CHAPTER 523A CEMETERY AND FUNERAL MERCHANDISE AND FUNERAL SERVICES
This chapter replaces former chapter 523A, repealed effective July 1, 2001; 2001 Acts, ch 118, §17==54, 57

523A.101 SHORT TITLE.
523A.102 DEFINITIONS.
523A.201 ESTABLISHMENT OF TRUST FUNDS.
523A.202 TRUST FUND DEPOSIT REQUIREMENTS.
523A.203 FINANCIAL INSTITUTION TRUSTEES -- QUALIFICATION AND INVESTMENT REQUIREMENTS.
523A.204 PRENEED SELLER ANNUAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS -- PENALTY.
523A.205 FINANCIAL INSTITUTION ANNUAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS.
523A.206 EXAMINATIONS -- AUTHORITY AND SCOPE.
523A.207 AUDITS BY CERTIFIED PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS.
523A.301 DEFINITION.
523A.302 IDENTIFICATION OF MERCHANDISE AND SERVICE PROVIDER.
523A.303 DISBURSEMENT OF REMAINING FUNDS.
523A.401 PURCHASE AGREEMENTS FUNDED BY INSURANCE PROCEEDS.
523A.402 PURCHASE AGREEMENTS FUNDED BY ANNUITY PROCEEDS.
523A.403 PURCHASE AGREEMENTS FUNDED BY CERTIFICATES OF DEPOSIT.
523A.404 MERCHANDISE DELIVERED TO THE PURCHASER OR WAREHOUSED.
523A.405 BOND IN LIEU OF TRUST FUND.
523A.501 PRENEED SELLERS -- LICENSES.
523A.502 SALES AGENTS -- LICENSES.
523A.502A SALES AGENT ANNUAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS -- PENALTY.
523A.503 DENIAL, SUSPENSION, REVOCATION, AND SURRENDER OF LICENSES.
523A.504 APPOINTMENT OF SALES AGENTS -- FEE.
523A.601 DISCLOSURES.
523A.602 CONSUMER RECISION, CANCELLATION, AND REFUND RIGHTS -- PURCHASE AGREEMENT COMPLIANCE WITH OTHER LAWS.
523A.603 SECURITY AND NOTICE REQUIREMENTS.
523A.604 PURCHASE AGREEMENTS -- NUMBERING.
523A.701 MISLEADING FILINGS.
523A.702 MISREPRESENTATIONS OF GOVERNMENT APPROVAL.
523A.703 FRAUDULENT PRACTICES.
523A.704 VIOLATIONS.
523A.801 ADMINISTRATION.
523A.802 SCOPE.
523A.803 INVESTIGATIONS AND SUBPOENAS.
523A.804 MEDIATION.
523A.805 CEASE AND DESIST ORDERS -- INJUNCTIONS.
523A.806 COURT ACTION FOR FAILURE TO COOPERATE.
523A.807 PROSECUTION FOR VIOLATIONS OF LAW.
523A.808 COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES.
523A.809 RULES, FORMS, AND ORDERS.
523A.810 DATE OF FILING -- INTERPRETIVE OPINIONS.
523A.810A ELECTRONIC FILING.
523A.811 RECEIVERSHIPS.
523A.812 INSURANCE DIVISION REGULATORY FUND.
523A.813 LICENSE REVOCATION -- RECOMMENDATION BY COMMISSIONER TO BOARD OF MORTUARY SCIENCE.
523A.814 EXAMINATION FEE.
523A.901 LIQUIDATION.



        

523A.101 SHORT TITLE. This chapter may be cited as the "Iowa Cemetery and Funeral Merchandise and Funeral Services Act".

         Section History:ecent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §17
        

523A.102 DEFINITIONS. For purposes of this chapter, unless the context otherwise requires: 1. "Authorized to do business within this state" means a person licensed, registered, or subject to regulation by an agency of the state of Iowa or who has filed a consent to service of process with the commissioner for purposes of this chapter. 2. "Beneficiary" means any natural person specified or included in a purchase agreement, upon whose future death cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof are to be provided under the purchase agreement. 3. "Burial account" means an account established by a person with a financial institution for the purpose of funding the future purchase of cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof without any related trust agreement. 4. "Burial trust fund" means an irrevocable burial trust fund established by a person with a financial institution for the purpose of funding the future purchase of cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof upon the death of the person named in the burial trust fund's records or a related purchase agreement. "Burial trust fund" does not include or imply the existence of any oral or written purchase agreement for cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof between the person and a seller. 5. "Cemetery merchandise" means foundations, grave markers, tombstones, ornamental merchandise, memorials, and monuments sold under a purchase agreement that does not require installation within twelve months of the purchase. 6. "Commissioner" means the commissioner of insurance or the commissioner's designee. 7. "Common business enterprise" means a group of two or more business entities that share common ownership in excess of fifty percent. 8. "Credit sale" means a sale of goods, services, or an interest in land in which all of the following are applicable: a. Credit is granted either under a seller credit card or by a seller who regularly engages as a seller in credit transactions of the same kind. b. The buyer is a person other than an organization. c. The goods, services, or interest in land are purchased primarily for a personal, family, or household purpose. d. Either the debt is payable in installments or a finance charge is made. e. For goods and services, the amount financed does not exceed twenty-five thousand dollars. 9. "Delivery" occurs when: a. The cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, or the title document establishing an easement for burial rights is physically delivered to the purchaser or installed, except that burial of any item at the site of its ultimate use shall not constitute delivery for purposes of this chapter. b. If authorized by a purchaser under a purchase agreement, cemetery merchandise has been permanently identified with the name of the purchaser or the beneficiary and delivered to a bonded warehouse or storage facility approved by the commissioner and both title to the merchandise and a warehouse receipt have been delivered to the purchaser or beneficiary and a copy of the warehouse receipt has been delivered to the seller for retention in its files. c. If authorized by a purchaser under a purchase agreement, a polystyrene or polypropylene outer burial container has been permanently identified with the name of the purchaser or the beneficiary and delivered to a bonded warehouse or storage facility approved by the commissioner and both title to the merchandise and a warehouse receipt have been delivered to the purchaser or beneficiary and a copy of the warehouse receipt has been delivered to the seller for retention in its files. 10. "Doing business in this state" means issuing or performing wholly or in part any term of a purchase agreement executed within the state of Iowa. 11. "Financial institution" means a state or federally insured bank, savings and loan association, credit union, trust department thereof, or a trust company authorized to do business within this state and which has been granted trust powers under the laws of this state or the United States, which holds funds under a trust agreement. "Financial institution" does not include: a. A seller. b. Anyone employed by or directly involved with the seller in the seller's cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, or funeral services business. 12. "Funeral merchandise" means personal property used for the final disposition of a dead human body, including but not limited to clothing, caskets, vaults, urns, and interment receptacles. "Funeral merchandise" does not include easements for burial rights in a completed space or cemetery merchandise. 13. "Funeral services" means services provided for the final disposition of a dead human body, including but not limited to services necessarily or customarily provided for a funeral, or for the interment, entombment, or cremation of a dead human body, or any combination thereof. "Funeral services" does not include perpetual care or maintenance. 14. "Inner burial container" means a container in which human remains are placed for burial or entombment. Where only one container is used for burial or entombment, "inner burial container" includes a container serving as a burial vault, urn vault, grave box, grave liner, or lawn crypt. 15. "Insolvent" means the inability to pay debts as they become due in the usual course of business. 16. "Interest or income" means unrealized net appreciation or loss in the fair value of cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services trust assets for which a market value may be determined with reasonable certainty, plus the return in money or property derived from the use of trust principal or income, net of investment losses, taxes, and expenses incurred in the sale of trust assets, any cost of the operation of the trust, and any annual audit fee. "Interest or income" includes but is not limited to: a. Rent of real or personal property, including sums received for cancellation or renewal of a lease and any royalties. b. Interest on money lent, including sums received as consideration for prepayment of principal. c. Cash dividends paid on corporate stock. d. Interest paid on deposit funds or debt obligations. e. Gain realized from the sale of trust assets. 17. "Next of kin" means the surviving spouse and heirs at law of the deceased. 18. "Nonguaranteed" means that the price of the merchandise and services selected has not been fixed or guaranteed and will be determined by existing prices at the time the merchandise and services are delivered or provided. 19. "Outer burial container" means a container used for the burial of human remains that is used exclusively to surround or enclose an inner burial container and to support the earth above the container, commonly known as a burial vault, urn vault, grave box, or grave liner, but not including a lawn crypt. 20. "Parent company" means a corporation that has a controlling interest in a seller. 21. "Personal representative" means a personal representative as defined in section 633.3. 22. "Provider" means a person that provides funeral services, funeral merchandise, or cemetery merchandise purchased in a purchase agreement. 23. "Purchase agreement" means an agreement to furnish cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof when performance or delivery may be more than one hundred twenty days following the initial payment on the account. 24. "Purchase price" means the negotiated price for the item of merchandise or service, if itemized in the purchase agreement, or the price of the item listed in the seller's general price list at the time the purchase agreement is signed. 25. "Purchaser" means a person who purchases cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof. The purchaser need not be a beneficiary of the agreement. 26. "Sales agent" means a person, including an employee, who is authorized by a seller to sell cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof, on behalf of the seller. 27. "Seller" or "preneed seller" means a person doing business within this state, including a person doing business within this state who sells insurance, who advertises, sells, promotes, or offers to furnish cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof when performance or delivery may be more than one hundred twenty days following the initial payment on the account whether the transaction is completed or offered in person, through the mail, over the telephone, by the internet, or through any other means of commerce. "Seller" or "preneed seller" includes any person performing any term of a purchase agreement executed within this state, and any person identified under a burial account as the provider of cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof. "Seller" or "preneed seller" does not include a person who has an ownership interest in a seller or preneed seller but who is not actively engaged in advertising, selling, promoting, or offering to furnish such cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof. 28. "Total purchase price" means the aggregate amount the purchaser is obligated to pay for merchandise or services pursuant to the purchase agreement, excluding any taxes, administrative charges, or financing charges.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §18; 2002 Acts, ch 1119, §78; 2004 Acts, ch
      1104, §1; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §2--5, 51, 52; 2008 Acts, ch 1103, §1
        

523A.201 ESTABLISHMENT OF TRUST FUNDS. Unless proceeding under section 523A.401, 523A.402, or 523A.403, a seller must establish a trust fund prior to advertising, selling, promoting, or offering cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof in this state as follows: 1. The trust fund must be established at a financial institution. 2. If a seller agrees to furnish cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof and performance or delivery may be more than one hundred twenty days following the initial payment on the account, a minimum of eighty percent of all payments made under the purchase agreement shall be placed and remain in trust until the person for whose benefit the funds were paid dies. 3. If a purchase agreement for cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof provides that payments are to be made in installments, the seller shall deposit eighty percent of each payment in the trust fund until the full amount required to be placed in trust has been deposited. If the purchase agreement is financed with or sold to a financial institution, the purchase agreement shall be considered paid in full and the trust requirements shall be satisfied within fifteen days after the seller receives funds from the financial institution. 4. A seller shall not invade the trust principal for any purpose. 5. Unless a seller deposits all of each payment in a trust fund that meets the requirements of this section and section 523A.202, the seller shall have a fidelity bond or similar insurance in an amount of not less than fifty thousand dollars to protect against the loss of purchaser payments not placed in trust within the time period required by this section and section 523A.202. The commissioner may require a greater amount as the commissioner determines is necessary. If the seller changes ownership, the fidelity bond or similar insurance shall continue in force for at least one year after the transfer of ownership. 6. Payments otherwise subject to this section are not exempt merely because they are held in certificates of deposit. 7. Commingling of trust funds with other funds of the seller is prohibited. 8. Interest or income earned on amounts deposited in trust shall remain in trust under the same terms and conditions as payments made under the purchase agreement, except that a limited liability corporation that was formed in 2002 for the purpose of purchasing a cemetery from a foreign entity reorganizing under bankruptcy and such corporation is comprised of six establishments all located within the same county may withdraw so much of the interest or income as represents the difference between the amount needed to adjust the trust funds for inflation as set by the commissioner based on the consumer price index and the interest or income earned during the preceding year not to exceed fifty percent of the total interest or income on a calendar-year basis. The early withdrawal of interest or income under this provision does not affect the purchaser's right to a credit of such interest or income in the event of a nonguaranteed price agreement, cancellation, or nonperformance by such limited liability corporation. 9. The commissioner may require amendments to a trust agreement not in accord with the provisions of this chapter. 10. If a seller voluntarily or involuntarily ceases doing business and the seller's obligation to provide merchandise or services has not been assumed by another seller holding a current preneed seller's license, all trust funds, including accrued interest or income, shall be repaid to the purchaser within thirty days following the seller's cessation of business. A seller may petition the commissioner, upon a showing of good cause, for a longer period of time for repayment. A seller shall notify the commissioner at least thirty days prior to ceasing business.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §19; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §6--8
         Referred to in § 523A.202, 523A.203, 523A.405, 523A.503, 523A.807,
      523A.811, 523A.901
        

