CHAPTER 279 DIRECTORS == POWERS AND DUTIES
For student search restrictions, see chapter 808A Optional waiver of satisfaction and performance bonds; § 12.44

279.1 ORGANIZATION.
279.2 SPECIAL MEETINGS.
279.3 APPOINTMENT OF SECRETARY AND TREASURER.
279.4 QUORUM.
279.5 TEMPORARY OFFICERS.
279.6 VACANCIES -- QUALIFICATION -- TENURE.
279.7 VACANCIES FILLED BY SPECIAL ELECTION -- QUALIFICATION -- TENURE.
279.7A INTEREST IN PUBLIC CONTRACTS PROHIBITED -- EXCEPTIONS.
279.8 GENERAL RULES -- BONDS OF EMPLOYEES.
279.8A TRAFFIC AND PARKING.
279.9 USE OF TOBACCO, ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, OR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES.
279.9A INFORMATION SHARING.
279.9B REPORTS TO JUVENILE AUTHORITIES.
279.10 SCHOOL YEAR -- BEGINNING DATE -- EXCEPTIONS -- PILOT PROGRAMS.
279.11 NUMBER OF SCHOOLS -- ATTENDANCE -- TERMS.
279.12 CONTRACTS -- TEACHERS -- INSURANCE -- EDUCATIONAL LEAVE.
279.13 CONTRACTS WITH TEACHERS -- AUTOMATIC CONTINUATION -- INITIAL BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS.
279.14 EVALUATION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES.
279.14A PRACTITIONER PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM.
279.15 NOTICE OF TERMINATION -- REQUEST FOR HEARING.
279.16 PRIVATE HEARING -- DECISION -- RECORD.
279.17 APPEAL BY TEACHER TO ADJUDICATOR.
279.18 APPEAL BY EITHER PARTY TO COURT.
279.19 PROBATIONARY PERIOD.
279.19A EXTRACURRICULAR CONTRACTS.
279.19B COACHING ENDORSEMENT AND AUTHORIZATION.
279.20 SUPERINTENDENT -- TERM -- EMPLOYMENT OF SUPPORT PERSONNEL.
279.21 PRINCIPALS.
279.22 RESIDENCE OF EMPLOYEES.
279.23 CONTINUING CONTRACT FOR ADMINISTRATORS.
279.23A EVALUATION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES.
279.24 CONTRACT WITH ADMINISTRATORS -- AUTOMATIC CONTINUATION OR TERMINATION.
279.25 DISCHARGE OF ADMINISTRATOR.
279.26 LEASE ARRANGEMENTS.
279.27 DISCHARGE OF TEACHER.
279.28 INSURANCE -- SUPPLIES -- TEXTBOOKS.
279.29 CLAIMS -- INVESTMENTS.
279.30 EXCEPTIONS.
279.31 SETTLEMENT WITH TREASURER.
279.32 COMPENSATION OF OFFICERS.
279.33 ANNUAL SETTLEMENTS.
279.34 MOTOR VEHICLES REQUIRED TO OPERATE ON ETHANOL BLENDED GASOLINE.
279.35 PUBLICATION OF PROCEEDINGS.
279.36 PUBLICATION PROCEDURES AND FEE.
279.37 EMPLOYMENT OF COUNSEL.
279.38 MEMBERSHIP IN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL BOARDS.
279.38A MEMBERSHIP IN OTHER ORGANIZATIONS.
279.39 SCHOOL BUILDINGS.
279.40 SICK LEAVE.
279.41 SCHOOLHOUSES AND SITES SOLD -- FUNDS.
279.42 GIFTS TO SCHOOLS.
279.43 REPORTING INAPPROPRIATE TEACHING ASSIGNMENTS.
279.44 ENERGY AUDITS.
279.45 ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENDITURES.
279.46 RETIREMENT INCENTIVES -- TAX.
279.47 TELECOMMUNICATIONS -- PARTICIPATION BY SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN DATABASE DEVELOPMENT.
279.48 EQUIPMENT PURCHASE.
279.49 CHILD CARE PROGRAMS.
279.50 HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT INSTRUCTION.
279.51 PROGRAMS FOR AT-RISK CHILDREN.
279.52 OPTIONAL FUNDING OF ASBESTOS PROJECTS.
279.53 LOAN PROCEEDS.
279.54 SCHOOL DISTRICT INCOME SURTAX.
279.55 TEACHER EXCHANGE PROGRAM.
279.56 BOARD PARTICIPATION.
279.57 PERIOD OF EXCHANGE.
279.58 SCHOOL DRESS CODE POLICIES.
279.59 ACCESS BY ASSOCIATIONS.
279.60 KINDERGARTEN ASSESSMENT -- ACCESS TO DATA -- REPORTS.
279.61 STUDENT PLAN FOR PROGRESS TOWARD UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS -- REPORT.
279.62 NONPROFIT SCHOOL ORGANIZATIONS.
279.63 FINANCIAL REPORT.
279.64 TAX-SHARING AGREEMENTS.
279.65 STUDENT ADVANCEMENT POLICY -- FINDINGS -- SUPPLEMENTAL STRATEGIES AND EDUCATIONAL SERVICES GRANT PROGRAM.
279.66 DISCIPLINE AND PERSONAL CONDUCT STANDARDS.
279.67 COMPETITIVE LIVING WAGE.



        

279.1 ORGANIZATION. The board of directors of each school corporation shall meet and organize at the first regular meeting after the canvass for the regular school election at some suitable place to be designated by the secretary. Notice of the place and hour of the meeting shall be given by the secretary to each member and member-elect of the board. Such organization shall be effected by the election of a president from the members of the board, who shall be entitled to vote as a member.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C51, § 1119; R60, § 2036; C73, § 1721, 1722; C97, § 2757; SS15, §
      2757; C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, § 4220; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71,
      73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 279.1] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 224, § 47; 90 Acts, ch 1238, § 37
         Referred to in § 275.37
        

279.2 SPECIAL MEETINGS. Such special meetings may be held as may be determined by the board, or called by the president, or by the secretary upon the written request of a majority of the members of the board, upon notice specifying the time and place, delivered to each member in person, or by registered letter, but attendance shall be a waiver of notice.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C51, § 1121; R60, § 2036; C73, § 1722; C97, § 2757; SS15, § 2757;
      C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, § 4221; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75,
      77, 79, 81, § 279.2]
        

279.3 APPOINTMENT OF SECRETARY AND TREASURER. The board shall appoint a secretary who shall not be a teacher employed by the board but may be another employee of the board. The board shall also appoint a treasurer who may be another employee of the board. However, the board may appoint one person to serve as the secretary and the treasurer. These officers shall be appointed from outside the membership of the board and the appointment and qualification shall be entered of record in the minutes of the secretary. They shall qualify within ten days following appointment by taking the oath of office in the manner required by section 277.28 and filing a bond as required by section 291.2 and shall hold office until their successors are appointed and qualified.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C51, § 1119; R60, § 2035; C73, § 1721; C97, § 2757; SS15, § 2757;
      C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, § 4222; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75,
      77, 79, 81, § 279.3; 82 Acts, ch 1012, § 1] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 28, §1; 2001 Acts, ch 47, §1; 2003 Acts, ch 180, §30
         Referred to in § 291.2
        

279.4 QUORUM. A majority of the board of directors of any school corporation shall constitute a quorum for the transaction of business, but a less number may adjourn from time to time.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C51, § 1120; R60, § 2037, 2038, 2079; C73, § 1730, 1738; C97, §
      2758, 2771, 2772; S13, § 2758, 2771, 2772; C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, §
      4223; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 279.4]
        

279.5 TEMPORARY OFFICERS. The board shall appoint a temporary president or secretary, in the absence of the regular officers.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C51, § 1120; R60, § 2037, 2038, 2079; C73, § 1730, 1738; C97, §
      2758, 2771, 2772; S13, § 2758, 2771, 2772; C24, § 4223; C27, 31, 35,
      § 4223-a1; C39, § 4223.1; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75,
      77, 79, 81, § 279.5]
        

279.6 VACANCIES -- QUALIFICATION -- TENURE. Vacancies occurring among the officers or members of a school board shall be filled by the board by appointment. A person so appointed to fill a vacancy in an elective office shall hold office until a successor is elected and qualified pursuant to section 69.12. A person appointed to fill a vacancy in an appointive office shall hold such office for the residue of the unexpired term and until a successor is appointed and qualified. Any person so appointed shall qualify within ten days thereafter in the manner required by section 277.28. A vacancy shall be filled at the next regular school election if a member of a school board resigns from the board not later than forty-five days before the election and the notice of resignation specifies an effective date at the beginning of the next term of office for elective school officials. The president of the board shall declare the office vacant as of the date of the next organizational meeting. Nomination papers shall be received for the unexpired term of the resigning member. The person elected at the next regular school election to fill the vacancy shall take office at the same time and place as the other elected school board members.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C51, § 1120; R60, § 2037, 2038, 2079; C73, § 1730, 1738; C97, §
      2758, 2771, 2772; S13, § 2758, 2771, 2772; C24, § 4223; C27, 31, 35,
      § 4223-a2; C39, § 4223.2; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75,
      77, 79, 81, § 279.6] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2002 Acts, ch 1134, §91, 115
         Referred to in § 275.25, 275.41
        

279.7 VACANCIES FILLED BY SPECIAL ELECTION -- QUALIFICATION -- TENURE. If a vacancy or vacancies occur among the elective officers or members of a school board and the remaining members of the board have not filled the vacancy within thirty days after the vacancy occurs, or when the board is reduced below a quorum, the secretary of the board, or if there is no secretary, the area education agency administrator, shall call a special election in the district, subdistrict, or subdistricts, as the case may be, to fill the vacancy or vacancies. The county commissioner of elections shall publish the notices required by law for special elections, and the election shall be held not sooner than thirty days nor later than forty days after the thirtieth day following the occurrence of the vacancy. If the secretary fails for more than three days to call an election, the administrator shall call it. Any appointment by the board to fill any vacancy in an elective office on or after the day notice has been given for a special election to fill such vacancy as provided herein shall be null and void. In any case of a special election as provided herein to fill a vacancy occurring among the elective officers or members of a school board before the expiration of a full term, the person so elected shall qualify within ten days thereafter in the manner required by section 277.28 and shall hold office for the residue of the unexpired term and until a successor is elected, or appointed, and qualified. Nomination petitions shall be filed in the manner provided in section 277.4, except that the petitions shall be filed not less than twenty-five days before the date set for the election.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C51, § 1120; R60, § 2037, 2038, 2079; C73, § 1730, 1738; C97, §
      2758, 2771, 2772; S13, § 2758, 2771, 2772; C24, § 4223; C27, 31, 35,
      § 4223-b1; C39, § 4223.3; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75,
      77, 79, 81, § 279.7] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 48, § 1; 89 Acts, ch 136, § 65; 93 Acts, ch 67, § 1
         Referred to in § 275.25, 275.41
        

279.7A INTEREST IN PUBLIC CONTRACTS PROHIBITED -- EXCEPTIONS. A member of the board of directors of a school corporation shall not have an interest, direct or indirect, in a contract for the purchase of goods, including materials and profits, and the performance of services for the director's school corporation. A contract entered into in violation of this section is void. This section does not apply to contracts for the purchase of goods or services which benefit a director, or to compensation for part-time or temporary employment which benefits a director, if the benefit to the director does not exceed two thousand five hundred dollars in a fiscal year, and contracts made by a school board, upon competitive bid in writing, publicly invited and opened. This section does not apply to a contract that is a bond, note, or other obligation of a school corporation if the contract is not acquired directly from the school corporation, but is acquired in a transaction with a third party, who may or may not be the original underwriter, purchaser, or obligee of the contract, or to a contract in which a director has an interest solely by reason of employment if the contract is made by competitive bid in writing, publicly invited and opened, or if the remuneration of employment will not be directly affected as a result of the contract and the duties of employment do not directly involve the procurement or preparation of any part of the contract. The competitive bid qualification of this section does not apply to a contract for professional services not customarily awarded by competitive bid.

