of a payment card without the permission of the authorized user of the payment card, and with the intent to defraud the authorized user, the issuer of the authorized user's payment card, or a merchant. b. Uses a reencoder to place information encoded on the magnetic strip or stripe of a payment card onto the magnetic strip or stripe of a different card without the permission of the authorized user of the card from which the information is being reencoded, and with the intent to defraud the authorized user, the issuer of the authorized user's payment card, or a merchant. 2. A second or subsequent violation of this section is a class "C" felony. 3. As used in this section: a. "Merchant" means an owner or operator of a retail mercantile establishment or an agent, employee, lessee, consignee, officer, director, franchisee, or independent contractor of such owner or operator. A "merchant" also means a person who receives from an authorized user of a payment card, or someone the person believes to be an authorized user, a payment card or information from a payment card, or what the person believes to be a payment card or information from a payment card, as the instrument for obtaining, purchasing, or receiving goods, services, money, or anything else of value from the person. b. "Payment card" means a credit card, charge card, debit card, or any other card that is issued to an authorized card user and that allows the user to obtain, purchase, or receive goods, services, money, or anything else of value from a merchant. c. "Reencoder" means an electronic device that places encoded information from the magnetic strip or stripe of a payment card onto the magnetic strip or stripe of a different payment card. d. "Scanning device" means a scanner, reader, or any other electronic device that is used to access, read, scan, obtain, memorize, or store, temporarily or permanently, information encoded on the magnetic strip or stripe of a payment card.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2003 Acts, ch 12, §3
         Referred to in § 715C.1

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