523A.202 TRUST FUND DEPOSIT REQUIREMENTS. 1. All funds held in trust pursuant to section 523A.201 shall be deposited in a financial institution within fifteen days following receipt of the funds. The financial institution shall hold the funds for the designated beneficiary until released. 2. All funds required to be deposited by the purchaser or the seller for a purpose described in section 523A.201 shall be deposited consistent with one of the following methods: a. The payments shall be deposited directly into an interest-bearing burial account in the purchaser's name. b. The purchaser or the seller shall deposit payments directly into a separate trust account in the purchaser's name. The account may be made payable to the seller upon the death of the purchaser or the designated beneficiary, provided that, until death, the purchaser retains the exclusive power to hold, manage, pledge, and invest the trust account funds and may revoke the trust and withdraw the funds, in whole or in part, at any time during the term of the agreement. c. The purchaser or the seller shall deposit payments directly into a separate trust account in the name of the purchaser, as trustee, for the named beneficiary, to be held, invested, and administered as a trust account for the benefit and protection of the beneficiary. The depositor shall notify the financial institution of the existence and terms of the trust, including at a minimum, the name of each party to the agreement, the name and address of the trustee, and the name and address of the beneficiary. The account may be made payable to the seller upon the beneficiary's death. d. The payments shall be deposited in the name of the trustee, as trustee, under the terms of a master trust agreement and the trustee may invest, reinvest, exchange, retain, sell, and otherwise manage the trust fund for the benefit and protection of the named beneficiary. 3. The commissioner may by rule authorize other methods of deposit upon a finding that such methods provide equivalent safety of the principal and interest or income and the seller lacks access to the proceeds prior to performance. 4. This section does not prohibit moving trust funds from one financial institution to another if the commissioner is notified of the change within thirty days of the transfer of the trust funds.

         Section History: Recent Form


         2001 Acts, ch 118, §20; 2002 Acts, ch 1119, §79; 2007 Acts, ch
      175, §9; 2009 Acts, ch 145, §53
         Referred to in § 523A.201, 523A.405, 523A.807
        

523A.203 FINANCIAL INSTITUTION TRUSTEES -- QUALIFICATION AND INVESTMENT REQUIREMENTS. 1. A financial institution may serve as a trustee if granted those powers under the laws of this state or of the United States. A financial institution acting as a trustee of trust funds under this chapter shall invest the funds in accordance with applicable law. 2. A financial institution acting as a trustee of trust funds under this chapter has a fiduciary duty to make reasonable investment decisions and to properly oversee and manage the funds entrusted to it. The trustee shall use the judgment and care under the circumstances then prevailing that persons of prudence, discretion, and intelligence exercise in the management of their own affairs, not in regard to speculation but in regard to the permanent disposition of their funds, considering the probable income as well as the probable safety of their capital. The commissioner may take enforcement action against a financial institution in its capacity as trustee for a breach of fiduciary duty proven under this chapter. 3. Moneys deposited under a master trust agreement may be commingled by the financial institution for investment purposes if each deposit includes a detailed listing of the amount deposited in trust for each beneficiary and maintenance of a separate accounting of each purchaser's principal, interest, and income. 4. Subject to a master trust agreement, the seller may appoint an independent investment adviser to advise the financial institution about investment of the trust funds. 5. Subject to agreement between the parties, the financial institution may receive a reasonable fee from the trust funds for services rendered as trustee. The trust shall pay the trust operation costs and any annual audit fees. 6. A financial institution acting as a trustee of trust funds under this chapter shall notify each purchaser within sixty days from the date of deposit confirming that a deposit has been made establishing a trust fund for the purchaser's payments made under the purchase agreement. 7. The seller or any officer, director, agent, employee, or affiliate of the seller shall not serve as trustee. A financial institution holding trust funds shall not do any of the following: a. Be owned, under the control of, or affiliated with a seller. b. Use any funds required to be held in trust under this chapter to purchase an interest in any contract or agreement to which a seller is a party. c. Otherwise invest, directly or indirectly, in a seller's business operations. d. Use any funds required to be held in trust pursuant to section 523A.201 to purchase an insurance policy or annuity. 8. Unless proceeding under section 523A.403, investment and management decisions for all trust funds shall be made in accordance with the provisions of section 633A.4302.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §21; 2005 Acts, ch 128, §3; 2007 Acts, ch 175,
      §10; 2008 Acts, ch 1103, §2, 3
        

523A.204 PRENEED SELLER ANNUAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS -- PENALTY. 1. A preneed seller shall file with the commissioner not later than April 1 of each year an annual report on a form prescribed by the commissioner. 2. A preneed seller filing an annual report shall pay a filing fee of ten dollars per purchase agreement sold during the year covered by the report. Duplicate fees are not required for the same purchase agreement. If a purchase agreement has multiple sellers, the fee shall be paid by the preneed seller actually providing the merchandise and services. 3. All records maintained by the commissioner under this section shall be confidential pursuant to section 22.7, subsection 58, and shall not be made available for inspection or copying except upon the approval of the commissioner or the attorney general. 4. The commissioner shall levy an administrative penalty in the amount of five hundred dollars against a preneed seller that fails to file the annual report when due, payable to the state for deposit as provided in section 505.7. However, the commissioner may waive the administrative penalty upon a showing of good cause or financial hardship. 5. A preneed seller that fails to file the annual report when due shall immediately cease soliciting or executing purchase agreements until the annual report is filed and any administrative penalty assessed has been paid.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §22; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §11; 2009 Acts, ch 102,
      §1, 3; 2009 Acts, ch 181, §91
         Referred to in § 22.7, 523A.404, 523A.812, 523A.814
         See also §523A.814 

         Footnotes

         For future repeal of 2009 amendment to subsection 4, that changes
      the depository for administrative penalty amounts from the general
      fund to the department of commerce revolving fund under section
      505.7, effective July 1, 2011, see 2009 Acts, ch 179, §146
        

523A.205 FINANCIAL INSTITUTION ANNUAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS. 1. A financial institution shall file with the commissioner not later than March 1 of each year an annual report on a form prescribed by the commissioner showing all funds deposited by a seller under a trust agreement during the previous year. Each report shall contain all information requested. 2. Forms may be obtained from the commissioner upon request. The commissioner may accept annual reports submitted in an electronic format, including but not limited to computer diskettes. 3. Notwithstanding chapter 22, all records maintained by the commissioner under this section shall be confidential and shall not be made available for inspection or copying except upon approval of the commissioner or the attorney general.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §23; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §53
        

523A.206 EXAMINATIONS -- AUTHORITY AND SCOPE. 1. The commissioner may conduct an examination under this chapter of any seller as often as the commissioner deems appropriate. If a seller has a trust arrangement, the commissioner shall conduct an examination of such seller doing business in this state not less than once every three years unless the seller has provided to the commissioner, on an annual basis, a certified copy of an audit conducted by an independent certified public accountant verifying compliance with this chapter. The commissioner may require an audit of a seller, or other person by a certified public accountant to verify compliance with the requirements of this chapter, including rules adopted and orders issued pursuant to this chapter. 2. A seller shall reimburse the division for the expense of conducting the examination, including an audit conducted by a certified public accountant, unless the commissioner waives this requirement, or the seller has previously provided to the commissioner a certified copy of an audit conducted by an independent certified public accountant verifying compliance with this chapter for each year in question and the examination conducted by the commissioner does not disclose that the seller has not complied with this chapter for the years in question. The expense of an examination involving multiple sellers or other persons shall be prorated among them upon any reasonable basis as determined by the commissioner. 3. For purposes of completing an examination under this chapter, the commissioner may examine or investigate any person, or the business of any person, if the examination or investigation is, in the sole discretion of the commissioner, necessary or material to the examination of the seller. 4. Upon determining that an examination should be conducted, the commissioner may appoint one or more examiners to perform the examination and instruct those examiners as to the scope of the examination. 5. A seller, or other person from whom information is sought, and its officers, directors, employees, and agents shall provide to the examiners appointed under subsection 4, timely, convenient, and free access at their offices, at all reasonable hours, to all books, records, accounts, papers, documents, and all electronic or other recordings related to the property, assets, business, and affairs of the seller being examined and shall facilitate the examination as much as possible. a. The refusal of a seller, by its officers, directors, employees, or agents, to submit to an examination or to comply with a reasonable written request of an examiner shall constitute grounds for the suspension, revocation, or denial of an application to renew any license held by the seller to engage in business subject to the commissioner's jurisdiction. b. If a seller declines or refuses to submit to an examination as provided in this chapter, the commissioner shall immediately suspend, revoke, or deny an application to renew any license held by the seller or business to engage in business subject to the commissioner's jurisdiction, and shall report the commissioner's action to the attorney general, who shall immediately apply to the district court for the appointment of a receiver to administer the final affairs of the seller. 6. The commissioner shall not make information obtained in the course of an examination public, except when a duty under this chapter requires the commissioner to take action against a seller or to cooperate with another law enforcement agency, or when the commissioner is called as a witness in a civil or criminal proceeding. 7. This section shall not be construed to limit the commissioner's authority to terminate or suspend any examination in order to pursue other legal or regulatory actions pursuant to this chapter. Findings of fact and conclusions made pursuant to an examination are deemed to be prima facie evidence in any legal or regulatory action.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §24; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §12; 2008 Acts, ch
      1123, §43
         Referred to in § 523A.405
        

523A.207 AUDITS BY CERTIFIED PUBLIC ACCOUNTANTS. A purchase agreement shall not be sold or transferred, as part of the sale of a business or the assets of a business, until an audit has been performed by a certified public accountant and filed with the commissioner that expresses the auditor's opinion of the adequacy of funding related to the purchase agreements to be sold or transferred.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2007 Acts, ch 175, §13
        

523A.301 DEFINITION. As used in sections 523A.302 and 523A.303, "director" means the director of human services.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §25
        

523A.302 IDENTIFICATION OF MERCHANDISE AND SERVICE PROVIDER. If a burial trust fund identifies, either in the trust fund records or in a related purchase agreement, the seller who will provide the cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof, the trust fund records or the related purchase agreements must contain a statement signed by an authorized representative of the seller agreeing to furnish the cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof upon the death of the beneficiary. The burial trust fund shall not identify a specific seller as payee unless the trust fund records or the related purchase agreements, if any, contain the signature of an authorized representative of the seller and, if the agreement is for mortuary science services as mortuary science is defined in section 156.1, the name of a funeral director licensed to deliver those services. A person may enter into agreements authorizing the establishment of more than one burial trust fund and agreeing to furnish the applicable merchandise and services.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §26; 2002 Acts, ch 1119, §80
         Referred to in § 523A.301
        