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1209, §2; 91 Acts, ch 258, §40; 2000 Acts, ch 1187,
      §1; 2001 Acts, ch 53, §2; 2003 Acts, ch 36, §1
         Referred to in § 277.27
        

279.8 GENERAL RULES -- BONDS OF EMPLOYEES. The board shall make rules for its own government and that of the directors, officers, employees, teachers and pupils, and for the care of the schoolhouse, grounds, and property of the school corporation, and shall aid in the enforcement of the rules, and require the performance of duties imposed by law and the rules. The board shall include in its rules provisions regulating the loading and unloading of pupils from a school bus stopped on the highway during a period of reduced highway visibility caused by fog, snow or other weather conditions. The board shall have the authority to include in its rules provisions allowing school corporation employees to use school credit cards to pay for the actual and necessary expenses incurred in the performance of work-related duties. Employees of a school corporation maintaining a high school who have the custody of funds belonging to the corporation or funds derived from extracurricular activities and other sources in the conduct of their duties, shall be required to furnish suitable bond indemnifying the corporation or any activity group connected with the school against loss, and employees who have the custody of property belonging to the corporation or any activity group connected with the school may be required to furnish such bond. Said bond or bonds may be in such form and penalty as the board may approve and the premiums on same shall be paid from the general fund of the corporation.

         Section History: Early Form

         [R60, § 2037; C97, § 2772; S13, § 2772; C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, §
      4224; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 279.8]
      

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1315, § 35
         Referred to in § 279.9B, 279.22, 808A.1
        

279.8A TRAFFIC AND PARKING. The board may make necessary rules to provide for the policing, control, and regulation of traffic and parking of vehicles and bicycles on school grounds. The rules may provide for the use of institutional roads, driveways, and grounds; registration of vehicles and bicycles; the designation of parking areas; the erection and maintenance of signs designating prohibitions or restrictions; the installation and maintenance of parking control devices; and assessment, enforcement, and collection of reasonable penalties for the violation of the rules. Rules made under this section may be enforced under procedures adopted by the board. Penalties may be imposed for violation of the rules, including, but not limited to, a reasonable monetary penalty. The rules made under this section may also be enforced by the impoundment of vehicles and bicycles for violation of the rules. The board shall establish procedures for the determination of controversies in connection with the imposition of penalties. The procedures must require giving notice of the violation and the penalty prescribed and providing the opportunity for an administrative hearing. The board may contract with a city or county to enforce rules made under this section by ordinance of the city or county, and shall consult with local government transportation officials to ensure that rules made pursuant to this section are not in conflict with city or county parking and traffic ordinances.

         Section History: Recent Form

         96 Acts, ch 1219, §70
        

279.9 USE OF TOBACCO, ALCOHOLIC BEVERAGES, OR CONTROLLED SUBSTANCES. The rules shall prohibit the use of tobacco and the use or possession of alcoholic liquor, wine, or beer or any controlled substance as defined in section 124.101, subsection 5, by any student of the schools and the board may suspend or expel a student for a violation of a rule under this section.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 2772; C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, § 4225; C46, 50, 54, 58,
      62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 279.9] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         94 Acts, ch 1131, §2
         Referred to in § 260C.14, 279.9A, 808A.1
        

279.9A INFORMATION SHARING. The rules referred to in section 279.9 shall provide that upon the request of school officials of a school to which the student seeks to transfer or has transferred, school officials of the sending school shall provide an accurate record of any suspension or expulsion actions taken, and the basis for those actions taken, against the student under sections 279.9, 280.19A, 282.3, 282.4, and 282.5. The designated representative shall disclose this information only to those school employees whose duties require them to be involved with the student. For purposes of this section, "school employees" means persons employed by a nonpublic school or school district, or any area education agency staff member who provides services to a school or school district.

         Section History: Recent Form

         94 Acts, ch 1131, §3
        

279.9B REPORTS TO JUVENILE AUTHORITIES. The rules adopted under section 279.8 shall require, once school officials have been notified by a juvenile court officer that a student attending the school is under supervision or has been placed on probation, that school officials shall notify the juvenile court of each unexcused absence or suspension or expulsion of the student.

         Section History: Recent Form

         97 Acts, ch 126, §37
        

279.10 SCHOOL YEAR -- BEGINNING DATE -- EXCEPTIONS -- PILOT PROGRAMS. 1. The school year shall begin on the first day of July and each regularly established elementary and secondary school shall begin no sooner than a day during the calendar week in which the first day of September falls but no later than the first Monday in December. However, if the first day of September falls on a Sunday, school may begin on a day during the calendar week which immediately precedes the first day of September. School shall continue for at least one hundred eighty days, except as provided in subsection 3, and may be maintained during the entire calendar year. However, if the board of directors of a district extends the school calendar because inclement weather caused the district to temporarily close school during the regular school calendar, the district may excuse a graduating senior who has met district or school requirements for graduation from attendance during the extended school calendar. A school corporation may begin employment of personnel for in-service training and development purposes before the date to begin elementary and secondary school. 2. The board of directors shall hold a public hearing on any proposal prior to submitting it to the department of education for approval. 3. The board of directors of a school district may request approval from the department of education for a pilot program for an innovative school year. The number of days per year that school is in session may be more or less than those specified in subsection 1, but the innovative school year shall provide for an equivalent number of total hours that school is in session. The board shall file a request for approval with the department not later than November 1 of the preceding school year. The request shall include a listing of the savings and goals to be attained under the innovative school year subject to rules adopted by the department under chapter 17A. The department shall notify the districts of the approval or denial of pilot programs not later than the next following January 15. A request to continue an innovative school year pilot project after its initial year also shall include an evaluation of the savings and impacts on the educational program in the district. Participation in a pilot project shall not modify provisions of a master contract negotiated between a school district and a certified bargaining unit pursuant to chapter 20 unless mutually agreed upon. 4. The director of the department of education may grant a request made by a board of directors of a school district stating its desire to commence classes for regularly established elementary and secondary schools prior to the earliest starting date specified in subsection 1. A request shall be based upon the determination that a starting date on or after the earliest starting date specified in subsection 1 would have a significant negative educational impact.

         Section History: Early Form

         [R60, § 2023, 2037; C73, § 1724, 1727; C97, § 2773; S13, § 2773;
      C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, § 4226; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75,
      77, 79, 81, § 279.10] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 17, § 1, 3, 4; 85 Acts, ch 6, § 1, 2; 86 Acts, ch
      1245, § 1467; 88 Acts, ch 1087, § 1; 88 Acts, ch 1259, § 1; 90 Acts,
      ch 1272, § 68; 94 Acts, ch 1020, §1
         Referred to in § 256.20, 256F.4, 257.17, 299.1, 299.4
        

279.11 NUMBER OF SCHOOLS -- ATTENDANCE -- TERMS. The board of directors shall determine the number of schools to be taught, divide the corporation into such wards or other divisions for school purposes as may be proper, determine the particular school which each child shall attend, and designate the period each school shall be held beyond the time required by law.

         Section History: Early Form

         [R60, § 2023, 2037; C73, § 1724, 1727; C97, § 2773; S13, § 2773;
      C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, § 4227; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75,
      77, 79, 81, § 279.11]
        

279.12 CONTRACTS -- TEACHERS -- INSURANCE -- EDUCATIONAL LEAVE. The board shall carry into effect any instruction from the regular election upon matters within the control of the voters, and shall elect all teachers and make all contracts necessary or proper for exercising the powers granted and performing the duties required by law, and may establish and pay all or any part thereof from school district funds the cost of group health insurance plans, nonprofit group hospital service plans, nonprofit group medical service plans and group life insurance plans adopted by the board for the benefit of employees of the school district, but the board may authorize any subdirector to employ teachers for the school in the subdirector's subdistrict; but no such employment by a subdirector shall authorize a contract, the entire period of which is wholly beyond the subdirector's term of office. The board may enter into an agreement pursuant to chapter 28E with another school district or an area education agency for the purpose of jointly procuring a group health insurance plan, nonprofit group hospital service plan, nonprofit group medical service plan, or group life insurance plan for the benefit of the districts or agencies which are parties to the agreement. Such plan may include a cafeteria plan as defined in 26 C.F.R. § 1.125-2T. An agreement entered into pursuant to this paragraph shall not be construed to establish a multiple employer welfare arrangement as defined in section 3 of the federal Employee Retirement Income Security Act of 1974, 29 U.S.C. § 1002, paragraph 40. The board may approve a policy for educational leave for licensed school employees and for reimbursement for tuition paid by licensed school employees for courses approved by the board. The board of directors of a community college may approve a policy for educational leave for its instructors and for reimbursement for tuition paid by its instructors for courses approved by the board. For the purpose of this section, "educational leave" means a leave granted to an employee for the purpose of study including study in areas outside of a teacher's area of specialization, travel, or other reasons deemed by the board to be of value to the school system.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C73, § 1723, 1757; C97, § 2778; SS15, § 2778; C24, 27, 31, 35,
      39, § 4228; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      279.12] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         89 Acts, ch 265, §40; 95 Acts, ch 22, §1; 2002 Acts, ch 1047, §13,
      20
         Referred to in § 262.9, 272.15, 273.22, 275.33
        

279.13 CONTRACTS WITH TEACHERS -- AUTOMATIC CONTINUATION -- INITIAL BACKGROUND INVESTIGATIONS. 1. a. Contracts with teachers, which for the purpose of this section means all licensed employees of a school district and nurses employed by the board, excluding superintendents, assistant superintendents, principals, and assistant principals, shall be in writing and shall state the number of contract days, the annual compensation to be paid, and any other matters as may be mutually agreed upon. The contract may include employment for a term not exceeding the ensuing school year, except as otherwise authorized. b. (1) Prior to entering into an initial contract with a teacher who holds a license other than an initial license issued by the board of educational examiners under chapter 272, the school district shall initiate a state criminal history record check of the applicant through the division of criminal investigation of the department of public safety, submit the applicant's fingerprints to the division for submission to the federal bureau of investigation for a national criminal history record check, and review the sex offender registry information under section 692A.121 available to the general public, the central registry for child abuse information established under section 235A.14, and the central registry for dependent adult abuse information established under section 235B.5 for information regarding the applicant for employment as a teacher. (2) The school district may charge the applicant a fee not to exceed the actual cost charged the school district for the state and national criminal history checks and registry checks conducted pursuant to subparagraph (1). c. The contract is invalid if the teacher is under contract with another board of directors to teach during the same time period until a release from the other contract is achieved. The contract shall be signed by the president of the board, or by the superintendent if the board has adopted a policy authorizing the superintendent to sign teaching contracts, when tendered, and after it is signed by the teacher, the contract shall be filed with the secretary of the board before the teacher enters into performance under the contract. 2. The contract shall remain in force and effect for the period stated in the contract and shall be automatically continued for equivalent periods except as modified or terminated by mutual agreement of the board of directors and the teacher or as terminated in accordance with the provisions specified in this chapter. A contract shall not be offered by the employing board to a teacher under its jurisdiction prior to March 15 of any year. A teacher who has not accepted a contract for the ensuing school year tendered by the employing board may resign effective at the end of the current school year by filing a written resignation with the secretary of the board. The resignation must be filed not later than the last day of the current school year or the date specified by the employing board for return of the contract, whichever date occurs first. However, a teacher shall not be required to return a contract to the board or to resign less than twenty-one days after the contract has been offered. 3. If the provisions of a contract executed or automatically renewed under this section conflict with a collective bargaining agreement negotiated under chapter 20 and effective when the contract is executed or renewed, the provisions of the collective bargaining agreement shall prevail. 4. For purposes of this section, sections 279.14, 279.15 through 279.17, 279.19, and 279.27, unless the context otherwise requires, "teacher" includes the following individuals employed by a community college: a. An instructor, but does not include an adjunct instructor. b. A librarian, including those denoted as being a learning resource specialist or a media specialist. c. A counselor. 5. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this section, a temporary contract may be issued to a teacher to fill a vacancy created by a leave of absence in accordance with the provisions of section 29A.28, which contract shall automatically terminate upon return from military leave of the former incumbent of the teaching position and which contract shall not be subject to the provisions of sections 279.15 through 279.19, or section 279.27. A separate extracurricular contract issued pursuant to section 279.19A to a person issued a temporary contract under this section shall automatically terminate with the termination of the temporary contract as required under section 279.19A, subsection 8.

