Iowa was organized as a Territory by Act of June 12, 1838,
      effective July 3, from a portion of Wisconsin Territory. The limits
      were defined as follows in the Act1 creating it:
      all that part of the present Territory of Wisconsin which lies west
      of the Mississippi river, and west of a line drawn due north from the
      headwaters or sources of the Mississippi to the Territorial line.
         The approximate position of the outlet of Lake Itasca, which is
      generally accepted as the source of the Mississippi, is latitude
      47° 15 1/3', longitude 95° 12 1/2'. The river runs
      north-westward for about 6 miles before it turns east. The
      north-south boundary line across the western part of the Lake of the
      Woods is in longitude 95° 09' 11.6" (p.14).
         The following clause from an Act passed in 1839 is supplementary
      to the Act above quoted:2
         That the middle or center of the main channel of the Mississippi
      shall be deemed, and is hereby declared, to be the eastern boundary
      line of the Territory of Iowa, so far or to such extent as the said
      Territory is bounded eastwardly by or upon said river.
         On March 3, 1845, an Act was approved for the admission of Iowa to
      the Union as a State, but the Act required that the assent of the
      people of Iowa be given to it by popular vote. In this Act the
      boundaries were given as follows:3
         That the following shall be the boundaries of said State of Iowa,
      to wit: Beginning at the mouth of the Des Moines River, at the middle
      of the Mississippi, thence by the middle of the channel of that river
      to a parallel of latitude passing through the mouth of the Mankato or
      Blue-Earth river [latitude 44° 10'], thence west along the said
      parallel of latitude to a point where it is intersected by a meridian
      line, seventeen degrees and thirty minutes west of the meridian of
      Washington city, thence due south{{ to the northern boundary line of
      the State of Missouri, thence eastwardly following that boundary to
      the point at which the same intersects the Des Moines river, thence
      by the middle of the channel of that river to the place of beginning.

         These boundaries were not acceptable to the people and by a
      popular vote were rejected.
         Another constitutional convention was held in May, 1846, and
      Congress passed an Act, approved August 4, 1846, fixing the
      boundaries in accordance with the wishes of the people and described
      as follows:
         Beginning at the middle of the main channel of the Mississippi
      River at a point due east of the middle of the mouth of the main
      channel of the Des Moines River; thence up the middle of the main
      channel of the said Des Moines River to a point on said river where
      the northern boundary line of the State of Missouri, as established
      by the constitution of that State, adopted June twelfth, eighteen
      hundred and twenty, crosses the said middle of the main channel of
      the said Des Moines River; thence westwardly along the said northern
      boundary line of the State of Missouri, as established at the time
      aforesaid, until an extension of said line intersect the middle of
      the main channel of the Missouri River, thence up the middle of the
      main channel of the said Missouri River, to a point opposite the
      middle of the main channel of the Big Sioux River, according to
      Nicollet's map; thence up the main channel of the said Big Sioux
      River, according to said map, until it is intersected by the parallel
      of forty-three degrees and thirty minutes north latitude; thence east
      along said parallel of forty-three degrees and thirty minutes, until
      said parallel intersect the middle of the main channel of the
      Mississippi River; thence down the middle of the main channel of said
      Mississippi River to the place of beginning.
         Iowa was finally declared admitted to full statehood by Act of
      December 28, 1846.
         The admission of Iowa appears to have left a large area to the
      north and west unattached, which so remained until Minnesota
      Territory was organized in 1849.
         The Act of August 4, 1846, directed that a long-standing dispute
      between Missouri and Iowa Territory regarding their common
      boundary{{{ be referred to the United States Supreme Court for
      adjudication. The area claimed by both was a strip of land about 10
      miles wide and 200 miles long, north of the present boundary.
      Missouri maintained that the clause in that state's enabling Act,
      "the rapids of the river Des Moines," referred to rapids in the river
      of that name and not to rapids of a similar name in the Mississippi,
      also that the Indian boundary line run and marked in 1816 by
      authority of the United States, known as the Sullivan line,{{{{ was
      erroneously established.  A line claimed by Missouri was run by J. C.
      Brown in 1837 by order of the State legislature.
         The United States Supreme Court decided in 1849 that the Sullivan
      line of 1816 is the correct boundary and ordered that it be
      resurveyed. The report of the commissioners appointed by the court to
      re-mark the line was accepted in 1851.
         So many of the marks on this line as established in 1850 had
      become lost or destroyed that the United States Supreme Court in 1896
      ordered that certain parts be re-established, especially those
      between mileposts 50 and 55.  Accordingly 20 miles of line was
      resurveyed by officers of the United States Coast and Geodetic Survey
      in 1896, and durable monuments of granite or iron were established
      thereon. The geographic position of milepost No. 40 was determined as
      latitude 40° 34.4', longitude 95° 51', and that of No. 60 as
      latitude 40° 34.6', longitude 93° 28'.
         The survey of the north boundary of Iowa on the parallel of 43°
      30', authorized by congressional Act of March 3, 1849, was completed
      in 1852.  The position for each end of the line and for several
      intermediate points was determined astronomically.
         This is the first State thus far noted having a boundary referred
      to the Washington meridian. Congress by Act approved September 28,
      1850, ordered:
         That hereafter the meridian of the observatory at Washington shall
      be adopted and used as the American meridian for all astronomic
      purposes and { { { Greenwich for nautical purposes.
         15 Stat. L. 235.
         25 Stat. L. 357.
         35 Stat. L. 742.
         {Reprinted from "Geological Survey Bulletin 817."
         {{This north-south line is a few miles west of the city of Des
      Moines.
         {{{The northern boundary of Missouri had been established as "100
      miles north of the junction of the Missouri and Kaw (Kansas) rivers
      and thence east { { {." (See 7 Howard 660 and 10 Howard 1.)
         {{{{Sullivan had disregarded the changing declination of his
      compass as he proceeded east; hence the southern boundary of Iowa is
      a curve. The following is a quotation from the commissioner's records
      as reported in 10 Howard (U.S.) 1,5: "We soon satisfied ourselves
      that the line run by Sullivan was not only not a due east line, but
      that it was not straight. That more or less northing should have been
      made in the old line was to have been expected from the fact that
      Sullivan ran the whole line with one variation of the needle, and
      that variation too great. This would account for the fact that the
      northing increases as he progressed east."

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