523A.303 DISBURSEMENT OF REMAINING FUNDS. 1. If funds remain in a nonguaranteed irrevocable burial trust fund or from the proceeds of an insurance policy or annuity made payable or assigned to the seller or a provider after the payment of funeral and burial expenses in accordance with the conditions and terms of the purchase agreement for cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, or funeral services, the seller shall comply with all of the following: a. The seller shall provide written notice by mail to the director under subsection 2. b. At least sixty days after mailing notice to the director, the seller shall disburse any remaining funds from the burial trust fund as follows: (1) If within the sixty-day period the seller receives a claim from the personal representative of the deceased, any remaining funds shall be disbursed to the personal representative, notwithstanding any claim by the director. (2) If within the sixty-day period the seller has not received a claim from the personal representative of the deceased but receives a claim from the director, the seller shall disburse the remaining funds up to the amount of the claim to the director. (3) Any remaining funds not disposed of pursuant to subparagraphs (1) and (2) shall be disbursed to any person who is identified as the next of kin of the deceased in an affidavit submitted in accordance with subsection 5. 2. The notice mailed to the director shall meet all of the following requirements and is subject to all of the following conditions: a. The notice shall be mailed with postage prepaid. b. If the notice is sent by regular mail, the sixty-day period for receipt of a response is deemed to commence three days following the date of mailing. c. If the notice is sent by certified mail, the sixty-day period for receipt of a response is deemed to commence on the date of mailing. d. The notice shall provide all of the following information: (1) Current name, address, and telephone number of the seller. (2) Full name of the deceased. (3) Date of the deceased's death. (4) Amount of funds remaining in the burial trust fund. (5) Statement that any claim by the director must be received by the seller within sixty days after the date of mailing of the notice. e. A notice in substantially the following form complies with this subsection: "TO: THE DIRECTOR OF HUMAN SERVICES FROM: (SELLER'S NAME, CURRENT ADDRESS, AND TELEPHONE NUMBER) YOU ARE HEREBY NOTIFIED THAT (NAME OF DECEASED), WHO HAD AN IRREVOCABLE BURIAL TRUST FUND, HAS DIED, THAT FINAL PAYMENT FOR CEMETERY MERCHANDISE, FUNERAL MERCHANDISE, AND FUNERAL SERVICES HAS BEEN MADE, AND THAT (REMAINING AMOUNT) REMAINS IN THE IRREVOCABLE BURIAL TRUST FUND. THE ABOVE-NAMED SELLER MUST RECEIVE A WRITTEN RESPONSE REGARDING ANY CLAIM BY THE DIRECTOR WITHIN SIXTY DAYS AFTER THE MAILING OF THIS NOTICE TO THE DIRECTOR. IF THE ABOVE-NAMED SELLER DOES NOT RECEIVE A WRITTEN RESPONSE REGARDING A CLAIM BY THE DIRECTOR WITHIN SIXTY DAYS AFTER THE MAILING OF THIS NOTICE, THE SELLER MAY DISPOSE OF THE REMAINING FUNDS IN ACCORDANCE WITH SECTION 523A.303, CODE OF IOWA." 3. Upon receipt of the seller's written notice, the director shall determine if a debt is due the department of human services pursuant to section 249A.5. If the director determines that a debt is owing, the director shall provide a written response to the seller within sixty days after the mailing of the seller's notice. If the director does not respond with a claim within the sixty-day period, any claim made by the director shall not be enforceable against the seller, the trust, or a trustee. 4. A personal representative who wishes to make a claim shall send written notice of the claim to the seller. If the seller does not receive any claim from a personal representative within the sixty-day period provided for response by the director regarding a claim, the claim of the personal representative shall not be enforceable against the seller, the trust, or a trustee. 5. Any person other than a personal representative or the director claiming an interest in the remaining funds shall submit an affidavit claiming an interest which provides the following information: a. Full name, current address, and telephone number of the claimant. b. Claimant's relationship to the deceased. c. Name of any surviving next of kin of the deceased, and the relationship of any named surviving next of kin. d. That the claimant has no knowledge of the existence of a personal representative for the deceased's estate. 6. The seller may retain not more than fifty dollars of the remaining funds in the burial trust fund for the administrative expenses associated with the requirements of this section. 7. If the funds remaining in a burial trust fund are disbursed under the requirements of this section, the seller, the provider, the burial trust fund, and any trustee shall not be liable to the director, the estate of the deceased, any personal representative, or any other interested person for the remaining funds and any lien imposed by the director shall be unenforceable against the seller, the burial trust fund, or any trustee.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §27
         Referred to in § 523A.301
        

523A.401 PURCHASE AGREEMENTS FUNDED BY INSURANCE PROCEEDS. 1. A purchase agreement may be funded by insurance proceeds derived from a new or existing insurance policy issued by an insurance company authorized to do business and doing business within this state. 2. Such funding may be in lieu of the trusting requirements of this chapter when the purchaser assigns the proceeds of an existing insurance policy. 3. Such funding may be in lieu of the trusting requirements of this chapter when a new insurance policy is purchased to fund the purchase agreement, with a face amount equal to or greater than the current retail price of the cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services to be delivered under the purchase agreement or, if less, a face amount equal to the total of all payments to be submitted by the purchaser pursuant to the purchase agreement. 4. The premiums of any new insurance policy shall be fully paid within thirty days after execution of the purchase agreement or, with respect to a purchase agreement that provides for periodic payments, the premiums shall be paid directly by the purchaser to the insurance company issuing the policy. 5. Any new insurance policy shall satisfy the following conditions: a. Except as necessary and appropriate to satisfy the requirements regarding burial trust funds under Title XIX of the federal Social Security Act, the policy shall not be owned by the seller, the policy shall not be irrevocably assigned to the seller, and the assignment of proceeds from the insurance policy to the seller shall be limited to the seller's interests as they appear in the purchase agreement, and conditioned on the seller's delivery of cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services pursuant to a purchase agreement. b. The policy shall provide that any assignment of benefits is contingent upon the seller's delivery of cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services pursuant to a purchase agreement. c. The policy shall have an increasing death benefit or similar feature that provides some means for increasing the funding as the cost of cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services increases. 6. With the written consent of the purchaser, an existing prepaid purchase agreement with trust-funded benefits may be converted to a prepaid purchase agreement with insurance-funded benefits provided the seller and the insurance benefits comply with the following provisions: a. The transfer of the trust funds to the insurance company must be at least equal to the full sum required to be deposited as trust principal under the trust-funded prepaid purchase agreement plus all net earnings accumulated with respect thereto, as of the transfer date. Commissions, allowances, surrender charges or other forms of compensation or expense loads, premium expense, administrative charges or expenses, or policy fees shall not be deducted from the trust funds transferred pursuant to the conversion. b. The face amount of any insurance policy issued on an individual must be no less than the amount of principal and interest transferred for that individual to the insurance company, and any supplemental insurance policy issued to cover the unfunded portion of the purchase agreement must have a face amount that is at least as great as the unfunded principal balance. The face amount of the insurance purchased shall not, under any circumstances, be less than the total of all payments made by the purchaser pursuant to the agreement plus all net earnings accumulated with respect thereto, as of the transfer date. c. The insurance policy shall not be contestable, or limit death benefits in the case of suicide, with respect to that portion of the face amount of the policy that is required by paragraph "b". The policy shall not refer to physical examination, or otherwise operate as an exclusion, limitation, or condition other than requiring submission of proof of death or surrender of policy at the time the prepaid purchase agreement is funded, matures, or is canceled, as the case may be. d. The seller shall maintain a copy of any prepaid trust-funded purchase agreement that was converted to a prepaid insurance-funded purchase agreement and retain the payment history records for each converted purchase agreement prior to conversion until the cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services have been delivered. 7. The seller of a purchase agreement subject to this chapter which is to be funded by insurance proceeds shall obtain all licenses required to be obtained and comply with all reporting requirements under this chapter. A parent company, provider, or seller shall not pledge, borrow from, or otherwise encumber an insurance policy funding a purchase agreement. 8. An insurance company issuing policies funding purchase agreements subject to this chapter shall file an annual report with the commissioner on a form prescribed by the commissioner. The report shall list the applicable insurance policies outstanding for each seller. Computer printouts may be submitted so long as each legibly provides the same information required in the prescribed form.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §28; 2001 Acts, ch 176, §73; 2004 Acts, ch
      1110, §64; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §54--57; 2008 Acts, ch 1123, §44
         Referred to in § 523A.201, 523A.807
        

523A.402 PURCHASE AGREEMENTS FUNDED BY ANNUITY PROCEEDS. 1. A purchase agreement may be funded by proceeds derived from a new or existing annuity issued by an insurance company authorized to do business and doing business within this state. 2. Such funding may be in lieu of the trust requirements of this chapter when the purchaser assigns the proceeds of an existing annuity. 3. Such funding may be in lieu of the trust requirements of this chapter when a new annuity is purchased to fund the purchase agreement, with a face amount equal to or greater than the current retail price of the cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services to be delivered under the purchase agreement or, if less, a face amount equal to the total of all payments to be submitted by the purchaser pursuant to the purchase agreement. 4. The premiums of any new annuity shall be fully paid within thirty days after execution of the purchase agreement or, with respect to a purchase agreement that provides for periodic payments, the premiums shall be paid directly by the purchaser to the insurance company issuing the annuity. 5. The annuity shall satisfy the following conditions: a. Except as necessary and appropriate to satisfy the requirements regarding burial trust funds under Title XIX of the federal Social Security Act, the annuity shall not be owned by the seller or irrevocably assigned to the seller and any designation of the seller as a beneficiary shall not be made irrevocable. b. The annuity shall provide that any assignment of benefits is contingent upon the seller's delivery of cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services pursuant to a purchase agreement. c. The annuity shall have an increasing death benefit or similar feature that provides some means for increasing the funding as the cost of cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services increases. 6. With the written consent of the purchaser, an existing prepaid purchase agreement with trust-funded benefits may be converted to a prepaid purchase agreement with annuity-funded benefits provided the seller and the annuity benefits comply with the following provisions: a. The transfer of the trust funds to the insurance company must be at least equal to the full sum required to be deposited as trust principal under the trust-funded prepaid purchase agreement plus all net earnings accumulated with respect thereto, as of the transfer date. Commissions, allowances, surrender charges or other forms of compensation or expense loads, premium expense, administrative charges or expenses, or fees shall not be deducted from the trust funds transferred pursuant to the conversion. b. The face amount of any annuity issued on an individual must be no less than the amount of principal and interest transferred for that individual to the insurance company, and any supplemental annuity issued to cover the unfunded portion of the purchase agreement must have a face amount that is at least as great as the unfunded principal balance. The face amount of the annuity purchased shall not, under any circumstances, be less than the total of all payments made by the purchaser pursuant to the agreement plus all net earnings accumulated with respect thereto, as of the transfer date. c. The annuity shall not be contestable, or limit death benefits in the case of suicide, with respect to that portion of the face amount of the annuity which is required by paragraph "b". The annuity shall not refer to physical examination, or otherwise operate as an exclusion, limitation, or condition other than requiring submission of proof of death or surrender of the annuity at the time the prepaid purchase agreement is funded, matures, or is canceled, as the case may be. d. The seller shall maintain a copy of any prepaid trust-funded purchase agreement that was converted to a prepaid annuity-funded purchase agreement and retain the payment history records for each converted purchase agreement prior to conversion until the cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services have been delivered. 7. The seller of a purchase agreement subject to this chapter which is to be funded by annuity proceeds shall obtain all licenses required to be obtained and comply with all reporting requirements under this chapter. A parent company, provider, or seller shall not pledge, borrow from, or otherwise encumber an annuity funding a purchase agreement. 8. An insurance company issuing annuities funding purchase agreements subject to this chapter shall file an annual report with the commissioner on a form prescribed by the commissioner. The report shall list the applicable annuities outstanding for each seller. Computer printouts may be submitted so long as each legibly provides the same information required in the prescribed form.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §29; 2002 Acts, ch 1119, §81; 2004 Acts, ch
      1110, §65; 2005 Acts, ch 19, §107; 2005 Acts, ch 70, §50; 2007 Acts,
      ch 175, §58--61; 2008 Acts, ch 1123, §45
         Referred to in § 523A.201, 523A.807
        

523A.403 PURCHASE AGREEMENTS FUNDED BY CERTIFICATES OF DEPOSIT. 1. A purchase agreement may be funded by proceeds derived from a certificate of deposit in the name of the purchaser made payable to the seller upon the purchaser's death. 2. The seller of a purchase agreement subject to this chapter which is to be funded by a certificate of deposit shall obtain all permits required to be obtained and comply with all reporting requirements under this chapter, implementing rules, and orders.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §30
         Referred to in § 523A.201, 523A.203, 523A.807
        

523A.404 MERCHANDISE DELIVERED TO THE PURCHASER OR WAREHOUSED. 1. Trust requirements do not apply to payments made pursuant to a purchase agreement executed prior to July 1, 2007, for outer burial containers made of either polystyrene or polypropylene or cemetery merchandise delivered to the purchaser or stored in an independent third-party storage facility not owned or controlled by the seller when approved by the commissioner. The seller or the storage facility must demonstrate that they will do all of the following: a. Issue a receipt of ownership in the name of the purchaser and deliver it to the purchaser. b. Insure the merchandise against loss. c. Protect the merchandise against damage. d. Transfer title to the purchaser. e. Appropriately identify and describe the merchandise in a manner that it can be distinguished from other similar items. f. Use a method of storage that allows for visual examinations of the merchandise. g. Have adequate, computerized recordkeeping systems in place to identify, describe, and count each item in storage, including the ownership of each item, and provide an aggregate listing with numerical totals. h. File a consent to be examined and inspected by the commissioner. i. Provide reports to the commissioner, annually, by an independent certified public accountant, which shall include a physical count of merchandise held in storage and a review of information, including the seller's revenue and sales records, as necessary to verify the adequacy of the number of items held at the storage facility. j. Satisfy the annual reporting requirements of section 523A.204. 2. Lawn crypts may be delivered in lieu of trusting. For this purpose, delivery means installation in a grave owned by the purchaser. The seller shall do all of the following: a. Notify the administrator before the lawn crypts are installed. b. Identify the intended location of the lawn crypts within the cemetery. c. Provide documentation adequately demonstrating delivery has occurred. Adequate documentation includes but is not limited to photographs and third-party certifications. 3. Cemetery merchandise and funeral merchandise shall not be deemed delivered to the purchaser or warehoused if the merchandise is subject to a lien or security interest by any party other than the seller. 4. A seller is prohibited from requiring delivery as a condition of the sale. 5. A seller shall provide services necessary for the installation or burial of outer burial containers sold by the seller. This subsection shall not require the seller to provide for the opening or closing of the interment or entombment space, unless the purchase agreement provides otherwise.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §31; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §14, 15, 62
         Referred to in § 523A.405, 523A.503, 523A.807
        