         Section History: Early Form

         [R60, § 2055; C73, § 1757; C97, § 2778; SS15, § 2778; C24, 27, 31,
      35, 39, § 4229; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81,
      § 279.13] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         89 Acts, ch 265, §40; 2001 Acts, ch 159, §10; 2003 Acts, ch 19,
      §1; 2003 Acts, ch 180, §31; 2007 Acts, ch 108, §11; 2007 Acts, ch
      215, §102; 2008 Acts, ch 1181, §35, 36; 2009 Acts, ch 119, §40; 2009
      Acts, ch 133, §103
         Referred to in § 261.48, 261.112, 262.9, 272.2, 272.15, 273.3,
      273.22, 275.33, 279.16, 279.19A, 279.19B, 279.23, 279.43, 284.2
        

279.14 EVALUATION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES. 1. The board shall establish evaluation criteria and shall implement evaluation procedures. If an exclusive bargaining representative has been certified, the board shall negotiate in good faith with respect to evaluation procedures pursuant to chapter 20. 2. The determination of standards of performance expected of school district personnel shall be reserved as an exclusive management right of the school board and shall not be subject to mandatory negotiations under chapter 20. Notwithstanding chapter 20, objections to the procedures, use, or content of an evaluation in a teacher termination proceeding brought before the school board in a hearing held in accordance with section 279.16 or 279.27 shall not be subject to the grievance procedures negotiated in accordance with chapter 20. A school district shall not be obligated to process any evaluation grievance after service of a notice and recommendation to terminate an individual's continuing teaching contract in accordance with chapter 279.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C77, 79, 81, § 279.14] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         98 Acts, ch 1215, § 41; 98 Acts, ch 1216, § 24
         Referred to in § 261.48, 262.9, 279.13, 279.16, 279.19B, 284.3
        

279.14A PRACTITIONER PERFORMANCE IMPROVEMENT PROGRAM. Repealed by 2009 Acts, ch 54, § 14.

279.15 NOTICE OF TERMINATION -- REQUEST FOR HEARING. 1. The superintendent or the superintendent's designee shall notify the teacher not later than April 30 that the superintendent will recommend in writing to the board at a regular or special meeting of the board, held not later than May 15, that the teacher's continuing contract be terminated effective at the end of the current school year. However, if the district is subject to reorganization under chapter 275, the notification shall not occur until after the first organizational meeting of the board of the newly formed district. 2. Notification of recommendation of termination of a teacher's contract shall be in writing and shall be personally delivered to the teacher, or mailed by certified mail. The notification shall be complete when received by the teacher. The notification and the recommendation to terminate shall contain a short and plain statement of the reasons, which shall be for just cause, why the recommendation is being made. The notification shall be given at or before the time the recommendation is given to the board. As a part of the termination proceedings, the teacher's complete personnel file of employment by that board shall be available to the teacher, which file shall contain a record of all periodic evaluations between the teacher and appropriate supervisors. Within five days of the receipt of the written notice that the superintendent is recommending termination of the contract, the teacher may request, in writing to the secretary of the board, a private hearing with the board. The private hearing shall not be subject to chapter 21 and shall be held no sooner than ten days and no later than twenty days following the receipt of the request unless the parties otherwise agree. The secretary of the board shall notify the teacher in writing of the date, time, and location of the private hearing, and at least five days before the hearing shall also furnish to the teacher any documentation which may be presented to the board at the private hearing and a list of persons who may address the board in support of the superintendent's recommendation at the private hearing. At least three days before the hearing, the teacher shall provide any documentation the teacher expects to present at the private hearing, along with the names of any persons who may address the board on behalf of the teacher. This exchange of information shall be at the time specified unless otherwise agreed.

         Section History: Early Form

         [R60, § 2055; C73, § 1757; C97, § 2778; SS15, § 2778; C24, 27, 31,
      35, 39, § 4229; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, § 279.13;
      C77, 79, 81, § 279.15] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         86 Acts, ch 1239, § 4; 91 Acts, ch 174, § 7; 92 Acts, ch 1227, §
      18
         Referred to in § 260C.39, 261.48, 262.9, 272.15, 273.22, 275.33,
      279.13, 279.16, 279.19, 279.19A, 279.19B, 279.27
        

279.16 PRIVATE HEARING -- DECISION -- RECORD. 1. The participants at the private hearing shall be at least a majority of the members of the board, their legal representatives, if any, the superintendent, the superintendent's designated representatives, if any, the teacher's immediate supervisor, the teacher, the teacher's representatives, if any, and the witnesses for the parties. The evidence at the private hearing shall be limited to the specific reasons stated in the superintendent's notice of recommendation of termination. No participant in the hearing shall be liable for any damages to any person if any statement at the hearing is determined to be erroneous as long as the statement was made in good faith. The superintendent shall present evidence and argument on all issues involved and the teacher may cross-examine, respond and present evidence and argument in the teacher's behalf relevant to all issues involved. Evidence may be by stipulation of the parties and informal settlement may be made by stipulation, consent, or default or by any other method agreed upon by the parties in writing. The board shall employ a certified shorthand reporter to keep a record of the private hearing. The proceedings or any part thereof shall be transcribed at the request of either party with the expense of transcription charged to the requesting party. 2. The presiding officer of the board may administer oaths in the same manner and with like effect and under the same penalties as in the case of magistrates exercising criminal or civil jurisdiction. The board shall cause subpoenas to be issued for such witnesses and the production of such books and papers as either the board or the teacher may designate. The subpoenas shall be signed by the presiding officer of the board. 3. In case a witness is duly subpoenaed and refuses to attend, or in case a witness appears and refuses to testify or to produce required books or papers, the board shall, in writing, report such refusal to the district court of the county in which the administrative office of the school district is located, and the court shall proceed with the person or witness as though the refusal had occurred in a proceeding legally pending before the court. 4. The board shall not be bound by common law or statutory rules of evidence or by technical or formal rules of procedure, but it shall hold the hearing in such manner as is best suited to ascertain and conserve the substantial rights of the parties. Process and procedure under sections 279.13 to 279.19 shall be as summary as reasonably may be. 5. At the conclusion of the private hearing, the superintendent and the teacher may file written briefs and arguments with the board within three days or such other time as may be agreed upon. 6. If the teacher fails to timely request a private hearing or does not appear at the private hearing, the board may proceed and make a determination upon the superintendent's recommendation. If the teacher fails to timely file a request for a private hearing, the determination shall be not later than May 31. If the teacher fails to appear at the private hearing, the determination shall be not later than five days after the scheduled date for the private hearing. The board shall convene in open session and by roll call vote determine the termination or continuance of the teacher's contract and, if the board votes to continue the teacher's contract, whether to suspend the teacher with or without pay for a period specified by the board. 7. Within five days after the private hearing, the board shall, in executive session, meet to make a final decision upon the recommendation and the evidence as herein provided. The board shall also consider any written brief and arguments submitted by the superintendent and the teacher. 8. The record for a private hearing shall include: a. All pleadings, motions and intermediate rulings. b. All evidence received or considered and all other submissions. c. A statement of all matters officially noticed. d. All questions and offers of proof, objections and rulings thereon. e. All findings and exceptions. f. Any decision, opinion, or conclusion by the board. g. Findings of fact shall be based solely on the evidence in the record and on matters officially noticed in the record. 9. The decision of the board shall be in writing and shall include findings of fact and conclusions of law, separately stated. Findings of fact, if set forth in statutory language, shall be accompanied by a concise and explicit statement of the underlying facts and supporting the findings. Each conclusion of law shall be supported by cited authority or by reasoned opinion. 10. When the board has reached a decision, opinion, or conclusion, it shall convene in open meeting and by roll call vote determine the continuance or discontinuance of the teacher's contract and, if the board votes to continue the teacher's contract, whether to suspend the teacher with or without pay for a period specified by the board. The record of the private conference and findings of fact and exceptions shall be exempt from the provisions of chapter 22. The secretary of the board shall immediately mail notice of the board's action to the teacher.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C77, 79, 81, § 279.16] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         92 Acts, ch 1008, § 1; 92 Acts, ch 1227, § 19; 2001 Acts, ch 62,
      §1
         Referred to in § 260C.39, 261.48, 262.9, 272.15, 273.22, 275.33,
      279.13, 279.14, 279.19, 279.19A, 279.19B, 279.27
        

279.17 APPEAL BY TEACHER TO ADJUDICATOR. 1. If the teacher is no longer a probationary teacher, the teacher may, within ten days, appeal the determination of the board to an adjudicator by filing a notice of appeal with the secretary of the board. The notice of appeal shall contain a concise statement of the action which is the subject of the appeal, the particular board action appealed from, the grounds on which relief is sought and the relief sought. 2. Within five days following receipt by the secretary of the notice of appeal, the board or the board's legal representative, if any, and the teacher or the teacher's representative, if any, may select an adjudicator who resides within the boundaries of the merged area in which the school district is located. If an adjudicator cannot be mutually agreed upon within the five-day period, the secretary shall notify the chairperson of the public employment relations board by transmitting the notice of appeal, and the chairperson of the public employment relations board shall within five days provide a list of five adjudicators to the parties. Within three days from receipt of the list of adjudicators, the parties shall select an adjudicator by alternately removing a name from the list until only one name remains. The person whose name remains shall be the adjudicator. The parties shall determine by lot which party shall remove the first name from the list submitted by the chairperson of the public employment relations board. The secretary of the board shall inform the chairperson of the public employee relations board of the name of the adjudicator selected. 3. If the teacher does not timely request an appeal to an adjudicator the decision, opinion, or conclusion of the board shall become final and binding. 4. a. Within thirty days after filing the notice of appeal, or within further time allowed by the adjudicator, the board shall transmit to the adjudicator the original or a certified copy of the entire record of the private hearing which may be the subject of the petition. By stipulation of the parties to review the proceedings, the record of the case may be shortened. The adjudicator may require or permit subsequent corrections or additions to the shortened record. b. The record certified and filed by the board shall be the record upon which the appeal shall be heard and no additional evidence shall be heard by the adjudicator. In such appeal to the adjudicator, especially when considering the credibility of witnesses, the adjudicator shall give weight to the fact findings of the board; but shall not be bound by them. 5. Before the date set for hearing a petition for review of board action, which shall be within ten days after receipt of the record unless otherwise agreed or unless the adjudicator orders additional evidence be taken before the board, application may be made to the adjudicator for leave to present evidence in addition to that found in the record of the case. If it is shown to the adjudicator that the additional evidence is material and that there were good reasons for failure to present it in the private hearing before the board, the adjudicator may order that the additional evidence be taken before the board upon conditions determined by the adjudicator. The board may modify its findings and decision in the case by reason of the additional evidence and shall file that evidence and any modifications, new findings, or decisions, with the adjudicator and mail copies of the new findings or decisions to the teacher. 6. The adjudicator may affirm board action or remand to the board for further proceedings. The adjudicator shall reverse, modify, or grant any appropriate relief from the board action if substantial rights of the teacher have been prejudiced because the board action is: a. In violation of a board rule or policy or contract; or b. Unsupported by a preponderance of the competent evidence in the record made before the board when that record is viewed as a whole; or c. Unreasonable, arbitrary or capricious or characterized by an abuse of discretion or a clearly unwarranted exercise of discretion. 7. The adjudicator shall, within fifteen days after the hearing, make a decision and shall give a copy of the decision to the teacher and the secretary of the board. The decision of the adjudicator shall become the final and binding decision of the board unless either party within ten days notifies the secretary of the board that the decision is rejected. The board may reject the decision by majority vote, by roll call, in open meeting and entered into the minutes of the meeting. The board shall immediately notify the teacher of its decision by certified mail. The teacher may reject the adjudicator's decision by notifying the board's secretary in writing within ten days of the filing of such decision. 8. All costs of the adjudicator shall be shared equally by the teacher and the board.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C77, 79, 81, § 279.17] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2007 Acts, ch 22, §65
         Referred to in § 260C.39, 261.48, 262.9, 272.15, 273.22, 275.33,
      279.13, 279.16, 279.19, 279.19A, 279.19B, 279.27, 284.3, 284.8
        