523A.405 BOND IN LIEU OF TRUST FUND. 1. In lieu of trust requirements, a seller may file with the commissioner a surety bond issued by a surety company authorized to do business and doing business within this state. The bond must be conditioned upon the seller's faithful performance of purchase agreements subject to this chapter. The surety's liability extends to each such agreement executed while the bond is in force and until performance or recision of the purchase agreement. The aggregate liability of the surety for any and all breaches of the conditions of the bond shall not exceed the penal sum of the bond. To the extent expressly agreed to in writing by the surety, the surety's liability extends to each such agreement subject to this chapter executed prior to the time the bond was in force and until performance or recision of the agreement. A purchaser aggrieved by a breach of a condition of the bond covering the purchaser's agreement may maintain an action against the bond. If, at the time of the breach, the purchaser is aware of the purchaser's rights under the bond and how to file a claim against the bond, the surety shall not be liable for any breach of condition unless the surety receives notice of a claim within sixty days following discovery of the acts, omissions, or conditions constituting the breach of condition, except as otherwise provided in this section. A surety bond shall not be canceled by a surety except upon a written notice of cancellation given by the surety to the commissioner by restricted certified mail, and not prior to the expiration of sixty days after receipt of the notice by the commissioner. The surety's liability shall extend to each purchase agreement subject to this chapter executed prior to cancellation of the surety bond until the seller has complied with subsection 3. 2. If a seller becomes insolvent or otherwise ceases to engage in business prior to or within sixty days after cancellation of a bond, the seller shall be deemed to have breached the bond conditions for outstanding agreements under this chapter as of the day prior to cancellation of the bond. The commissioner shall mail written notice by restricted certified mail to the purchaser under each outstanding purchase agreement of the seller that a claim against the bond must be filed with the surety company within sixty days after the mailing date of the notice. The surety shall cease to be liable for all purchase agreements except those for which claims are filed with the surety company within sixty days after the date the commissioner mails the notices. 3. If a surety bond is canceled by a surety under any conditions other than those specified in subsection 2, the seller shall comply with all of the following: a. The seller shall comply with the trust requirements of section 523A.201 for all purchase agreements subject to this chapter executed on or after the effective date of cancellation of the surety bond. In the alternative, the seller may submit a substitute surety bond meeting the requirements of subsection 1, but the seller must comply with section 523A.201 for any purchase agreements executed on or after the effective cancellation date of the earlier surety bond and prior to the effective date of the later surety bond. b. Within sixty days after the effective cancellation date of the surety bond, the seller shall submit to the commissioner an undertaking by another surety company that a substitute surety bond meeting the requirements of subsection 1 is in effect and that the liability of the substitute surety bond extends to all outstanding purchase agreements of the seller that were executed but not performed or extinguished prior to the effective date of the substitute surety bond, or the seller shall submit to the commissioner a financial statement accompanied by an unqualified opinion based upon an audit performed by a certified public accountant licensed in this state certifying the total amount of outstanding liabilities of the seller on purchase agreements subject to this chapter and proof of deposit by the seller in trust under section 523A.201 of either the amount specified in section 523A.201, including interest as set by the commissioner based on the interest which would have been earned had the funds been maintained in trust, with respect to all of those outstanding purchase agreements or, where applicable, that delivery of merchandise has been made in compliance with section 523A.404. The surety may require such security as is necessary to comply with this section. Upon compliance by the seller with this paragraph, the surety company canceling the surety bond shall cease to be liable with respect to any outstanding purchase agreements of the seller except those purchase agreements with respect to which a breach of condition occurred prior to cancellation and for which timely claims were filed. 4. Section 523A.202 and, to the extent it is applicable, section 523A.206, apply to sellers whose purchase agreements are covered by a surety bond maintained under this section, and section 523A.202 continues to apply to any purchase agreements of those sellers that are not covered by a surety bond maintained under this section. 5. Upon receiving a notice of cancellation of a surety bond, the commissioner shall notify the seller of the requirements of this chapter resulting from cancellation of the bond. The notice may be in the form of a copy of this section and sections 523A.201 and 523A.202. 6. Upon receiving a notice of cancellation, unless the seller has complied with the requirements of this section, the attorney general shall seek an injunction to prohibit the seller from making further purchase agreements subject to this chapter. The attorney general shall commence an action to attach and levy execution upon property of the seller when the seller fails to perform a purchase agreement subject to this chapter, to the extent necessary to secure compliance with this chapter. The county attorney may bring criminal charges under subchapter VII. 7. The surety under this section shall not be owned, under the control of, or affiliated with the seller. 8. The amount of the surety bond shall equal eighty percent of the payments received pursuant to purchase agreements, or the applicable portion thereof, for cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof, and the amount needed to adjust the amount of the surety bond for inflation as set by the commissioner based on the consumer price index. The seller shall review the amount of the surety bond no less than annually and shall increase the bond as necessary to reflect additional payments. The amount needed to adjust for inflation shall be added annually to the surety bond during the first quarter of the seller's fiscal year. 9. With the consent of the purchaser, an existing prepaid purchase agreement with trust-funded benefits may be converted to a prepaid purchase agreement funded by a surety bond provided the seller and the surety bond comply with the following provisions: a. The amount of the trust funds transferred to the surety company must be at least equal to the full sum required to be deposited as trust principal under the trust-funded prepaid purchase agreement plus all net earnings accumulated with respect thereto, as of the transfer date. Commissions, allowances, surrender charges or other forms of compensation or expense loads, premium expense, administrative charges or expenses, or fees shall not be deducted from the trust funds transferred pursuant to the conversion. b. The face amount of the surety bond issued on an individual must be no less than the amount of principal and interest transferred for that individual to the surety company, and any supplemental surety bond issued to cover the unfunded portion of the purchase agreement must have a face amount that is at least as great as the unfunded principal balance. The face amount of the surety bond purchased shall not, under the circumstances, be less than the total of all payments made by the purchaser pursuant to the agreement plus all net earnings accumulated with respect thereto, as of the transfer date. c. The seller shall maintain a copy of any prepaid trust-funded agreement that was converted to a prepaid purchase agreement funded by a surety bond and retain the payment history records for each converted purchase agreement prior to conversion until the cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services have been delivered.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §32; 2001 Acts, ch 176, §74; 2007 Acts, ch 175,
      §63, 64; 2008 Acts, ch 1103, §4; 2008 Acts, ch 1123, §46
         Referred to in § 523A.807
        

523A.501 PRENEED SELLERS -- LICENSES. 1. A person shall not advertise, sell, promote, or offer to furnish cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof when performance or delivery may be more than one hundred twenty days following the initial payment on the account without a preneed seller's license. 2. An application for a preneed seller's license shall be filed on a form prescribed by the commissioner and be accompanied by a fifty dollar filing fee. 3. a. The commissioner shall request and obtain, notwithstanding section 692.2, subsection 5, criminal history data for any director of, or person with a financial interest in, a preneed seller who is an applicant for an initial license issued pursuant to this section, an applicant for reinstatement of a license issued pursuant to this section, or a licensee who is being monitored as a result of an order of the commissioner or agreement resolving an administrative disciplinary action, for the purpose of evaluating the applicant's or licensee's eligibility for licensure or suitability for continued practice as a preneed seller, as required by the commissioner by rules adopted pursuant to chapter 17A. The commissioner may limit this requirement to those persons who have the ability to control or direct control of trust funds under this chapter. The commissioner shall inform an applicant or licensee to whom the criminal history requirement applies and obtain a signed waiver from the applicant or licensee prior to submitting a criminal history data request. b. A request for criminal history data shall be submitted to the department of public safety, division of criminal investigation, pursuant to section 692.2, subsection 1. The commissioner may also require such applicants or licensees to provide a full set of fingerprints, in a form and manner prescribed by the commissioner. Such fingerprints may be submitted to the federal bureau of investigation through the state criminal history repository for a national criminal history check. The commissioner may authorize alternate methods or sources for obtaining criminal history record information. The commissioner may, in addition to any other fees, charge and collect such amounts as may be incurred by the commissioner, the department of public safety, or the federal bureau of investigation in obtaining criminal history information. Amounts collected shall be considered repayment receipts as defined in section 8.2. c. Criminal history information relating to an applicant or licensee obtained by the commissioner pursuant to this section is confidential. The commissioner may, however, use such information in a license denial proceeding. 4. The commissioner shall request and obtain a financial history for any director of, or person with a financial interest in, a preneed seller who is an applicant for an initial license issued pursuant to this section, an applicant for reinstatement of a license issued pursuant to this section, or a licensee who is being monitored as a result of an order of the commissioner or agreement resolving an administrative disciplinary action, for the purpose of evaluating the applicant's or licensee's eligibility for licensure or suitability for continued practice as a preneed seller, as required by the commissioner by rules adopted pursuant to chapter 17A. The commissioner may limit this requirement to those persons who have the ability to control or direct control of trust funds under this chapter. "Financial history" means the record of a person's current loans, the date of a person's loans, the amount of the loans, the person's payment record on the loans, current liens against the person's property, and the person's most recent financial statement setting forth the assets, liabilities, and the net worth of the person. 5. A preneed seller's license is not assignable or transferable. A licensee selling all or part of a business entity that has a preneed seller's license shall cancel the license, and the purchaser shall apply for a new license in the purchaser's name within thirty days of the sale. 6. If no denial order is in effect and no proceeding is pending under section 523A.503, the application becomes effective at noon of the thirtieth day after a completed application or an amendment completing the application is filed, unless waived by the applicant. The commissioner may specify an earlier effective date. Automatic effectiveness under this subsection shall not be deemed approval of the application. If the commissioner does not grant the license, the commissioner shall notify the person in writing of the reasons for the denial. 7. A preneed seller's license shall be renewed every four years by filing the form prescribed by the commissioner under subsection 2, accompanied by a renewal fee in an amount set by the commissioner by rule. 8. The commissioner may by rule create or accept a multijurisdiction preneed seller's license. If the preneed seller's license is issued by another jurisdiction, the rules shall require the filing of an application or notice form and payment of the applicable filing fee of fifty dollars for an application. The application or notice form utilized and the effective dates and terms of the license may vary from the provisions set forth in this section. 9. Fees collected under this section shall be deposited as provided in section 505.7.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §33; 2002 Acts, ch 1119, §82; 2004 Acts, ch
      1104, §2; 2004 Acts, ch 1110, §66; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §16; 2008 Acts,
      ch 1103, §5, 6; 2008 Acts, ch 1123, §47, 48; 2009 Acts, ch 181, §92
         Referred to in § 523A.503, 523A.704, 523A.807 

         Footnotes

         For future repeal of subsection 9, effective July 1, 2011, see
      2009 Acts, ch 179, §146
        

523A.502 SALES AGENTS -- LICENSES. 1. A person shall not advertise, sell, promote, or offer to furnish cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof when performance or delivery may be more than one hundred twenty days following initial payment on the account unless the person has a sales license and is a sales agent of a person holding a preneed seller's license. The preneed seller licensee is liable for the acts of its sales agents performed in advertising, selling, promoting, or offering to furnish, upon the future death of a person named or implied in a purchase agreement, cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof. 2. This chapter does not permit a person to practice mortuary science without a license. A person holding a current sales license may advertise, sell, promote, or offer to furnish a funeral director's services as an employee or agent of a funeral establishment furnishing the funeral services under chapter 156. 3. An application for a sales license shall be filed on a form prescribed by the commissioner and be accompanied by a filing fee in an amount set by the commissioner by rule. The fees collected under this subsection shall be deposited as provided in section 505.7. 4. a. The commissioner shall request and obtain, notwithstanding section 692.2, subsection 5, criminal history data for any applicant for an initial license issued pursuant to this section, any applicant for reinstatement of a license issued pursuant to this section, or any licensee who is being monitored as a result of an order of the commissioner or agreement resolving an administrative disciplinary action, for the purpose of evaluating the applicant's or licensee's eligibility for licensure or suitability for continued practice as a sales agent. The commissioner shall adopt rules pursuant to chapter 17A to implement this section. The commissioner shall inform the applicant or licensee of the criminal history requirement and obtain a signed waiver from the applicant or licensee prior to submitting a criminal history data request. b. A request for criminal history data shall be submitted to the department of public safety, division of criminal investigation, pursuant to section 692.2, subsection 1. The commissioner may also require such applicants or licensees, to provide a full set of fingerprints, in a form and manner prescribed by the commissioner. Such fingerprints may be submitted to the federal bureau of investigation through the state criminal history repository for a national criminal history check. The commissioner may authorize alternate methods or sources for obtaining criminal history record information. The commissioner may, in addition to any other fees, charge and collect such amounts as may be incurred by the commissioner, the department of public safety, or the federal bureau of investigation in obtaining criminal history information. Amounts collected shall be considered repayment receipts as defined in section 8.2. c. Criminal history information relating to an applicant or licensee obtained by the commissioner pursuant to this section is confidential. The commissioner may, however, use such information in a license denial proceeding. 5. A sales license shall be renewed every four years by filing the form prescribed by the commissioner under subsection 3, accompanied by a renewal fee in an amount set by the commissioner by rule. 6. A sales agent licensed pursuant to this section shall satisfactorily fulfill continuing education requirements for the license as prescribed by the commissioner by rule. However, this continuing education requirement is not applicable to a sales agent who is also a licensed insurance producer under chapter 522B or a licensed funeral director under chapter 156. 7. A sales licensee shall inform the commissioner of changes in the information required to be provided in the application within thirty days of the change. 8. A sales license is not assignable or transferable. 9. If no denial order is in effect and no proceeding is pending under section 523A.503, the application becomes effective at noon of the thirtieth day after a completed application or an amendment completing the application is filed, unless waived by the applicant. The commissioner may specify an earlier effective date. Automatic effectiveness under this subsection shall not be deemed approval of the application. If the commissioner does not grant the license, the commissioner shall notify the applicant in writing of the reasons for the denial. 10. The commissioner may by rule create or accept a multijurisdiction sales license. If the sales license is issued by another jurisdiction, the rules shall require the filing of an application or notice form and payment of the applicable filing fee. The application or notice form utilized and the effective dates and terms of the license may vary from the provisions set forth in subsections 3 and 5.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §34; 2002 Acts, ch 1119, §83; 2004 Acts, ch
      1104, §3; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §17; 2008 Acts, ch 1103, §7; 2008 Acts,
      ch 1123, §49, 50; 2009 Acts, ch 181, §93
         Referred to in § 523A.503, 523A.504, 523A.704, 523A.807 

         Footnotes

         For future repeal of 2009 amendment to subsection 3, effective
      July 1, 2011, see 2009 Acts, ch 179, §146
        

523A.502A SALES AGENT ANNUAL REPORTING REQUIREMENTS -- PENALTY. 1. A sales agent shall file with the commissioner not later than April 1 of each year an annual report on a form prescribed by the commissioner describing each purchase agreement sold by the sales agent during the year. 2. All records maintained by the commissioner under this section shall be confidential pursuant to section 22.7, subsection 58, and shall not be made available for inspection or copying except upon the approval of the commissioner or the attorney general. 3. The commissioner shall levy an administrative penalty in the amount of five hundred dollars against a sales agent who fails to file an annual report when due, payable to the state for deposit as provided in section 505.7. However, the commissioner may waive the administrative penalty upon a showing of good cause or financial hardship. 4. A sales agent who fails to file the annual report when due shall immediately cease soliciting or executing purchase agreements until the annual report is filed and any administrative penalty assessed has been paid.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2007 Acts, ch 175, §18; 2009 Acts, ch 102, §2, 3; 2009 Acts, ch
      181, §94
         Referred to in § 22.7 

         Footnotes

         For future repeal of 2009 amendment to subsection 3, that changes
      the depository for administrative penalty amounts from the general
      fund to the department of commerce revolving fund under section
      505.7, effective July 1, 2011, see 2009 Acts, ch 179, §146
        

523A.503 DENIAL, SUSPENSION, REVOCATION, AND SURRENDER OF LICENSES. 1. The commissioner may, pursuant to chapter 17A, deny any license application, or immediately suspend, revoke, or otherwise impose disciplinary action related to any license issued under section 523A.501 or 523A.502 for several reasons, including but not limited to: a. Committing a fraudulent act, engaging in a fraudulent practice, or violating any provision of this chapter or any implementing rule or order issued under this chapter. b. Violating any other state or federal law applicable to the conduct of the applicant's or licensee's business. c. Insolvency or financial condition. d. The licensee, for the purpose of avoiding the trust requirement for funeral services, attributes amounts paid under the purchase agreement to cemetery merchandise or funeral merchandise that is delivered under section 523A.404 rather than to funeral services sold to the purchaser. The sale of funeral services at a lower price when the sale is made in conjunction with the sale of cemetery merchandise or funeral merchandise to be delivered under section 523A.404 than the services are regularly and customarily sold for when not sold in conjunction with cemetery merchandise or funeral merchandise is evidence that the licensee is acting with the purpose of avoiding the trust requirement for funeral services under section 523A.201. e. Engaging in a deceptive act or practice or deliberately misrepresenting or omitting a material fact regarding the sale of cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof under this chapter. f. Conviction of a criminal offense involving dishonesty or a false statement including but not limited to fraud, theft, misappropriation of funds, falsification of documents, deceptive acts or practices, or other related offenses. g. Inability to provide the cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof which the applicant or licensee purports to sell. h. The applicant or licensee sells the business without filing a prior notice of sale with the commissioner. The license shall be revoked thirty days following such sale. i. Selling by a person who is not a licensed sales agent. j. The applicant or licensee is named in an order issued pursuant to section 523A.807, subsection 3, paragraph "b". 2. The commissioner may, for good cause shown, suspend any license for a period not exceeding thirty days, pending investigation. 3. Except as provided in subsection 2, a license shall not be revoked, suspended, or otherwise be the subject of disciplinary action except after notice and hearing under chapter 17A. 4. Any licensee may surrender a license by delivering to the commissioner written notice that the licensee surrenders the license, but the surrender shall not affect the licensee's civil or criminal liability for acts committed before the surrender. 5. Denial, revocation, suspension, or surrender of a license does not impair or affect the obligation of any preexisting lawful agreement between the licensee and any person.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §35; 2004 Acts, ch 1110, §68--70; 2007 Acts, ch
      175, §19
         Referred to in § 523A.501, 523A.502
        

523A.504 APPOINTMENT OF SALES AGENTS -- FEE. 1. A person shall not sell or offer to furnish cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof when performance or delivery may be more than one hundred twenty days following initial payment on the account except through a sales agent who holds a sales license issued pursuant to section 523A.502. If a person holding a preneed seller's license appoints a sales agent to act on behalf of the preneed seller, the person shall file a notice of such appointment with the commissioner within thirty days of the appointment, in a format approved by the commissioner, and annually thereafter. 2. A preneed seller shall pay an annual fee of five dollars for each sales agent appointed by the preneed seller, which fee shall be submitted with the annual report. Fees collected under this subsection shall be deposited as provided in section 505.7.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2007 Acts, ch 175, §20; 2009 Acts, ch 181, §95 

         Footnotes

         For future repeal of 2009 amendment to subsection 2, effective
      July 1, 2011, see 2009 Acts, ch 179, §146
        

523A.601 DISCLOSURES. 1. A purchase agreement for cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof shall be written in clear, understandable language, and shall be printed or typed in an easy-to-read font, size, and style, and shall: a. Identify the preneed seller by name and license number, the sales agent by name and license number, the purchaser, and the person for whom the cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof is purchased, if other than the purchaser. b. Specify the cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof to be provided, and the cost of each merchandise item or service. c. State clearly the conditions upon which substitution will be allowed. d. State the total purchase price and the terms under which it is to be paid. e. State clearly whether the purchase agreement is a guaranteed price agreement or a nonguaranteed price agreement. A nonguaranteed price agreement shall contain in twelve point boldface type an explanation of the consequences of such agreement in substantially the following language:

THE PRICES OF MERCHANDISE AND SERVICES UNDER THIS AGREEMENT ARE SUBJECT TO CHANGE IN THE FUTURE. ANY FUNDS PAID UNDER THIS AGREEMENT ARE ONLY A DEPOSIT TO BE APPLIED, TOGETHER WITH ACCRUED INCOME, TOWARD THE FINAL COSTS OF THE MERCHANDISE OR SERVICES AGREED UPON. ADDITIONAL CHARGES MAY BE INCURRED WHEN ADDITIONAL MERCHANDISE OR SERVICES OR BOTH ARE PROVIDED OR WHEN PRICES HAVE INCREASED MORE THAN ACCRUED INCOME. f. State that the purchase of the cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services is revocable and specify the damages for cancellation, if any. g. State clearly who has the authority to cancel, amend, or revoke the purchase agreement to purchase cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services. h. State clearly that the purchaser is entitled to rescind the purchase agreement under terms and conditions specified by section 523A.602. i. Include an explanation of regulatory oversight by the insurance division in twelve point boldface type, in substantially the following language:

THIS AGREEMENT IS SUBJECT TO RULES ADMINISTERED BY THE IOWA INSURANCE DIVISION. YOU MAY CALL THE INSURANCE DIVISION AT (515)281-4441. WRITTEN INQUIRIES OR COMPLAINTS SHOULD BE MAILED TO THE IOWA SECURITIES AND REGULATED INDUSTRIES BUREAU, 330 MAPLE STREET, DES MOINES, IOWA 50319. 2. A purchase agreement that is funded by a trust shall also: a. State the percentage of money to be placed in trust. b. Explain the disposition of the income generated from investments and include a statement of the purchaser's responsibility for income taxes owed on the income if applicable. c. State that if, after all payments are made under the conditions and terms of the purchase agreement for cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof, any funds remain in the nonguaranteed irrevocable burial trust fund, the seller shall disburse the remaining funds according to law. d. State clearly the terms of the funeral and burial trust agreement and whether it is revocable or irrevocable. e. State clearly that the purchaser is entitled to transfer the trust funding, insurance funding, or other trust assets or select another seller to receive the trust funding, insurance funding, or any other trust assets. f. State clearly who has the authority to amend or revoke the trust agreement, if revocable, and who has the authority to appoint successor trustees if the purchase agreement is canceled. 3. The commissioner may adopt rules establishing disclosure and format requirements to promote consumer understanding of the merchandise and services purchased and the available funding mechanisms for a purchase agreement under this chapter. 4. A purchase agreement shall be signed by the purchaser, the seller, and if the agreement is for mortuary science services as mortuary science is defined in section 156.1, a person licensed to deliver funeral services. 5. The seller shall disclose the following information prior to accepting the initial payment under a purchase agreement: a. The specific method or methods (trust deposits, certificates of deposit, life insurance or an annuity, a surety bond, or warehousing) that will be used to fund the purchase agreement. b. The relationship between the soliciting agent or agents, the provider of the cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, or funeral services, or combination thereof, the commissioner, and any other person. c. The relationship of the life insurance policy or other trust assets to the funding of the purchase agreement and the nature and existence of any guarantees regarding the purchase agreement. d. The impact on the purchase agreement of the following: (1) Changes in the funding, including but not limited to changes in the assignment, beneficiary designation, trustee, or use of proceeds. (2) Any penalties to be incurred by the purchaser as a result of the failure to make any additional payments required. (3) Penalties to be incurred upon cancellation. e. A list of cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services which are agreed upon under the purchase agreement and all relevant information concerning the price of the cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof, including a statement that the purchase price is either guaranteed at the time of purchase or to be determined at the time of need. f. All relevant information concerning what occurs and whether any entitlements or obligations arise if there is a difference between the funding and the amount actually needed to fund the purchase agreement. g. Any penalties or restrictions, including but not limited to geographic restrictions or the inability of the provider to perform, upon delivery of cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, or funeral services, or the purchase agreement guarantee. h. If the funding is being transferred from another seller, any material facts related to the revocation of the prior purchase agreement and the transfer of the existing trust funds. 6. a. A purchase agreement that is funded by a trust shall include a conspicuous statement in language substantially similar to the following language: "For your prearranged funeral agreement, we will deposit not less than eighty percent of your payments in trust at (name of financial institution), (street address), (city), (state) (zip code) within fifteen days following receipt of the funds. For your protection, you will be notified within sixty days from the date of deposit from the financial institution, if acting as a trustee of trust funds under this chapter, to confirm that the deposit of these funds has been made establishing a trust fund as required by law. If you do not receive this notification, you may contact the Iowa insurance division for assistance by calling the insurance division at (telephone number) or by mail at (street address), (city), Iowa (zip code), or you may contact the financial institution by calling the financial institution at (telephone number) or by mail at the address indicated above." b. A purchase agreement that is funded with an insurance policy or an annuity shall include a conspicuous statement in language substantially similar to the following language: "An (insurance policy or annuity) will be purchased from (name of issuer of the policy or annuity), (street address), (city), (state) (zip code). You should receive confirmation of the purchase of an insurance policy or certificate or an annuity within sixty days of making payment. Delivery of the actual insurance policy or certificate or annuity shall also constitute confirmation. For your protection, you have the right to confirm that the insurance policy or annuity is issued as required by law. If you do not receive confirmation that an insurance policy or certificate or an annuity has been purchased or receive the insurance policy or certificate or the annuity, you should report this fact to the Iowa insurance division by calling the insurance division at (telephone number). Written reports should be mailed to the Iowa insurance division at (street address), (city), Iowa (zip code)." c. A purchase agreement that is funded with a surety bond shall include a conspicuous statement in language substantially similar to the following language: "Coverage under a surety bond in the amount of $(amount) will be purchased from (name of issuer of surety bond), (street address), (city), (state) (zip code) to fund your purchase. If you pay pursuant to your purchase agreement with a single payment, you should receive confirmation of the purchase of a surety bond within sixty days of making the payment. If you pay pursuant to your purchase agreement with multiple, periodic payments, you should receive confirmation of the purchase of a surety bond within sixty days of making the first payment and within sixty days of making the last payment pursuant to the agreement. For your protection, you have the right to confirm that the surety bond is issued as required by law. If you do not receive confirmation of coverage under a surety bond within sixty days of making the first payment and within sixty days of making the last payment, you should report this fact to the Iowa insurance division by calling the insurance division at (telephone number). Written reports should be mailed to the Iowa insurance division at (street address), (city), Iowa (zip code)."