279.18 APPEAL BY EITHER PARTY TO COURT. 1. If either party rejects the adjudicator's decision, the rejecting party shall, within thirty days of the initial filing of such decision, appeal to the district court of the county in which the administrative office of the school district is located. The notice of appeal shall be immediately mailed by certified mail to the other party. The adjudicator shall transmit to the reviewing court the original or a certified copy of the entire record which may be the subject of the petition. By stipulation of all parties to the review proceedings, the record of such a case may be shortened. A party unreasonably refusing to stipulate to limit the record may be taxed by the court for the additional cost. The court may require or permit subsequent corrections or additions to the shortened record. 2. In proceedings for judicial review of the adjudicator's decision, the court shall not hear any further evidence but shall hear the case upon the certified record. In such judicial review, especially when considering the credibility of witnesses, the court shall give weight to the fact findings of the board; but shall not be bound by them. The court may affirm the adjudicator's decision or remand to the adjudicator or the board for further proceedings upon conditions determined by the court. The court shall reverse, modify, or grant any other appropriate relief from the board decision or the adjudicator's decision equitable or legal and including declaratory relief if substantial rights of the petitioner have been prejudiced because the action is: a. In violation of constitutional or statutory provisions; or b. In excess of the statutory authority of the board or the adjudicator; or c. In violation of a board rule or policy or contract; or d. Made upon unlawful procedure; or e. Affected by other error of law; or f. Unsupported by a preponderance of the competent evidence in the record made before the board and the adjudicator when that record is viewed as a whole; or g. Unreasonable, arbitrary or capricious or characterized by an abuse of discretion or a clearly unwarranted exercise of discretion. 3. An aggrieved or adversely affected party to the judicial review proceeding may obtain a review of any final judgment of the district court by appeal to the supreme court. The appeal shall be taken as in other civil cases, although the appeal may be taken regardless of the amount involved. 4. For purposes of this section, unless the context otherwise requires, "rejecting party" shall include, but not be limited to, an instructor employed by a community college.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C77, 79, 81, § 279.18] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2002 Acts, ch 1047, §15
         Referred to in § 260C.39, 261.48, 262.9, 272.15, 273.22, 275.33,
      279.13, 279.16, 279.19, 279.19A, 279.19B, 279.27
        

279.19 PROBATIONARY PERIOD. The first three consecutive years of employment of a teacher in the same school district are a probationary period. However, if the teacher has successfully completed a probationary period of employment for another school district located in Iowa, the probationary period in the current district of employment shall not exceed one year. A board of directors may waive the probationary period for any teacher who previously has served a probationary period in another school district and the board may extend the probationary period for an additional year with the consent of the teacher. In the case of the termination of a probationary teacher's contract, the provisions of sections 279.15 and 279.16 shall apply. However, if the probationary teacher is a beginning teacher who fails to demonstrate competence in the Iowa teaching standards in accordance with chapter 284, the provisions of sections 279.17 and 279.18 shall also apply. The board's decision shall be final and binding unless the termination was based upon an alleged violation of a constitutionally guaranteed right of the teacher or an alleged violation of public employee rights of the teacher under section 20.10. Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary, the grievance procedures of section 20.18 relating to job performance or job retention shall not apply to a teacher during the first two years of the teacher's probationary period. However, this paragraph shall not apply to a teacher who has successfully completed a probationary period in a school district in Iowa.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C77, 79, 81, § 279.19] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         98 Acts, ch 1215, § 43; 98 Acts, ch 1216, § 26, 41; 2001 Acts, ch
      161, §18; 2002 Acts, ch 1152, §5
         Referred to in § 261.48, 262.9, 272.15, 273.22, 275.33, 275.56,
      279.13, 279.16, 279.19A, 279.19B, 279.27, 280.15, 284.3
        

279.19A EXTRACURRICULAR CONTRACTS. 1. School districts employing individuals to coach interscholastic athletic sports shall issue a separate extracurricular contract for each of these sports. An extracurricular contract offered under this section shall be separate from the contract issued under section 279.13. Wages for employees who coach these sports shall be paid pursuant to established or negotiated supplemental pay schedules. An extracurricular contract shall be in writing, and shall state the number of contract days for that sport, the annual compensation to be paid, and any other matters as may be mutually agreed upon. The contract shall be for a single school year. 2. An extracurricular contract shall be continued automatically in force and effect for equivalent periods, except as modified or terminated by mutual agreement of the board of directors and the employee, or terminated in accordance with this section. An extracurricular contract shall initially be offered by the employing board to an individual on the same date that contracts are offered to teachers under section 279.13. An extracurricular contract may be terminated at the end of a school year pursuant to sections 279.15 through 279.19. If the school district offers an extracurricular contract for a sport for the subsequent school year to an employee who is currently performing under an extracurricular contract for that sport, and the employee does not wish to accept the extracurricular contract for the subsequent year, the employee may resign from the extracurricular contract within twenty-one days after it has been received. Section 279.13, subsection 3, applies to this section. 3. The board of directors of a school district may require an employee who has resigned from an extracurricular contract to accept, as a condition of employment under section 279.13, the extracurricular contract for no longer than one additional school year if all the following conditions apply: a. The employee has accepted a teaching contract issued by the board pursuant to section 279.13 for the subsequent school year. b. The board of directors has made a good faith effort to fill the coaching position with a licensed or authorized replacement. c. The position has not been filled by June 1 of the year in which the employee resigned the extracurricular contract. 4. As a condition of employment under section 279.13, the board of directors of a school district may require an employee who has been issued a teaching contract pursuant to section 279.13 to accept an extracurricular contract for which the employee is licensed, or may require as a condition of employment that an applicant for a teaching contract under section 279.13 accept an extracurricular contract if all of the following conditions apply: a. The individual who held the coaching position during the year has not been issued a teaching contract by the board pursuant to section 279.13 for the subsequent school year, or has been terminated from the extracurricular contract. b. The board of directors has made a good faith effort to fill the coaching position with a licensed or authorized replacement. c. The position has not been filled by June 1 of the year in which the vacancy occurred for the interscholastic athletic sport. 5. Within seven days following June 1 of that year, the board shall notify the employee in writing if the board intends to require the employee to accept an extracurricular contract for the subsequent school year under subsection 3 or 4. If the employee believes that the board did not make a good faith effort to fill the position the employee may appeal the decision by notifying the board in writing within ten days after receiving the notification. The appeal shall state why the employee believes that the board did not make a good faith effort to fill the position. If the parties are unable to informally resolve the dispute, the parties shall attempt to agree upon an alternative means of resolving the dispute. If the dispute is not resolved by mutual agreement, either party may appeal to the district court. 6. Subsections 3, 4, and 5 do not apply if the terms of a collective bargaining agreement provide otherwise. 7. An extracurricular contract may be terminated prior to the expiration of that contract pursuant to section 279.27. 8. A termination proceeding of an extracurricular contract either by the board pursuant to subsection 2 or pursuant to section 279.27 does not affect a contract issued pursuant to section 279.13. A termination of a contract entered into pursuant to section 279.13, or a resignation from that contract by the teacher, constitutes an automatic termination or resignation of the extracurricular contract in effect between the same teacher and the employing school board. 9. For the purposes of this section, "good faith effort" includes advertising for the position in an appropriate publication, interviewing applicants, and giving serious consideration to those licensed or authorized, and otherwise qualified, applicants who apply. 10. The licensure requirements of subsections 3, 4, and 9 shall not apply to community colleges.

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1296, § 1; 85 Acts, ch 74, §1--3; 89 Acts, ch 265, §
      40; 90 Acts, ch 1182, § 3, 7; 2002 Acts, ch 1047, §16, 20
         Referred to in § 272.15, 273.22, 275.33, 279.13, 279.19B
        

279.19B COACHING ENDORSEMENT AND AUTHORIZATION. 1. a. The board of directors of a school district may employ for head coach of any interscholastic athletic activities or for assistant coach of any interscholastic athletic activity, an individual who possesses a coaching authorization issued by the board of educational examiners or possesses a teaching license with a coaching endorsement issued pursuant to chapter 272. However, a board of directors of a school district shall consider applicants with qualifications described below, in the following order of priority: (1) A qualified individual who possesses a valid teaching license with a proper coaching endorsement. (2) A qualified individual who possesses a coaching authorization issued by the board of educational examiners. b. Qualifications are to be determined by the board of directors or their designee on a case-by-case basis. 2. An individual who has been issued a coaching authorization or who possesses a teaching license with a coaching endorsement but is not issued a teaching contract under section 279.13 and who is employed by the board of directors of a school district serves at the pleasure of the board of directors and is not subject to sections 279.13 through 279.19, and 279.27. Subsection 1 of section 279.19A applies to coaching authorizations. 3. The licensure and coaching authorization requirements of this section shall not apply to community colleges. An individual employed as a coach of a community college interscholastic athletic activity who is not issued a teaching contract under section 279.13 serves at the pleasure of the board of directors of the community college and is not subject to sections 279.13 through 279.19, and 279.27.

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1296, § 2; 85 Acts, ch 49, §1; 88 Acts, ch 1284, § 46;
      89 Acts, ch 265, § 35, 42; 93 Acts, ch 66, § 1, 2; 2003 Acts, ch 19,
      §2
         Referred to in § 272.15, 273.22, 275.33
        

279.20 SUPERINTENDENT -- TERM -- EMPLOYMENT OF SUPPORT PERSONNEL. 1. The board of directors of a school district may employ a superintendent of schools for a term of not to exceed three years. However, the board's initial contract with a superintendent shall not exceed one year if the board is obligated to pay a former superintendent under an unexpired contract. The superintendent shall be the executive officer of the board and have such powers and duties as may be prescribed by rules adopted by the board or by law. Boards of directors may jointly exercise the powers conferred by this section. 2. The board of directors of a school district may delegate the authority to hire support personnel and sign the support personnel employment contracts, if applicable, if the board adopts a policy authorizing the superintendent to perform such duties and specifying the positions the superintendent is authorized to fill. For purposes of this subsection, the term "support personnel" includes, but is not limited to, bus drivers, custodians, educational associates, and clerical and food service employees.