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §36; 2002 Acts, ch 1119, §84; 2006 Acts, ch
      1117, §116; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §21, 22, 65, 66; 2008 Acts, ch 1103, §
      8; 2008 Acts, ch 1191, § 140
         Referred to in § 523A.602
        

523A.602 CONSUMER RECISION, CANCELLATION, AND REFUND RIGHTS -- PURCHASE AGREEMENT COMPLIANCE WITH OTHER LAWS. 1. A seller shall furnish the purchaser with a completed copy of a purchase agreement pertaining to the sale at the time the purchase agreement is signed. The seller shall comply with the following terms: a. The same language shall be used in both the oral sales representation and the written purchase agreement. b. The seller shall give notice in the purchase agreement of the purchaser's right to rescind after signing the purchase agreement. The recision period must be, but may be greater than, three business days after the date of the purchase agreement. The notice must: (1) Be located close to the signature line. (2) Be printed in twelve point boldface type. (3) State that "YOU, THE PURCHASER, HAVE THE RIGHT TO RESCIND THIS AGREEMENT AT ANY TIME PRIOR TO MIDNIGHT OF THE (INSERT RELEVANT NUMBER, NOT LESS THAN THREE) BUSINESS DAY AFTER THE DATE OF THIS AGREEMENT." c. All moneys shall be refunded without penalty within ten days after recision. 2. Cancellation refund. a. A purchase agreement must include a statement that the purchaser has the right to cancel the agreement for the purchase of cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services upon written demand and designate or appoint a trustee to hold, manage, invest, and distribute the trust assets. b. (1) If a purchase agreement is canceled, a purchaser requests a transfer of the trust assets upon cancellation of a purchase agreement, or another seller provides merchandise or services designated in a purchase agreement, the seller shall refund or transfer within thirty days of receiving a written demand no less than the purchase price of the applicable cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services adjusted for inflation, using the consumer price index amounts announced by the commissioner annually, less any actual expenses incurred by the seller pursuant to the purchase agreement as set forth in the purchase agreement under section 523A.601, subsection 1, paragraph "f". The amount of the actual expenses deducted by the seller shall not exceed ten percent of the purchase price of the applicable cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services. The seller may also deduct the value of the cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services already received by, delivered to, or warehoused for the purchaser. (2) If a purchase agreement is canceled before the purchase price is paid in full, a purchaser requests a transfer of the trust assets upon cancellation of a purchase agreement before the purchase price is paid in full, or another seller provides cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof, designated in a purchase agreement before the purchase price is paid in full, the seller shall refund or transfer within thirty days of receiving a written demand no less than the amount paid by the purchaser, less any actual expenses incurred by the seller pursuant to the purchase agreement as set forth in the purchase agreement under section 523A.601, subsection 1, paragraph "f". The amount of the actual expenses deducted by the seller shall not exceed ten percent of the total original purchase price of the applicable cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof. The seller may also deduct the value of the cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services already received by, delivered to, or warehoused for the purchaser. (3) For the purposes of this paragraph "b", "actual expenses" means all reasonable business expenses of a seller that are associated with the sale of cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof. "Actual expenses" includes but is not limited to the following: (a) Marketing and promotional expenses. (b) Investment management fees. (c) Annual reporting fees related to accounting and regulatory requirements. (d) Licensing fees of the seller. (e) Administration, regulatory reporting, and custody expenses related to purchase agreements. (f) Computer and software expenses. (g) Expenses related to employees of the seller such as licensing fees, continuing education, and salaries and commissions. (h) Miscellaneous office expenses. c. A purchase agreement must include a statement that the purchaser is entitled to a refund of the purchase price of the applicable funeral merchandise adjusted for inflation, using the consumer price index amounts announced by the commissioner annually for any item of funeral merchandise that cannot be delivered to the location specified in the purchase agreement within forty-eight hours of notice of the individual's death, unless the delay is caused by weather conditions or a natural disaster. The seller must return such refund to the purchaser within thirty days of receiving the written demand. 3. This section does not prohibit a purchaser who is or may become eligible for benefits under Title XIX of the federal Social Security Act from making a guaranteed price purchase agreement irrevocable to the extent that federal law or regulations require that such an agreement be irrevocable for purposes of a purchaser's eligibility for benefits under Title XIX of the federal Social Security Act, as permitted under federal law. The seller of credit sale agreements shall comply with the requirements of chapter 537, the Iowa consumer credit code, and is subject to the remedies and penalties provided in that chapter for noncompliance.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §37; 2003 Acts, ch 58, §1; 2006 Acts, ch 1117,
      §117; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §67--69
         Referred to in § 523A.601
        

523A.603 SECURITY AND NOTICE REQUIREMENTS. 1. If a purchase agreement is funded with an insurance policy or an annuity, the purchaser shall receive a notice thereof from the insurance company within sixty days of making payment. The notice shall include the name and address of the insurance company, the policy number of the insurance policy that secures the agreement, the name of the insured under the insurance policy or annuity, and the amount of the accumulated death benefit. Delivery of the insurance policy or certificate or annuity shall satisfy this notice requirement. 2. If a purchase agreement is funded by a surety bond, the purchaser shall receive a notice from the surety company that evidences coverage under the bond, the name of the purchaser or beneficiary, and the amount of coverage. If the purchase agreement is paid with a single payment, the purchaser shall receive notice of the surety bond within sixty days of making the payment. If the purchase agreement is being paid with multiple, periodic payments, the purchaser shall receive notice of the surety bond within sixty days of making the first payment and within sixty days of making the last payment. Compliance with this notice requirement does not require a seller to purchase individual surety bonds for each purchaser and beneficiary. A seller may file a single bond with the commissioner.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2007 Acts, ch 175, §23; 2008 Acts, ch 1123, §51
        

523A.604 PURCHASE AGREEMENTS -- NUMBERING. Purchase agreements for cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof shall be sequentially numbered by each seller in compliance with procedures specified by the commissioner by rules adopted under chapter 17A.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2007 Acts, ch 175, §24
        

523A.701 MISLEADING FILINGS. It is unlawful for a person to make or cause to be made, in any document filed with the commissioner or in any proceeding under this chapter, any statement of material fact which is, at the time and in the light of the circumstances under which it is made, false or misleading, or in connection with such statement, to omit to state a material fact necessary in order to make the statements made, in the light of the circumstances under which they are made, not misleading.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §38
        

523A.702 MISREPRESENTATIONS OF GOVERNMENT APPROVAL. It is unlawful for a seller under this chapter to represent or imply in any manner that the seller has been sponsored, recommended, or approved, or that the seller's abilities or qualifications have in any respect been passed upon, by the commissioner.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §39
        

523A.703 FRAUDULENT PRACTICES. Except as otherwise provided in section 523A.704, a person who willfully commits any of the following acts commits a fraudulent practice and is punishable as provided in chapter 714: 1. Fails to comply with any requirement of this chapter, or any rule adopted or order issued under this chapter. 2. Makes, causes to be made, or subscribes to a false statement or representation in a report or other document required under this chapter, implementing rules, or orders, or renders such a report or document misleading through the deliberate omission of information properly belonging in the report or document. 3. In connection with the sale of cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof, directly or indirectly makes an untrue statement of a material fact or omits to state a material fact that is necessary to make the statements made, in light of the circumstances under which they were made, not misleading. 4. Unless the purchase agreement expressly provides otherwise, excludes in the sale of cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, or a combination thereof, funeral services that are necessary for the delivery, use, or installation of the cemetery merchandise or funeral merchandise at the time of the burial or funeral.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §40; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §25
        

523A.704 VIOLATIONS. A person who willfully violates section 523A.501, subsection 1, or section 523A.502, subsection 1, is guilty of a class "D" felony.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2007 Acts, ch 175, §26
         Referred to in § 523A.703
        

523A.801 ADMINISTRATION. 1. This chapter shall be administered by the commissioner. The commissioner may employ officers, attorneys, accountants, and other employees as needed for administering this chapter. 2. It is unlawful for the commissioner or any administrative staff to use for personal benefit any information which is filed with or obtained by the commissioner and which is not made public. This chapter does not authorize the commissioner or any such staff member to disclose any such information except among themselves or to other cemetery and funeral administrators, regulatory authorities, or governmental agencies, or when necessary and appropriate in a proceeding or investigation under this chapter or as required by chapter 22. This chapter neither creates nor derogates any privileges that exist at common law or otherwise when documentary or other evidence is sought under a subpoena directed to the commissioner or any administrative staff. 3. The commissioner shall submit an annual report to the general assembly's standing committees on government oversight by October 1 of each year reporting on the administration of this chapter. The report shall set forth any recommendations for changes in the law that the commissioner deems necessary or desirable to prevent abuses or evasions of this chapter or rules implementing this chapter or to rectify undesirable conditions in connection with the administration of this chapter or rules implementing this chapter.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §41; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §27, 28; 2009 Acts, ch
      86, §5
        

523A.802 SCOPE. 1. This chapter applies to any advertisement, sale, promotion, or offer made by a person to furnish, upon the future death of a person named or implied in a purchase agreement, cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof. Burial accounts and insurance policies are included if the account records or related documents identify the seller that will provide the cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof. 2. This chapter applies when a purchase agreement is executed within this state or an advertisement, promotion, or offer to furnish is made or accepted within this state. An offer to furnish is made within this state, whether or not either party is then present in this state, when the offer originates from this state or is directed by the offeror to this state and received by the offeree in this state through the mail, over the telephone, by the internet, or through any other means of commerce. 3. If a foreign person does not have a registered agent or agents in the state of Iowa, doing business within this state shall constitute the person's appointment of the secretary of state of the state of Iowa to be its true and lawful attorney upon whom may be served all lawful process of original notice in actions or proceedings arising or growing out of any contract or tort.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §42; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §70
        