         Section History: Early Form

         [R60, § 2037; C73, § 1726; C97, § 2776; SS15, § 2778; C24, 27, 31,
      35, 39, § 4230; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, § 279.14;
      C77, 79, 81, § 279.20] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 224, § 48; 2004 Acts, ch 1175, §94
         Referred to in § 272.15, 273.3, 273.22, 273.23, 275.25, 275.33,
      275.41, 279.23
        

279.21 PRINCIPALS. The board of directors of a school district may employ principals, under the provisions of section 279.23. A principal shall hold a current valid principal's certificate. Notwithstanding the provisions of section 279.23, after serving at least nine months, a principal may be employed for a term of not to exceed two years. The principal, under the supervision of the superintendent of the school district and pursuant to rules and policies of the board of directors of the school district, shall be responsible for administration and operation of the attendance center to which the principal is assigned. The principal shall, pursuant to the policies adopted by the board of directors of the school district, be responsible for the planning, management, operation, and evaluation of the educational program offered at the attendance center to which the principal is assigned and shall submit recommendations to the superintendent regarding the appointment, assignment, promotion, transfer and dismissal of all personnel assigned to the attendance center. The principal shall perform such other duties as may be assigned by the superintendent. For purposes of this section and sections 279.23, 279.23A, 279.24, and 279.25, the term "principal" includes school principals, associate principals, and assistant principals.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C77, 79, 81, § 279.21] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         93 Acts, ch 32, § 1
         Referred to in § 272.15, 273.22, 275.33
        

279.22 RESIDENCE OF EMPLOYEES. The board shall not adopt rules under section 279.8 which require its employees to reside within the boundaries of the school district.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C81, § 279.22]
        

279.23 CONTINUING CONTRACT FOR ADMINISTRATORS. 1. Contracts with administrators shall be in writing and shall contain all of the following: a. The term of employment which for all administrators except for superintendents may be a term of up to two years. Superintendents may be employed under section 279.20 for a term not to exceed three years. b. The length of time during the school year services are to be performed. c. The compensation per week of five consecutive days or month of four consecutive weeks. d. A statement that the contract is invalid if the administrator is under contract with another board of directors in this state covering the same period of time, until such contract shall have been released or terminated by its provisions. e. Such other matters as may be agreed upon. 2. The contract shall be signed by the president and the administrator and shall be filed with the secretary of the board before the administrator enters upon performance of the contract. A contract shall not be tendered by an employing board to an administrator under its jurisdiction prior to March 15. A contract shall not be required to be signed by the administrator and returned to the board in less than twenty-one days after being tendered. 3. Except as otherwise specifically provided, an administrator's contract shall be governed by the provisions of this section and sections 279.23A, 279.24, and 279.25, and not by section 279.13. 4. For purposes of this section and sections 279.23A, 279.24, and 279.25, the term "administrator" includes school superintendents, assistant superintendents, educational directors employed by school districts for grades kindergarten through twelve, educational directors employed by area education agencies under chapter 273, principals, assistant principals, other certified school supervisors employed by school districts for grades kindergarten through twelve as defined under section 20.4, and other certified school supervisors employed by area education agencies under chapter 273. For purposes of this section and sections 279.23A, 279.24, and 279.25, with regard to community college employees, "administrator" includes the administrator of an instructional division or an area of instructional responsibility, and the administrator of an instructional unit, department, or section. 5. Notwithstanding the other provisions of this section, a temporary contract may be issued to an administrator to fill a vacancy created by a leave of absence in accordance with the provisions of section 29A.28, which contract shall automatically terminate upon return from military leave of the former incumbent of the administrator position and which contract shall not be subject to the provisions of sections 279.24 and 279.25.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C77, 79, 81, § 279.23] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 94, § 1; 93 Acts, ch 32, § 2; 2003 Acts, ch 19, §3;
      2003 Acts, ch 180, §32
         Referred to in § 272.15, 273.3, 273.22, 273.23, 275.25, 275.33,
      275.41, 279.21, 284A.2
        

279.23A EVALUATION CRITERIA AND PROCEDURES. The board shall establish written evaluation criteria and shall establish and annually implement evaluation procedures. The board shall also establish written job descriptions for all supervisory positions.

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 94, § 2
         Referred to in § 279.21, 279.23, 284A.3, 284A.4, 284A.6
        

279.24 CONTRACT WITH ADMINISTRATORS -- AUTOMATIC CONTINUATION OR TERMINATION. 1. An administrator's contract shall remain in force and effect for the period stated in the contract. The contract shall be automatically continued in force and effect for additional one-year periods beyond the end of its original term, except and until the contract is modified or terminated by mutual agreement of the board of directors and the administrator, or until terminated as provided by this section. 2. If the board of directors is considering termination of an administrator's contract, prior to any formal action, the board may arrange to meet in closed session, in accordance with the provisions of section 21.5, with the administrator and the administrator's representative. The board shall review the administrator's evaluation, review the reasons for nonrenewal, and give the administrator an opportunity to respond. If, following the closed session, the board of directors and the administrator are unable to mutually agree to a modification or termination of the administrator's contract, or the board of directors and the administrator are unable to mutually agree to enter into a one-year nonrenewable contract, the board of directors shall follow the procedures in this section. 3. An administrator may file a written resignation with the secretary of the school board on or before May 1 of each year or the date specified by the school board for return of the contract, whichever date occurs first. 4. Administrators employed in a school district for less than two consecutive years are probationary administrators. However, a school board may waive the probationary period for any administrator who has previously served a probationary period in another school district and the school board may extend the probationary period for an additional year with the consent of the administrator. If a school board determines that it should terminate a probationary administrator's contract, the school board shall notify the administrator not later than May 15 that the contract will not be renewed beyond the current year. The notice shall be in writing by letter, personally delivered, or mailed by certified mail. The notification shall be complete when received by the administrator. Within ten days after receiving the notice, the administrator may request a private conference with the school board to discuss the reasons for termination. The school board's decision to terminate a probationary administrator's contract shall be final unless the termination was based upon an alleged violation of a constitutionally guaranteed right of the administrator. 5. The school board may, by majority vote of the membership of the school board, cause the contract of an administrator to be terminated. If the school board determines that it should consider the termination of a nonprobationary administrator's contract, the following procedure shall apply: a. On or before May 15, the administrator shall be notified in writing by a letter personally delivered or mailed by certified mail that the school board has voted to consider termination of the contract. The notification shall be complete when received by the administrator. b. The notice shall state the specific reasons to be used by the school board for considering termination which for all administrators except superintendents shall be for just cause. c. Within five days after receipt of the written notice that the school board has voted to consider termination of the contract, the administrator may request in writing to the secretary of the school board that the notification be forwarded to the board of educational examiners along with a request that the board of educational examiners submit a list of five qualified administrative law judges to the parties. Within three days from receipt of the list the parties shall select an administrative law judge by alternately removing a name from the list until only one name remains. The person whose name remains shall be the administrative law judge. The parties shall determine by lot which party shall remove the first name from the list. The hearing shall be held no sooner than ten days and not later than thirty days following the administrator's request unless the parties otherwise agree. If the administrator does not request a hearing, the school board, not later than May 31, may determine the continuance or discontinuance of the contract and, if the board determines to continue the administrator's contract, whether to suspend the administrator with or without pay for a period specified by the board. School board action shall be by majority roll call vote entered on the minutes of the meeting. Notice of school board action shall be personally delivered or mailed to the administrator. d. The administrative law judge selected shall notify the secretary of the school board and the administrator in writing concerning the date, time, and location of the hearing. The school board may be represented by a legal representative, if any, and the administrator shall appear and may be represented by counsel or by representative, if any. A transcript or recording shall be made of the proceedings at the hearing. A school board member or administrator is not liable for any damage to an administrator or school board member if a statement made at the hearing is determined to be erroneous as long as the statement was made in good faith. e. The administrative law judge shall, within ten days following the date of the hearing, make a proposed decision as to whether or not the administrator should be dismissed, and shall give a copy of the proposed decision to the administrator and the school board. Findings of fact shall be prepared by the administrative law judge. The proposed decision of the administrative law judge shall become the final decision of the school board unless within ten days after the filing of the decision the administrator files a written notice of appeal with the school board, or the school board on its own motion determines to review the decision. f. If the administrator appeals to the school board, or if the school board determines on its own motion to review the proposed decision of the administrative law judge, a private hearing shall be held before the school board within five days after the petition for review, or motion for review, has been made or at such other time as the parties agree. The private hearing is not subject to chapter 21. The school board may hear the case de novo upon the record as submitted before the administrative law judge. In cases where there is an appeal from a proposed decision or where a proposed decision is reviewed on motion of the school board, an opportunity shall be afforded to each party to file exceptions, present briefs, and present oral arguments to the school board which is to render the final decision. The secretary of the school board shall give the administrator written notice of the time, place, and date of the hearing. The school board shall meet within five days after the hearing to determine the question of continuance or discontinuance of the contract and, if the board determines to continue the administrator's contract, whether to suspend the administrator with or without pay for a period specified by the board. The school board shall make findings of fact which shall be based solely on the evidence in the record and on matters officially noticed in the record. g. The decision of the school board shall be in writing and shall include findings of fact and conclusions of law, separately stated. Findings of fact, if set forth in statutory language, shall be accompanied by a concise and explicit statement of the underlying facts supporting the findings. Each conclusion of law shall be supported by cited authority or by reasoned opinion. h. When the school board has reached a decision, opinion, or conclusion, it shall convene in open meeting and by roll call vote determine the continuance or discontinuance of the administrator's contract and, if the board votes to continue the administrator's contract, whether to suspend the administrator with or without pay for a period specified by the board. The record of the private conference and findings of fact and exceptions shall be exempt from the provisions of chapter 22. The secretary of the school board shall immediately personally deliver or mail notice of the school board's action to the administrator. i. The administrator may within thirty days after notification by the school board of discontinuance of the contract appeal to the district court of the county in which the administrative office of the school district is located. 6. The court may affirm the school board's action. The court shall reverse, modify, or grant any other appropriate relief from the school board's action, equitable or legal, and including declaratory relief, if substantial rights of the administrator have been prejudiced because the school board's action is any of the following: a. In violation of constitutional or statutory provisions. b. In excess of the statutory authority of the school board. c. In violation of school board policy or rule. d. Made upon unlawful procedure. e. Affected by other error of law. f. Unsupported by a preponderance of the evidence in the record made before the school board when that record is reviewed as a whole. g. Unreasonable, arbitrary, or capricious, or characterized by an abuse of discretion or clearly unwarranted exercise of discretion.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C77, 79, 81, § 279.24] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 39, § 1; 88 Acts, ch 1109, § 21; 90 Acts, ch 1249, §
      13; 92 Acts, ch 1009, § 1; 92 Acts, ch 1227, § 20; 93 Acts, ch 32, §
      3, 4; 2001 Acts, ch 62, §2
         Referred to in § 260C.39, 272.14, 272.15, 273.3, 273.22, 273.23,
      275.25, 275.33, 275.41, 279.21, 279.23, 279.25
        

279.25 DISCHARGE OF ADMINISTRATOR. An administrator may be discharged at any time during the contract year for just cause. The administrator shall be notified in writing that the board has voted to consider termination of the administrator's contract and the applicable procedures of section 279.24 shall apply.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C77, 79, 81, § 279.25]
         Referred to in § 273.3, 279.21, 279.23
        

279.26 LEASE ARRANGEMENTS. The board of directors of a local school district for which a voter-approved physical plant and equipment levy has been voted pursuant to section 298.2, may enter into a rental or lease arrangement, consistent with the purposes for which the voter-approved physical plant and equipment levy has been voted, for a period not exceeding ten years and not exceeding the period for which the voter-approved physical plant and equipment levy has been authorized by the voters.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C75, § 279.23; C77, 79, 81, § 279.26] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         89 Acts, ch 135, §73
         Referred to in § 298.2
        

279.27 DISCHARGE OF TEACHER. A teacher may be discharged at any time during the contract year for just cause. The superintendent or the superintendent's designee, shall notify the teacher immediately that the superintendent will recommend in writing to the board at a regular or special meeting of the board held not more than fifteen days after notification has been given to the teacher that the teacher's continuing contract be terminated effective immediately following a decision of the board. The procedure for dismissal shall be as provided in section 279.15, subsection 2, and sections 279.16 to 279.19. The superintendent may suspend a teacher under this section pending hearing and determination by the board.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C73, § 1734; C97, § 2782; C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, § 4237; C46,
      50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, § 279.24; C77, 79, 81, § 279.27] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2005 Acts, ch 3, §59
         Referred to in § 262.9, 279.13, 279.14, 279.19A, 279.19B
        

279.28 INSURANCE -- SUPPLIES -- TEXTBOOKS. The board of directors may provide and pay out of the general fund to insure school property a sum as necessary, and may purchase dictionaries, library books, including books for the purpose of teaching vocal music, maps, charts, and apparatus for the use of the schools as deemed necessary by the board of directors for each school building under its charge; and may furnish schoolbooks to indigent children when they are likely to be deprived of the proper benefits of the school unless so aided.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C73, § 1729; C97, § 2783; S13, § 2783; C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, §
      4238; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, § 279.25; C77, 79, 81,
      § 279.28] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         89 Acts, ch 83, §38
        

279.29 CLAIMS -- INVESTMENTS. The board shall audit and allow all just claims against the corporation, and no order shall be drawn upon the treasury until the claim therefor has been audited and allowed. In any district in which the board consists of five or more members, an audit made by one or more members of the board designated by the board or by a certified public accountant employed by the board, and certified to the board by such member or members of the board or by such accountant, shall satisfy the requirements of this section with respect to the audit of a claim. Pending audit and allowance of claims under this section, the board shall invest moneys of the corporation to the extent practicable, and the board may provide for the joint investment of moneys with one or more school corporations pursuant to a joint investment agreement. All investments of funds shall be subject to sections 12B.10 and 12B.10A and other applicable law.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C51, § 1146, 1149; R60, § 2037, 2038; C73, § 1732, 1733, 1738,
      1813; C97, § 2780; S13, § 2780; C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, § 4239; C46,
      50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, § 279.26; C77, 79, 81, § 279.29] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         86 Acts, ch 1226, § 4; 92 Acts, ch 1156, § 11
         Referred to in § 256F.4
         Exceptions, § 11.21
        

279.30 EXCEPTIONS. Each payment must be made payable to the person entitled to receive the money. The board of directors of a school district or an area education agency may by resolution authorize the secretary, upon approval of the superintendent or designee, or administrator, in the case of an area education agency, to issue payments when the board of directors is not in session in payment of reasonable and necessary expenses, but only upon verified bills filed with the secretary or administrator, and for the payment of salaries pursuant to the terms of a written contract. Each payment must be made payable only to the person performing the service or presenting the verified bill, and must state the purpose for which the payment is issued. All bills and salaries for which payments are issued prior to audit and allowance by the board must be passed upon by the board of directors at the next meeting and be entered in the regular minutes of the secretary.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C35, § 4239-g1; C39, § 4239.1; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71,
      73, 75, § 279.27; C77, 79, 81, § 279.30] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         92 Acts, ch 1187, § 4; 2006 Acts, ch 1152, §34
        

279.31 SETTLEMENT WITH TREASURER. The board shall from time to time examine the accounts of the treasurer and make settlements with the treasurer.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C51, § 1146, 1149; R60, § 2037, 2038; C73, § 1732, 1733, 1738,
      1813; C97, § 2780; S13, § 2780; C24, § 4239; C27, 31, 35, § 4239-a1;
      C39, § 4239.2; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, § 279.28;
      C77, 79, 81, § 279.31]
        

279.32 COMPENSATION OF OFFICERS. The board shall fix the compensation to be paid the secretary. No member of the board shall receive compensation for official services. The board may pay a school treasurer a reasonable compensation. Actual and necessary expenses, including travel, incurred by the board or individual members thereof in the performance of official duties may be paid or reimbursed.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C51, § 1146, 1149; R60, § 2037, 2038; C73, § 1732, 1733, 1738,
      1813; C97, § 2780; S13, § 2780; C24, § 4239; C27, 31, 35, § 4239-a3;
      C39, § 4239.3; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, § 279.29;
      C77, 79, 81, § 279.32]
        

279.33 ANNUAL SETTLEMENTS. At a regular or special meeting held on or after August 31 and prior to the organizational meeting held after the regular school election, the board of each school corporation shall meet, examine the books of and settle with the secretary and treasurer for the year ending on the preceding June 30, and transact other business as necessary. The treasurer at the time of settlement shall furnish the board with a statement from each depository showing the balance then on deposit in the depository. If the secretary or treasurer fails to make proper reports for the settlement, the board shall take action to obtain the balance information.

         Section History: Early Form

         [SS15, § 2757; C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, § 4240; C46, 50, 54, 58,
      62, 66, 71, 73, 75, § 279.30; C77, 79, 81, § 279.33] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 185, § 4, 62; 2001 Acts, ch 47, §2; 2006 Acts, ch
      1152, §35
        

279.34 MOTOR VEHICLES REQUIRED TO OPERATE ON ETHANOL BLENDED GASOLINE. A motor vehicle purchased by or used under the direction of the board of directors to provide services to a school corporation shall not operate on gasoline other than ethanol blended gasoline as defined in section 214A.1. The motor vehicle shall also be affixed with a brightly visible sticker which notifies the traveling public that the motor vehicle is being operated on ethanol blended gasoline. However, the sticker is not required to be affixed to an unmarked vehicle used for purposes of providing law enforcement or security.

         Section History: Recent Form

         91 Acts, ch 254, § 16; 93 Acts, ch 26, § 5; 2006 Acts, ch 1142,
      §65; 2007 Acts, ch 126, §50
        

279.35 PUBLICATION OF PROCEEDINGS. The proceedings of each regular, adjourned, or special meeting of the board, including the schedule of bills allowed, shall be published after the adjournment of the meeting in the manner provided in this section and section 279.36, and the publication of the schedule of the bills allowed shall include a list of claims allowed, including salary claims for services performed. The schedule of bills allowed may be published on a once monthly basis in lieu of publication with the proceedings of each meeting of the board. The list of claims allowed shall include the name of the person or firm making the claim, the purpose of the claim, and the amount of the claim. If the purpose for the claims is the same, two or more claims made by the same vendor, supplier, or claimant may be consolidated if the number of claims consolidated and the total consolidated claim amount are listed in the statement. However, the board shall provide at its office upon request an unconsolidated list of all claims allowed. Salaries paid to individuals regularly employed by the district shall only be published annually and the publication shall include the total amount of the annual salary of each employee. The secretary shall furnish a copy of the proceedings to be published within two weeks following the adjournment of the meeting.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C27, 31, 35, § 4242-b1; C39, § 4242.1; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, § 279.33; C77, 79, 81, § 279.35] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 185, § 6, 62; 87 Acts, ch 224, § 49; 2006 Acts, ch
      1018, §2
         Referred to in § 260C.14, 279.36
        

279.36 PUBLICATION PROCEDURES AND FEE. The requirements of section 279.35 are satisfied by publication in at least one newspaper published in the district or, if there is none, in at least one newspaper having general circulation within the district. For the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1987, the fee for publications required under section 279.35 shall not exceed three-fifths of the legal publication fee provided by statute for the publication of legal notices. For the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1988, the fee for the publications shall not exceed three-fourths of that legal publication fee. For the fiscal year beginning July 1, 1989, and each fiscal year thereafter, the fee for the publications shall be the legal publication fee provided by statute.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, § 279.34; C77, 79, 81, §
      279.36] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 224, § 50
         Referred to in § 260C.14, 279.35
         Publication of legal notices; § 618.11
        

279.37 EMPLOYMENT OF COUNSEL. A school corporation may employ an attorney to represent the school corporation as necessary for the proper conduct of the legal affairs of the school corporation.

         Section History: Early Form

         [R60, § 2040; C73, § 1740; C97, § 2759; C24, 27, 31, 35, 39, §
      4245; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, § 279.35; C77, 79, 81,
      § 279.37]
        

279.38 MEMBERSHIP IN ASSOCIATION OF SCHOOL BOARDS. Boards of directors of school corporations may pay, out of funds available to them, reasonable annual dues to the Iowa association of school boards. The financial condition and transactions of the Iowa association of school boards shall be audited in the same manner as school corporations as provided in section 11.6. In addition, annually the Iowa association of school boards shall publish a listing of the school districts and the annual dues paid by each and shall publish an accounting of all moneys expended for expenses incurred by and salaries paid to legislative representatives and lobbyists of the association. Membership in such an Iowa association of school boards shall be limited to those duly elected members of the boards of directors of local school corporations.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C71, 73, 75, § 279.37; C77, 79, 81, § 279.38] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 185, § 7, 62; 89 Acts, ch 264, §7
        

279.38A MEMBERSHIP IN OTHER ORGANIZATIONS. Duly elected members of boards of directors and designated administrators of school corporations may join, including the payment of dues, and participate in local, regional, and national organizations which directly relate to the functions of the board of directors.

         Section History: Recent Form

         93 Acts, ch 117, § 3
        

279.39 SCHOOL BUILDINGS. The board of any school corporation shall establish attendance centers and provide suitable buildings for each school in the district and may at the regular or a special meeting resolve to submit to the registered voters of the district at an election held on a date specified in section 39.2, subsection 4, paragraph "c", the question of voting a tax or authorizing the board to issue bonds, or both.

         Section History: Recent Form

         93 Acts, ch 160, § 15; 95 Acts, ch 67, §53; 2008 Acts, ch 1115,
      §47, 71
        

279.40 SICK LEAVE. Public school employees are granted leave of absence for medically related disability with full pay in the following minimum amounts: 1. The first year of employment 10 days. 2. The second year of employment 11 days. 3. The third year of employment 12 days. 4. The fourth year of employment 13 days. 5. The fifth year of employment 14 days. 6. The sixth and subsequent years of employment .................... 15 days. The above amounts shall apply only to consecutive years of employment in the same school district and unused portions shall be cumulative to at least a total of ninety days. The school board shall, in each instance, require such reasonable evidence as it may desire confirming the necessity for such leave of absence. Nothing in this section shall be construed as limiting the right of a school board to grant more time than the days herein specified. Cumulation of sick leave under this section shall not be affected or terminated due to the organization or dissolution of a community school district or districts which include all or the portion of the district which employed the particular public school employee for the school year previous to the organization or dissolution, if the employee is employed by one of the community school districts for the first school year following its organization or dissolution. Any amounts due an employee under this section shall be reduced by benefits payable under sections 85.33 and 85.34, subsection 1.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 279.40]
        

279.41 SCHOOLHOUSES AND SITES SOLD -- FUNDS. Moneys received from the condemnation, sale, or other disposition for public purposes of schoolhouses, school sites, or both schoolhouses and school sites, shall be deposited in the physical plant and equipment levy fund and may without a vote of the electorate be used for purposes authorized under section 298.3, as ordered by the board of directors of the school district.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 279.41] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         94 Acts, ch 1029, §18; 2006 Acts, ch 1152, §36
        

279.42 GIFTS TO SCHOOLS. The board of directors of a school district which receives funds through gifts, devises, and bequests shall deposit these funds in a trust and agency fund and use them in accordance with the terms of the gift, devise, or bequest.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 279.42] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         94 Acts, ch 1029, §19
         See also § 565.6
        

279.43 REPORTING INAPPROPRIATE TEACHING ASSIGNMENTS. An employee licensed by the board of educational examiners and holding a contract as described in section 279.13 shall disclose any occurrence of a teaching assignment for which that employee is not properly licensed to the school official responsible for determining teaching assignments. Failure of the employee to disclose this occurrence or failure of the school official responsible for determining teaching assignments to make appropriate adjustments to the employee's teaching assignment once the employee discloses the occurrence shall constitute an incident of misconduct as provided in section 272.2, subsection 14, and is actionable by the board. If the school official fails to make appropriate adjustments to the teaching assignment once disclosure by the employee is made, the employee shall report this occurrence to the department or to the board for further action.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2007 Acts, ch 214, §35
        

279.44 ENERGY AUDITS. 1. Between July 1, 1986, and June 30, 1991, and on a staggered annual basis each five years thereafter, the board of directors of each school district shall file with the office of energy independence, on forms prescribed by the office, the results of an energy audit of the buildings owned and leased by the school district. The energy audit shall be conducted under rules adopted by the office pursuant to chapter 17A. The office may waive the requirement for the initial and subsequent energy audits for school districts that submit evidence that energy audits were conducted prior to January 1, 1987, and energy consumption for the district is at an adjusted statewide average or below. 2. This section takes effect only if funds have been made available to a school district or community college to pay the costs of the energy audit.