523A.803 INVESTIGATIONS AND SUBPOENAS. 1. The commissioner may, for the purpose of discovering violations of this chapter, implementing rules, or orders issued under this chapter: a. Make such public or private investigations within or outside of this state as the commissioner deems necessary to determine whether any person has violated or is about to violate this chapter, implementing rules, or orders issued under this chapter, or to aid in enforcement of this chapter or in the prescribing of rules and forms under this chapter. b. Require or permit any person to file a statement in writing, under oath or otherwise as the commissioner or attorney general determines, as to all the facts and circumstances concerning the matter to be investigated. c. Notwithstanding chapter 22, keep confidential the information obtained in the course of an investigation. However, if the commissioner determines that it is necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of the public, the commissioner may share information with other administrators, regulatory authorities, or governmental agencies, or may publish information concerning a violation of this chapter, implementing rules, or orders issued under this chapter. d. Investigate the seller and examine the books, accounts, papers, correspondence, memoranda, purchase agreements, files, or other documents or records used by every applicant and licensee under this chapter. e. Administer oaths and affirmations, subpoena witnesses, compel their attendance, take evidence, and require the production of any books, accounts, papers, correspondence, memoranda, purchase agreements, files, or other documents or records which the commissioner deems relevant or material to any investigation or proceeding under this chapter and implementing rules, all of which may be enforced under chapter 17A. f. Apply to the district court for an order requiring a person's appearance before the commissioner or attorney general, or a designee of either or both, in cases where the person has refused to obey a subpoena issued by the commissioner or attorney general. The person may also be required to produce documentary evidence germane to the subject of the investigation. Failure to obey a court order under this subsection constitutes contempt of court. 2. The commissioner may issue and bring an action in district court to enforce subpoenas within this state at the request of an agency or administrator of another state, if the activity constituting an alleged violation for which the information is sought would be a violation of this chapter had the activity occurred in this state.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §43; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §71
        

523A.804 MEDIATION. 1. The commissioner may order a seller to participate in mediation in any dispute regarding a purchase agreement. Mediation performed under this section shall be conducted by a mediator appointed by the commissioner and shall comply with the provisions of chapter 679C. 2. Mediation of these disputes shall include attendance at a mediation session with the mediator and the parties to the dispute, listening to the mediator's explanation of the mediation process, presentation of one party's view of the dispute, and listening to the response of the other party. Participation in mediation does not require that the parties reach a mediation agreement. 3. Parties to the mediation shall have the right to advice and presence of counsel at all times. The parties to the mediation shall present any mediation agreement reached through the mediation to the commissioner. If a mediation agreement is not reached, the mediator shall file a report with the commissioner. The costs of the mediation shall be approved by the commissioner and shall be borne by the insurance division's regulatory fund.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §44; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §72
        

523A.805 CEASE AND DESIST ORDERS -- INJUNCTIONS. If it appears to the commissioner that a person has engaged or is about to engage in an act or practice constituting a violation of this chapter, implementing rules, or orders issued under this chapter, the commissioner or the attorney general may do either or both of the following: 1. Issue a summary order directed at the person requiring the person to cease and desist from engaging in such act or practice. A person may request a hearing within thirty days of issuance of the summary order. If a hearing is not timely requested, the summary order shall become final by operation of law. The order shall remain effective from the date of issuance until the date the order becomes final by operation of law or is overturned by a presiding officer following a request for hearing. Section 17A.18A is inapplicable to summary cease and desist orders issued under this section. 2. Bring an action in the district court in any county of the state for an injunction to restrain a person subject to this chapter and any agents, employees, or associates of the person from engaging in conduct or practices deemed contrary to the public interest. In any proceeding for an injunction, the commissioner or attorney general may apply to the court for a subpoena to require the appearance of a defendant and the defendant's agents and for any books, accounts, papers, correspondence, memoranda, purchase agreements, files, or other documents or records germane to the hearing upon the petition for an injunction. Upon a proper showing, a permanent or temporary injunction, restraining order, or writ of mandamus shall be granted and a receiver may be appointed for the defendant or the defendant's assets. The commissioner or attorney general shall not be required to post a bond.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §45
        

523A.806 COURT ACTION FOR FAILURE TO COOPERATE. 1. If a person fails or refuses to file any statement or report or to produce any books, accounts, papers, correspondence, memoranda, purchase agreements, files, or other documents or records, or to obey any subpoena issued by the commissioner, the commissioner may refer the matter to the attorney general, who may apply to a district court to enforce compliance. The court may order any or all of the following: a. Injunctive relief, restricting or prohibiting the offer or sale of cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof. b. Revocation or suspension of any license issued under this chapter. c. Production of documents or records including but not limited to books, accounts, papers, correspondence, memoranda, purchase agreements, files, or other documents or records. d. Such other relief as may be required. 2. Such an order shall be effective until the person files the statement or report or produces the documents requested, or obeys the subpoena.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §46; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §73
        

523A.807 PROSECUTION FOR VIOLATIONS OF LAW. 1. A violation of this chapter or rules adopted or orders issued under this chapter is a violation of section 714.16, subsection 2, paragraph "a". The remedies and penalties provided by section 714.16, including but not limited to injunctive relief and penalties, apply to violations of this chapter. 2. If the commissioner believes that grounds exist for the criminal prosecution of persons subject to this chapter for violations of this chapter or any other law of this state, the commissioner may forward to the attorney general or the county attorney the grounds for the belief, including all evidence in the commissioner's possession, so that the attorney general or the county attorney may proceed with the matter as deemed appropriate. 3. If the commissioner finds that a person has violated section 523A.201, 523A.202, 523A.401, 523A.402, 523A.403, 523A.404, 523A.405, 523A.501, or 523A.502 or any rule adopted pursuant thereto, the commissioner may order any or all of the following: a. Payment of a civil penalty of not more than one thousand dollars for each violation, but not exceeding an aggregate of ten thousand dollars during any six-month period, except that if the commissioner finds that the person knew or reasonably should have known that the person was in violation of such provisions or rules adopted pursuant thereto, the penalty shall be not more than five thousand dollars for each violation, but not exceeding an aggregate of fifty thousand dollars during any six-month period. The commissioner shall assess the penalty on the employer of an individual and not on the individual, if the commissioner finds that the violations committed by the individual were directed, encouraged, condoned, ignored, or ratified by the individual's employer. Any civil penalties collected under this subsection shall be deposited as provided in section 505.7. b. Issuance of an order prohibiting the person committing a violation from selling funeral merchandise, cemetery merchandise, funeral services, or a combination thereof, and from managing, operating, or otherwise exercising control over any business entity that is subject to regulation under this chapter or chapter 523I. A person who has been named in such an order may contest the order by filing a request for a contested case proceeding as provided in chapter 17A and in accordance with rules adopted by the commissioner. The commissioner may, pursuant to chapter 17A, deny any application filed under section 523A.501 or 523A.502 if the applicant, or an officer, director, or owner of the applicant, is named in a final order issued pursuant to this subsection. 4. The commissioner shall post on the website of the division of insurance of the department of commerce a list of all persons licensed under this chapter and an index of orders issued by the commissioner pertaining to such persons.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §47; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §29; 2008 Acts, ch
      1123, § 52; 2009 Acts, ch 181, §96
         Referred to in § 523A.503 

         Footnotes

         For future repeal of 2009 amendment to subsection 3, paragraph a,
      effective July 1, 2011, see 2009 Acts, ch 179, §146
        

523A.808 COOPERATION WITH OTHER AGENCIES. 1. To encourage uniform interpretation and administration of this chapter and effective regulation of the sale of cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services, the commissioner may cooperate with any governmental law enforcement or regulatory agency. 2. This cooperation includes but is not limited to: a. Making a joint examination or investigation. b. Holding a joint administrative hearing. c. Filing and prosecuting a joint civil or administrative proceeding. d. Sharing and exchanging personnel. e. Sharing and exchanging relevant information and documents. f. Formulating, in accordance with chapter 17A, rules or proposed rules on matters such as statements of policy, regulatory standards, guidelines, and interpretive opinions.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §48
        

523A.809 RULES, FORMS, AND ORDERS. 1. Under chapter 17A, the commissioner may from time to time make, amend, and rescind such rules, forms, and orders as are necessary or appropriate for the protection of purchasers and the public and to administer the provisions of this chapter, its implementing rules, and orders issued under this chapter. 2. A rule, form, or order shall not be made, amended, or rescinded unless the commissioner finds that the action is necessary or appropriate in the public interest or for the protection of purchasers and consistent with the purposes fairly intended by the policies and provisions of this chapter, its implementing rules, and orders issued under this chapter. 3. A provision of this chapter imposing any liability does not apply to any act done or omitted in good faith in conformity with any rule, form, or order of the commissioner, notwithstanding that the rule, form, or order may later be amended or rescinded or be determined by judicial or other authority to be invalid for any reason.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §49
        

523A.810 DATE OF FILING -- INTERPRETIVE OPINIONS. 1. A document is filed when it is received by the commissioner. 2. Requests for interpretive opinions may be granted in the commissioner's discretion.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §50
        

523A.810A ELECTRONIC FILING. The commissioner shall, by rule, develop a system and procedures and a format for electronic filing of documents required to be filed with the commissioner under this chapter.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2008 Acts, ch 1103, §9
        

523A.811 RECEIVERSHIPS. 1. The commissioner shall notify the attorney general of the potential need for establishment of a receivership if the commissioner finds that a seller subject to this chapter meets one or more of the following conditions: a. Is insolvent. b. Has utilized trust funds for personal or business purposes in a manner inconsistent with this chapter. c. The amount of funds currently held in trust for cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services is less than the amount required in section 523A.201, subsection 2 or 3, as applicable. d. Has refused to pay any just claim or demand based on a purchase agreement referred to in section 523A.201. e. The commissioner finds upon investigation that a seller is unable to pay any claim or demand based on a purchase agreement which has been legally determined to be just and outstanding. f. A receivership has been established for a cemetery subject to chapter 523I that is owned or operated by a seller who is subject to this chapter. 2. The commissioner or attorney general may apply to the district court in any county of the state for the establishment of a receivership. Upon proof of any of the grounds for a receivership described in this section, the court may grant a receivership. 3. If a seller who is subject to this chapter owns or operates a cemetery subject to chapter 523I, for which a receivership has been established, the receivership provisions of section 523I.212 shall apply to any receivership established under this section.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §51; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §30, 31; 2008 Acts, ch
      1103, §10
         Referred to in § 523A.812
        

523A.812 INSURANCE DIVISION REGULATORY FUND. The insurance division may authorize the creation of a special revenue fund in the state treasury, to be known as the insurance division regulatory fund. The commissioner shall allocate annually from the fees paid pursuant to section 523A.204, two dollars for each purchase agreement reported on a preneed seller's annual report filed pursuant to section 523A.204 for deposit to the regulatory fund. The remainder of the fees collected pursuant to section 523A.204 shall be deposited as provided in section 505.7. The commissioner shall also allocate annually the examination fees paid pursuant to section 523A.814 and any examination expense reimbursement for deposit to the regulatory fund. The moneys in the regulatory fund shall be retained in the fund. The moneys are appropriated and, subject to authorization by the commissioner, may be used to pay examiners, examination expenses, investigative expenses, the expenses of mediation ordered by the commissioner, consumer education expenses, the expenses of a toll-free telephone line to receive consumer complaints, and the expenses of receiverships established under section 523A.811. If the commissioner determines that funding is not otherwise available to reimburse the expenses of a person who receives title to a cemetery subject to chapter 523I, pursuant to such a receivership, the commissioner shall use moneys in the regulatory fund as necessary to preserve, protect, restore, and maintain the physical integrity of that cemetery and to satisfy claims or demands for cemetery merchandise, funeral merchandise, and funeral services based on purchase agreements which the commissioner determines are just and outstanding. An annual allocation to the regulatory fund shall not be imposed if the current balance of the fund exceeds five hundred thousand dollars.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §52; 2005 Acts, ch 128, §4; 2007 Acts, ch 175,
      §32; 2009 Acts, ch 181, §97 

         Footnotes

         For future repeal of 2009 amendment to this section, effective
      July 1, 2011, see 2009 Acts, ch 179, §146
        

523A.813 LICENSE REVOCATION -- RECOMMENDATION BY COMMISSIONER TO BOARD OF MORTUARY SCIENCE. Upon a determination by the commissioner that grounds exist for an administrative license revocation or suspension action by the board of mortuary science under chapter 156, the commissioner may forward to the board the grounds for the determination, including all evidence in the possession of the commissioner, so that the board may proceed with the matter as deemed appropriate.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §53; 2007 Acts, ch 10, §178
        

523A.814 EXAMINATION FEE. In addition to the filing fee paid pursuant to section 523A.204, subsection 2, a seller filing an annual report shall pay an examination fee in the amount of five dollars for each purchase agreement subject to a filing fee that is sold between July 1, 2005, and December 31, 2007, and in the amount of ten dollars for each purchase agreement subject to a filing fee that is sold after December 31, 2007.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2005 Acts, ch 128, §5; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §33
         Referred to in § 523A.812
        