         Section History: Recent Form

         86 Acts, ch 1167, § 1; 90 Acts, ch 1253, § 120; 2009 Acts, ch 108,
      §14, 41
         Referred to in § 469.3
        

279.45 ADMINISTRATIVE EXPENDITURES. For the budget year beginning July 1, 1989, and each of the following three budget years, the board of directors of a school district in which the administrative expenditures as a percent of the school district's operating fund for a base year exceed five percent, shall reduce its administrative expenditures so that they are one-half percent less as a percent of the school district's operating fund than they were for the base year. However, a school district is not required to reduce its administrative expenditures below five percent of its operating fund. Thereafter, a school district shall not increase the percent of its administrative expenditures compared to its operating fund. Annually, the board of directors shall certify to the department of education the amounts of the school district's administrative expenditures and its operating fund. For the purposes of this section, "base year" and "budget year" mean the same as defined in section 442.6, Code 1989, and section 257.2, and "administrative expenditures" means expenditures for executive administration.

         Section History: Recent Form

         86 Acts, ch 1226, § 5; 88 Acts, ch 1158, § 56; 89 Acts, ch 135,
      §74
        

279.46 RETIREMENT INCENTIVES -- TAX. The board of directors of a school district may adopt a program for payment of a monetary bonus, continuation of health or medical insurance coverage, or other incentives for encouraging its employees to retire before the normal retirement date as defined in chapter 97B. The program is available only to employees who notify the board of directors prior to April 1 of the fiscal year that they intend to retire not later than the start of the next following school calendar. The age at which employees shall be designated eligible for the program shall be at the discretion of the board. An employee retiring under this section may apply for a retirement allowance under chapter 97B or chapter 294. The board may include in the district management levy an amount to pay the total estimated accumulated cost to the school district of the health or medical insurance coverage, bonus, or other incentives for employees within the age range of fifty-five to sixty-five years of age who retire under this section.

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 224, § 51; 89 Acts, ch 135, § 75; 92 Acts, ch 1220, §
      1; 98 Acts, ch 1216, § 27, 43; 2002 Acts, ch 1152, §6; 2003 Acts, ch
      180, §33
         Referred to in § 298.4
        

279.47 TELECOMMUNICATIONS -- PARTICIPATION BY SCHOOL DISTRICTS IN DATABASE DEVELOPMENT. The board of directors of each school district utilizing telecommunications as an instructional tool shall participate in procedures adopted by the state board of education under section 256.7, subsection 9.

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 207, § 2
        

279.48 EQUIPMENT PURCHASE. 1. The board of directors of a school corporation may purchase equipment, and may negotiate and enter into a loan agreement and issue a note to pay for the equipment subject to the following terms and procedures: a. The note must mature within five years, or the useful life of the equipment, whichever is less. b. The note may bear interest at a rate to be determined by the board of directors in the manner provided in section 74A.3, subsection 1, paragraph "a". Chapter 75 is not applicable. c. The board of directors shall provide for the form of the agreement and note. d. Principal and interest on the note must be payable from budgeted receipts in the debt service fund for each year of a period of up to five years. 2. The total of scheduled annual payments of principal or interest due and payable from current budgeted receipts or future budgeted receipts with respect to all loan agreements authorized under this section or section 285.10, subsection 7, paragraph "b", must not exceed ten percent of the last authorized budget of the school corporation. 3. Before entering into a loan agreement for an equipment purchase, the school corporation must publish a notice, including a statement of the amount and purpose of the agreement, at least once in a newspaper of general circulation within the school corporation at least ten days before the meeting at which the loan agreement is to be approved.

         Section History: Recent Form

         94 Acts, ch 1175, §7; 2008 Acts, ch 1032, §198
         Referred to in § 273.3, 279.53
        

279.49 CHILD CARE PROGRAMS. 1. For the purposes of this section unless the context otherwise requires, "child care program" means child care that is not licensed or approved by the department of human services under chapter 237A except as provided under this section. 2. The board of directors of a school corporation may operate or contract for the operation of a program to provide child care to children not enrolled in school or to students enrolled in kindergarten through grade six before and after school, or to both. Programs operated or contracted by a board shall either meet standards for child care programs adopted by the state board of education or shall be licensed by the department of human services under chapter 237A as a child care center. A program operated by a board under contract which is not located on property owned or leased by the board must be licensed by the department of human services. 3. The person employed to be responsible for a program operated or contracted by a board that is not licensed by the department of human services shall be an appropriately licensed teacher under chapter 272 or shall meet other standards adopted by the state board of education. 4. The facilities housing a program operated under this section shall comply with standards adopted by the state fire marshal for school buildings under chapter 100. In addition, if a program involves children who are younger than school age, the facilities housing those children shall meet the fire safety standards which would apply to that age of child in a child care facility licensed by the department of human services. 5. The board may establish a fee for the cost of participation in a child care program authorized under this section. The fee shall be established pursuant to a sliding fee schedule based upon staffing costs and other expenses and a family's ability to pay. If a fee is established, the parent or guardian of a child participating in a program shall be responsible for payment of any agreed upon fee. The board may require the parent or guardian to furnish transportation of the child. 6. The board may utilize or make application for program subsidies from any existing child care funding streams. 7. The components of programs established under this section for child care shall include, but are not limited to, parental involvement in program design and direction, activities designed to further children's physical, mental, and emotional development, and a parental education component to educate parents about the physical, mental, and emotional development of children.

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 173, §26; 89 Acts, ch 206, § 10; 89 Acts, ch 265, §
      40; 92 Acts, ch 1212, § 27; 94 Acts, ch 1175, §8; 99 Acts, ch 192,
      §33
         Referred to in § 237A.1, 256.9, 256A.3, 280.3A, 298A.12
        

279.50 HUMAN GROWTH AND DEVELOPMENT INSTRUCTION. 1. Each school board shall provide instruction in kindergarten which gives attention to experiences relating to life skills and human growth and development as required in section 256.11. School districts shall use research provided in section 256.9, subsection 49, paragraph "b", to evaluate and upgrade their instructional materials and teaching strategies for human growth and development. 2. Each school board shall provide age-appropriate and research-based instruction in human growth and development including instruction regarding human sexuality, self-esteem, stress management, interpersonal relationships, domestic abuse, HPV and the availability of a vaccine to prevent HPV, and acquired immune deficiency syndrome as required in section 256.11, in grades one through twelve. 3. Each school board shall annually provide to a parent or guardian of any pupil enrolled in the school district, information about the human growth and development curriculum used in the pupil's grade level and the procedure for inspecting the instructional materials prior to their use in the classroom. 4. Each school district shall, upon request by any agency or organization, provide information about the human growth and development curriculum used in each grade level and the procedure for inspecting and updating the instructional materials. 5. A pupil shall not be required to take instruction in human growth and development if the pupil's parent or guardian files with the appropriate principal a written request that the pupil be excused from the instruction. Notification that the written request may be made shall be included in the information provided by the school district. 6. Each school board or community college which offers general adult education classes or courses shall periodically offer an instructional program in parenting skills and in human growth and development for parents, guardians, prospective biological and adoptive parents, and foster parents. 7. Each area education agency shall periodically offer a staff development program for teachers who provide instruction in human growth and development. 8. The department of education shall identify and disseminate information about early intervention programs for students who are at the greatest risk of suffering from the problem of dropping out of school, substance abuse, adolescent pregnancy, or suicide. 9. For purposes of this section and sections 256.9 and 256.11, unless the context otherwise requires: a. "Age-appropriate" means topics, messages, and teaching methods suitable to particular ages or age groups of children and adolescents, based on developing cognitive, emotional, and behavioral capacity typical for the age or age group. b. "HIV" means HIV as defined in section 141A.1. c. "HPV" means human papilloma virus as defined by the centers for disease control and prevention of the United States department of health and human services. d. "Research-based" means all of the following: (1) Complete information that is verified or supported by the weight of research conducted in compliance with accepted scientific methods; recognized as medically accurate and objective by leading professional organizations and agencies with relevant expertise in the field, such as the American college of obstetricians and gynecologists, the American public health association, the American academy of pediatrics, and the national association of school nurses; and published in peer-reviewed journals where appropriate. (2) Information that is free of racial, ethnic, sexual orientation, and gender biases. 10. To the extent not inconsistent with this section and section 256.11, an accredited nonpublic school may also choose curriculum in accordance with doctrinal teachings for the human sexuality component of the human growth and development requirements of this section and section 256.11. 11. Nothing in this section or section 256.11 shall be construed to prohibit a school or school district from developing and making available abstinence-based or abstinence-only materials pursuant to the requirements of section 256.9, subsection 49, and from offering an abstinence-based or abstinence-only curriculum in meeting the human sexuality component of the human growth and development requirements of this section and section 256.11.

         Section History: Recent Form

         88 Acts, ch 1018, §3, 5, 6; 90 Acts, ch 1253, § 121; 91 Acts, ch
      218, §19; 2007 Acts, ch 98, §4
         Referred to in § 256.11
        

279.51 PROGRAMS FOR AT-RISK CHILDREN. 1. There is appropriated from the general fund of the state to the department of education for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 2007, and each succeeding fiscal year, the sum of twelve million six hundred six thousand one hundred ninety-six dollars. The moneys shall be allocated as follows: a. Two hundred seventy-five thousand eight hundred sixty-four dollars of the funds appropriated shall be allocated to the area education agencies to assist school districts in developing program plans and budgets under this section and to assist school districts in meeting other responsibilities in early childhood education. b. For the fiscal year beginning July 1, 2007, and for each succeeding fiscal year, eight million five hundred thirty-six thousand seven hundred forty dollars of the funds appropriated shall be allocated to the child development coordinating council established in chapter 256A for the purposes set out in subsection 2 of this section and section 256A.3. c. For the fiscal year beginning July 1, 2007, and for each fiscal year thereafter, three million five hundred ten thousand nine hundred ninety-two dollars of the funds appropriated shall be allocated as grants to school districts that have elementary schools that demonstrate the greatest need for programs for at-risk students with preference given to innovative programs for the early elementary school years. School districts receiving grants under this paragraph shall at a minimum provide activities and materials designed to encourage children's self-esteem, provide role modeling and mentoring techniques in social competence and social skills, and discourage inappropriate drug use. The grant allocations made in this paragraph may be renewed for additional periods of time. Of the amount allocated under this paragraph for each fiscal year, seventy-five thousand dollars shall be allocated to school districts which have an actual student population of ten thousand or less and have an actual non-English speaking student population which represents greater than five percent of the total actual student population for grants to elementary schools in those districts. d. Notwithstanding section 256A.3, subsection 6, of the amount appropriated in this subsection for the fiscal year beginning July 1, 2007, and for each succeeding fiscal year, up to two hundred eighty-two thousand six hundred dollars may be used for administrative costs. 2. Funds allocated under subsection 1, paragraph "b", shall be used by the child development coordinating council for the following: a. To continue funding for programs previously funded by grants awarded under section 256A.3 and to provide additional grants under section 256A.3. The council shall seek to provide grants on the basis of the location within the state of children meeting at-risk definitions. b. At the discretion of the child development coordinating council, award grants for the following: (1) To school districts to establish programs for three-year-old, four-year-old, and five-year-old at-risk children which are a combination of preschool and full-day kindergarten. (2) To provide grants to provide educational support services to parents of at-risk children age birth through three years. 3. The department shall seek assistance from foundations and public and private agencies in the evaluation of the programs funded under this section, and in the provision of support to school districts in developing and implementing the programs funded under this section. 4. The state board of education shall adopt rules under chapter 17A for the administration of this section.

         Section History: Recent Form

         89 Acts, ch 135, §76; 90 Acts, ch 1272, § 69, 70; 91 Acts, ch 267,
      §239, 240; 92 Acts, ch 1227, § 21; 94 Acts, ch 1199, §47--49; 95
      Acts, ch 209, §14; 96 Acts, ch 1186, § 23; 96 Acts, ch 1219, § 7--10;
      97 Acts, ch 209, §17, 18; 98 Acts, ch 1133, § 1; 98 Acts, ch 1215, §
      44; 98 Acts, ch 1223, § 24, 25; 99 Acts, ch 192, §33; 99 Acts, ch
      195, §11, 12; 2000 Acts, ch 1058, §32; 2000 Acts, ch 1198, §2--4, 6;
      2007 Acts, ch 215, §62
         Referred to in § 256A.3
        

279.52 OPTIONAL FUNDING OF ASBESTOS PROJECTS. The board of directors may pay the actual cost of an asbestos project from any funds in the general fund of the district, funds received from the physical plant and equipment levy, or moneys obtained through a federal asbestos loan program, to be repaid from any of the funds specified in this section over a three-year period. For the purpose of this section, "cost of an asbestos project" includes the costs of inspection and reinspection, sampling, analysis, assessment, response actions, operations and maintenance, training, periodic surveillance, developing of management plans and recordkeeping requirements relating to the presence of asbestos in school buildings of the district and its removal or encapsulation.

         Section History: Recent Form

         89 Acts, ch 135, §77; 2000 Acts, ch 1072, §1; 2000 Acts, ch 1232,
      §64
         Referred to in § 279.53
        

279.53 LOAN PROCEEDS. The proceeds of loans issued to school districts pursuant to section 279.48, 279.52, or 473.20 shall be deposited into either the general fund of a school district or the physical plant and equipment levy fund. The board of directors shall expend the amount of the principal and interest due each year to maturity from the same fund into which the loan proceeds were deposited.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2008 Acts, ch 1041, §1
        

279.54 SCHOOL DISTRICT INCOME SURTAX. Repealed by 2000 Acts, ch 1072, § 3.

279.55 TEACHER EXCHANGE PROGRAM. If funds are appropriated by the general assembly, an Iowa teacher exchange program is established to permit school districts to exchange licensed instructional personnel with other districts in order to promote the exchange and enhancement of instructional methods and materials and encourage the educational development of Iowa's teachers. Community colleges may exchange their instructional personnel only with other community colleges under this program.

         Section History: Recent Form

         91 Acts, ch 84, §3; 2002 Acts, ch 1047, §18, 20
        

279.56 BOARD PARTICIPATION. 1. If funds are appropriated by the general assembly, the board of directors of a school district may obtain permission to participate in the teacher exchange program by making application in writing to the department of education, on forms provided by the department, by November 1 of the school year preceding the year that the district wishes to participate. Each district participating in the program shall prescribe standards and procedures explaining the district's expectations and requirements for each participating teacher. The district's standards and procedures shall also prescribe the method and form by which teachers within the district may apply to the board for permission to participate in the program. Each participating district shall continue to compensate the program participant at the same rate that the participant would be compensated if the participant had continued the participant's instructional or other duties within the home district. Each participating district shall report to the department the number and performance of exchange teachers from other districts that are included in the district's instructional staff during the relevant periods during the school year. 2. Each participating teacher shall submit a report of the teacher's experiences in the exchange program to the teacher's employing district at the conclusion of the exchange period.

         Section History: Recent Form

         91 Acts, ch 84, §4; 2009 Acts, ch 54, §8
        

279.57 PERIOD OF EXCHANGE. Teachers may be exchanged for one quarter, one semester, or one school year under the program. Expenses incurred by a teacher participant may be reimbursed by application to the department of education. Reimbursable expenses shall include, but are not limited to, mileage for travel to and from the new school district and the teacher's residence, the cost incurred for meals consumed as a result of travel to and from the new school district and the teacher's residence, the difference between the cost for living quarters incurred by the teacher in the teacher's district of residence and the cost for similar quarters in the new district, and cost of additional educational materials required to be provided by instructional personnel in the new district.

         Section History: Recent Form

         91 Acts, ch 84, §5
        

279.58 SCHOOL DRESS CODE POLICIES. 1. The general assembly finds and declares that the students and the administrative and instructional staffs of Iowa's public schools have the right to be safe and secure at school. Gang-related apparel worn at school draws attention away from the school's learning environment and directs it toward thoughts or expressions of violence, bigotry, hate, and abuse. 2. The board of directors of a school district may adopt, for the district or for an individual school within the district, a dress code policy that prohibits students from wearing gang-related or other specific apparel if the board determines that the policy is necessary for the health, safety, or positive educational environment of students and staff in the school environment or for the appropriate discipline and operation of the school. Adoption and enforcement of a dress code policy is not a violation of section 280.22.

         Section History: Recent Form

         95 Acts, ch 191, §20
        

279.59 ACCESS BY ASSOCIATIONS. The board of directors of a school district shall provide not-for-profit, professional education associations that offer membership to teachers or administrators equal access to teacher or administrator mailboxes for distribution of professional literature.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 159, §11
        

279.60 KINDERGARTEN ASSESSMENT -- ACCESS TO DATA -- REPORTS. Each school district shall administer the dynamic indicators of basic early literacy skills kindergarten benchmark assessment or other kindergarten benchmark assessment adopted by the department of education in consultation with the Iowa empowerment board to every kindergarten student enrolled in the district not later than the date specified in section 257.6, subsection 1. The school district shall also collect information from each parent, guardian, or legal custodian of a kindergarten student enrolled in the district, including but not limited to whether the student attended preschool, factors identified by the early care staff pursuant to section 28.3, and other demographic factors. Each school district shall report the results of the assessment and the preschool information collected to the department of education in the manner prescribed by the department not later than January 1 of that school year. The early care staff designated pursuant to section 28.3 shall have access to the raw data. The department shall review the information submitted pursuant to this section and shall submit its findings and recommendations annually in a report to the governor, the general assembly, the Iowa empowerment board, and the community empowerment area boards.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2005 Acts, ch 148, §16; 2006 Acts, ch 1152, §37
        

279.61 STUDENT PLAN FOR PROGRESS TOWARD UNIVERSITY ADMISSIONS -- REPORT. 1. For the school year beginning July 1, 2008, and each succeeding school year, the board of directors of each school district shall cooperate with each student enrolled in grade eight to develop for the student a core curriculum plan to guide the student toward the goal of successfully completing, at a minimum, the core curriculum developed by the state board of education pursuant to section 256.7, subsection 26, by the time the student graduates from high school. The plan shall include career options and shall identify the coursework needed in grades nine through twelve to support the student's postsecondary education and career options. Additionally, the plan shall include a timeline for each student to successfully complete, prior to graduation, all components of the state-designated career information and decision-making system administered by the department in accordance with section 118 of the federal Carl D. Perkins Career and Technical Education Improvement Act of 2006, Pub. L. No. 109-270. The student's parent or guardian shall sign the core curriculum plan developed with the student and the signed plan shall be included in the student's cumulative records. 2. For the school year beginning July 1, 2008, and each succeeding school year, the board of directors of each school district shall report annually to each student enrolled in grades nine through twelve in the school district, and, if the student is under the age of eighteen, to each student's parent or guardian, the student's progress toward meeting the goal of successfully completing the core curriculum and high school graduation requirements adopted by the state board of education pursuant to section 256.7, subsection 26.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2005 Acts, ch 149, §3; 2006 Acts, ch 1152, §13; 2007 Acts, ch 214,
      §36; 2008 Acts, ch 1127, §4
         Referred to in § 261E.4, 261E.6, 261E.8, 261E.9, 261E.10, 261E.13
        

279.62 NONPROFIT SCHOOL ORGANIZATIONS. The board of directors of a school district may take action to adopt a resolution to establish, and authorize expenditures for the operational support of, an entity or organization for the sole benefit of the school district and its students that is exempt from federal income taxation under section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code. The entity or organization shall reimburse the school district for expenditures made by the school district on behalf of the entity or organization. Prior to establishing such an entity or organization, the board of directors shall hold a public hearing on the proposal to establish such an entity or organization. Such an entity or organization shall maintain its records in accordance with chapter 22, except that the entity or organization shall provide for the anonymity of a donor at the written request of the donor. The board of directors of a school district shall annually report to the department of education and to the local community the administrative expenditures, revenues, and activities of the entity or organization established by the school district pursuant to this section. The department shall include in its annual condition of education report a statewide summary of the expenditures and revenues submitted in accordance with this section.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2005 Acts, ch 179, §92, 97
         Referred to in § 11.6 

         Footnotes

         Authorizations granted to school boards under this section apply
      to entities or organizations established by a board of directors of a
      school district before, on, or after July 1, 2005; 2005 Acts, ch 179,
      §97
        

279.63 FINANCIAL REPORT. 1. The board of directors of each public school district shall develop, maintain, and distribute a financial report on an annual basis. The objective of the financial report shall be to facilitate public access to a variety of information and statistics relating to the education funding received by the school district, enrollment and employment figures, and additional information. 2. The financial report shall contain, at a minimum, information relating to the following: a. All property tax levies, income surtaxes, and local option sales taxes in place in the school district, listed by type of levy, rate, amount, duration, and notification of the maximum rate and amount limitations permitted by statute. b. The amount of funding received on a per pupil basis through the operation of the school finance formula, and from any other state appropriation or state funding source. c. Federal funding received per student or teacher population targeted to receive the funds, and any other federal grants or funding received by the district. d. Teacher and administrator minimum, maximum, and average salary paid by the district, and the percentage and dollar increase under teacher and administrator salary and benefits settlement agreements. e. Teacher and administrator health insurance and other alternative health benefit information, including the monthly premium, the percentage of the premium paid by the district, and the percentage of the premium paid by a teacher or administrator for single and family insurance. f. Teacher and administrator employment statistics, including the annual number of licensed full-time and part-time teachers and administrators employed by the school district during the preceding five years, and including the number of teachers and administrators no longer employed by the district, and new hires. g. Student enrollment levels during the preceding five years, including regular enrollment, special education enrollment, and enrollment adjustments made pursuant to supplementary weighting. h. Such additional information as the school district may determine. 3. Copies of a school district's financial report for the previous school year shall be posted on an internet website maintained by the school district by January 1 of each school year. If the school district does not maintain or develop an internet website, the school district shall either distribute or post written copies of the financial report at specified locations throughout the school district.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2006 Acts, ch 1152, §14; 2009 Acts, ch 54, §9
        

279.64 TAX-SHARING AGREEMENTS. A school district may enter into an agreement under chapter 28E with a contiguous school district for the purpose of sharing all or a percentage of school district taxes collected from that portion of valuation described in section 403.19, subsection 2, that is released by the municipality to the school district.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2006 Acts, ch 1156, §1
         Referred to in § 403.19
        

279.65 STUDENT ADVANCEMENT POLICY -- FINDINGS -- SUPPLEMENTAL STRATEGIES AND EDUCATIONAL SERVICES GRANT PROGRAM. Repealed by 2008 Acts, ch 1181, § 40.

279.66 DISCIPLINE AND PERSONAL CONDUCT STANDARDS. The board of directors of a school district shall review and modify existing policies related to student discipline and student conduct that are designed to promote responsible behavior on school property and at school functions in order that the policy shall govern the conduct of students, teachers and other school personnel, and visitors; provide opportunities for students to exercise self-discipline and practice cooperative classroom behavior; and encourage students and practitioners to model fairness, equity, and respect. The policy shall specify the responsibilities of students, parents and guardians, and practitioners in creating an atmosphere where all individuals feel a sense of respect, safety, and belonging, and shall set forth the consequences for unacceptable behavior. The policy shall be published in the student handbook.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2007 Acts, ch 214, §38
        

279.67 COMPETITIVE LIVING WAGE. It is the goal of this state that every employee of a public school corporation be provided with a competitive living wage.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2008 Acts, ch 1191, §57

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