523A.901 LIQUIDATION. 1. Grounds for liquidation. The commissioner may petition the district court for an order directing the commissioner to liquidate the business of a seller on either of the following grounds: a. The seller did not deposit funds pursuant to section 523A.201 or withdrew funds in a manner inconsistent with this chapter and is insolvent. b. The seller did not deposit funds pursuant to section 523A.201 or withdrew funds in a manner inconsistent with this chapter and the condition of the seller is such that further transaction of business would be hazardous, financially or otherwise, to purchasers or the public. 2. Liquidation order. a. An order to liquidate the business of a seller shall appoint the commissioner as liquidator and shall direct the liquidator to immediately take possession of the assets of the seller and to administer them under the general supervision of the court. The liquidator is vested with the title to the property, contracts, and rights of action and the books and records of the seller ordered liquidated, wherever located, as of the entry of the final order of liquidation. The filing or recording of the order with the clerk of court and the recorder of deeds of the county in which its principal office or place of business is located, or in the case of real estate, with the recorder of deeds of the county where the property is located, is notice as a deed, bill of sale, or other evidence of title duly filed or recorded with the recorder of deeds. b. Upon issuance of an order, the rights and liabilities of a seller and of the seller's creditors, purchasers, owners, and other persons interested in the seller's estate shall become fixed as of the date of the entry of the order of liquidation, except as provided in subsection 14. c. At the time of petitioning for an order of liquidation, or at any time after the time of petitioning, the commissioner, after making appropriate findings of a seller's insolvency, may petition the court for a declaration of insolvency. After providing notice and hearing as it deems proper, the court may make the declaration. d. An order issued under this section shall require accounting to the court by the liquidator. Accountings, at a minimum, must include all funds received or disbursed by the liquidator during the current period. An accounting shall be filed within one year of the liquidation order and at such other times as the court may require. e. Within five days after the initiation of an appeal of an order of liquidation, which order has not been stayed, the commissioner shall present for the court's approval a plan for the continued performance of the seller's obligations during the pendency of an appeal. The plan shall provide for the continued performance of purchase agreements in the normal course of events, notwithstanding the grounds alleged in support of the order of liquidation including the ground of insolvency. If the defendant seller's financial condition, in the judgment of the commissioner, will not support the full performance of all obligations during the appeal pendency period, the plan may prefer the claims of certain purchasers and claimants over creditors and interested parties as well as other purchasers and claimants, as the commissioner finds to be fair and equitable considering the relative circumstances of such purchasers and claimants. The court shall examine the plan submitted by the commissioner and if it finds the plan to be in the best interests of the parties, the court shall approve the plan. An action shall not lie against the commissioner or any of the commissioner's deputies, agents, clerks, assistants, or attorneys by any party based on preference in an appeal pendency plan approved by the court. 3. Powers of liquidator. a. The liquidator may do any of the following: (1) Appoint a special deputy to act for the liquidator under this chapter and determine the special deputy's reasonable compensation. The special deputy shall have all the powers of the liquidator granted by this section. The special deputy shall serve at the pleasure of the liquidator. (2) Hire employees and agents, legal counsel, accountants, appraisers, consultants, and other personnel as the commissioner may deem necessary to assist in the liquidation. (3) With the approval of the court, fix reasonable compensation of employees and agents, legal counsel, accountants, appraisers, and consultants. (4) Pay reasonable compensation to persons appointed and defray from the funds or assets of the seller all expenses of taking possession of, conserving, conducting, liquidating, disposing of, or otherwise dealing with the business and property of the seller. If the property of the seller does not contain sufficient cash or liquid assets to defray the costs incurred, the commissioner may advance the costs so incurred out of the insurance division regulatory fund. Amounts so advanced for expenses of administration shall be repaid to the insurance division regulatory fund for the use of the division out of the first available moneys of the seller. (5) Hold hearings, subpoena witnesses and compel their attendance, administer oaths, examine a person under oath, and compel a person to subscribe to the person's testimony after it has been correctly reduced to writing, and in connection to the proceedings require the production of books, accounts, papers, correspondence, memoranda, purchase agreements, files, or other documents or records which the liquidator deems relevant to the inquiry. (6) Collect debts and moneys due and claims belonging to the seller, wherever located. Pursuant to this subparagraph, the liquidator may do any of the following: (a) Institute timely action in other jurisdictions to forestall garnishment and attachment proceedings against debts. (b) Perform acts as are necessary or expedient to collect, conserve, or protect its assets or property, including the power to sell, compound, compromise, or assign debts for purposes of collection upon terms and conditions as the liquidator deems best. (c) Pursue any creditor's remedies available to enforce claims. (7) Conduct public and private sales of the property of the seller. (8) Use assets of the seller under a liquidation order to transfer obligations of purchase agreements to a solvent seller, if the transfer can be accomplished without prejudice to the applicable priorities under subsection 18. (9) Acquire, hypothecate, encumber, lease, improve, sell, transfer, abandon, or otherwise dispose of or deal with property of the seller at its market value or upon terms and conditions as are fair and reasonable. The liquidator shall also have power to execute, acknowledge, and deliver deeds, assignments, releases, and other instruments necessary to effectuate a sale of property or other transaction in connection with the liquidation. (10) Borrow money on the security of the seller's assets or without security and execute and deliver documents necessary to that transaction for the purpose of facilitating the liquidation. Money borrowed pursuant to this subparagraph shall be repaid as an administrative expense and shall have priority over any other class 1 claims under the priority of distribution established in subsection 18. (11) Enter into contracts as necessary to carry out the order to liquidate and affirm or disavow contracts to which the seller is a party. (12) Continue to prosecute and to institute in the name of the seller or in the liquidator's own name any and all suits and other legal proceedings, in this state or elsewhere, and to abandon the prosecution of claims the liquidator deems unprofitable to pursue further. (13) Prosecute an action on behalf of the creditors, purchasers, or owners against an officer of the seller or any other person. (14) Remove records and property of the seller to the offices of the commissioner or to other places as may be convenient for the purposes of efficient and orderly execution of the liquidation. (15) Deposit in one or more banks in this state sums as are required for meeting current administration expenses and distributions. (16) Unless the court orders otherwise, invest funds not currently needed. (17) File necessary documents for recording in the office of the recorder of deeds or record office in this state or elsewhere where property of the seller is located. (18) Assert defenses available to the seller against third persons including statutes of limitations, statutes of fraud, and the defense of usury. A waiver of a defense by the seller after a petition in liquidation has been filed shall not bind the liquidator. (19) Exercise and enforce the rights, remedies, and powers of a creditor, purchaser, or owner, including the power to avoid transfer or lien that may be given by the general law and that is not included within subsections 7 through 9. (20) Intervene in a proceeding wherever instituted that might lead to the appointment of a receiver or trustee, and act as the receiver or trustee whenever the appointment is offered. (21) Exercise powers now held or later conferred upon receivers by the laws of this state which are not inconsistent with this chapter. b. This subsection does not limit the liquidator or exclude the liquidator from exercising a power not listed in paragraph "a" that may be necessary or appropriate to accomplish the purposes of this chapter. 4. Notice to creditors and others. a. Unless the court otherwise directs, the liquidator shall give notice of the liquidation order as soon as possible by doing both of the following: (1) Mailing notice, by first-class mail, to all persons known or reasonably expected to have claims against the seller, including purchasers, at their last known address as indicated by the records of the seller. (2) Publication of notice in a newspaper of general circulation in the county in which the seller has its principal place of business and in other locations as the liquidator deems appropriate. b. Notice to potential claimants under paragraph "a" shall require claimants to file with the liquidator their claims together with proper proofs of the claim under subsection 13 on or before a date the liquidator shall specify in the notice. Claimants shall keep the liquidator informed of their changes of address, if any. c. If notice is given pursuant to this subsection, the distribution of assets of the seller under this chapter shall be conclusive with respect to claimants, whether or not a claimant actually received notice. 5. Actions by and against liquidator. a. After issuance of an order appointing a liquidator of the business of a seller, an action at law or equity shall not be brought against the seller within this state or elsewhere, and existing actions shall not be maintained or further presented after issuance of the order. Whenever in the liquidator's judgment, protection of the estate of the seller necessitates intervention in an action against the seller that is pending outside this state, the liquidator may intervene in the action. The liquidator may defend, at the expense of the estate of the seller, an action in which the liquidator intervenes under this section. b. Within two years or such additional time as applicable law may permit, the liquidator, after the issuance of an order for liquidation, may institute an action or proceeding on behalf of the estate of the seller upon any cause of action against which the period of limitation fixed by applicable law has not expired at the time of the filing of the petition upon which the order is entered. If a period of limitation is fixed by agreement for instituting a suit or proceeding upon a claim, or for filing a claim, proof of claim, proof of loss, demand, notice, or the like, or if in a proceeding, judicial or otherwise, a period of limitation is fixed in the proceeding or pursuant to applicable law for taking an action, filing a claim or pleading, or doing an act, and if the period has not expired at the date of the filing of the petition, the liquidator may, for the benefit of the estate, take any action or do any act, required of or permitted to the seller, within a period of one hundred eighty days subsequent to the entry of an order for liquidation, or within a further period as is shown to the satisfaction of the court not to be unfairly prejudicial to the other party. c. A statute of limitations or defense of laches shall not run with respect to an action against a seller between the filing of a petition for liquidation against the business of a seller and the denial of the petition. An action against the seller that might have been commenced when the petition was filed may be commenced within sixty days after the petition is denied. 6. Collection and list of assets. a. As soon as practicable after the liquidation order but not later than one hundred twenty days after such order, the liquidator shall prepare in duplicate a list of the seller's assets. The list shall be amended or supplemented as the liquidator may determine. One copy shall be filed in the office of the clerk of court, and one copy shall be retained for the liquidator's files. Amendments and supplements shall be similarly filed. b. The liquidator shall reduce the assets to a degree of liquidity that is consistent with the effective execution of the liquidation. c. A submission of a proposal to the court for distribution of assets in accordance with subsection 11 fulfills the requirements of paragraph "a". 7. Fraudulent transfers prior to petition. a. A transfer made and an obligation incurred by a seller whose business is within one year prior to the filing of a successful petition for liquidation under this chapter is fraudulent as to then existing and future creditors if made or incurred without fair consideration, or with actual intent to hinder, delay, or defraud either existing or future creditors. A fraudulent transfer made or an obligation incurred by a seller whose business is ordered to be liquidated under this chapter may be avoided by the liquidator, except as to a person who in good faith is a purchaser, lienor, or obligee for a present fair equivalent value. A purchaser, lienor, or obligee, who in good faith has given a consideration less than present fair equivalent value for such transfer, lien, or obligation, may retain the property, lien, or obligation as security for repayment. The court may, on due notice, order any such transfer, lien, or obligation to be preserved for the benefit of the estate, and in that event, the receiver shall succeed to and may enforce the rights of the purchaser, lienor, or obligee. b. (1) A transfer of property other than real property is made when it becomes perfected so that a subsequent lien obtainable by legal or equitable proceedings on a simple contract could not become superior to the rights of the transferee under subsection 9, paragraph "c". (2) A transfer of real property is made when it becomes perfected so that a subsequent bona fide purchaser from the seller could not obtain rights superior to the rights of the transferee. (3) A transfer which creates an equitable lien is not perfected if there are available means by which a legal lien could be perfected. (4) A transfer not perfected prior to the filing of a petition for liquidation is deemed to be made immediately before the filing of the successful petition. (5) This subsection applies whether or not there are or were creditors who might have obtained a lien or persons who might have become bona fide purchasers. 8. Fraudulent transfer after petition. a. After a petition for liquidation has been filed, a transfer of real property of the seller made to a person acting in good faith is valid against the liquidator if made for a present fair equivalent value. If the transfer is not made for a present fair equivalent value, then the transfer is valid to the extent of the present consideration actually paid for which amount the transferee shall have a lien on the property transferred. The commencement of a proceeding in liquidation is constructive notice upon the recording of a copy of the petition for or order of liquidation with the recorder of deeds in the county where any real property in question is located. The exercise by a court of the United States or a state or jurisdiction to authorize a judicial sale of real property of the seller within a county in a state shall not be impaired by the pendency of a proceeding unless the copy is recorded in the county prior to the consummation of the judicial sale. b. After a petition for liquidation has been filed and before either the liquidator takes possession of the property of the seller or an order of liquidation is granted: (1) A transfer of the property, other than real property, of the seller made to a person acting in good faith is valid against the liquidator if made for a present fair equivalent value. If the transfer was not made for a present fair equivalent value, then the transfer is valid to the extent of the present consideration actually paid for which amount the transferee shall have a lien on the property transferred. (2) If acting in good faith, a person indebted to the seller or holding property of the seller may pay the debt or deliver the property, or any part of the property, to the seller or upon the seller's order as if the petition were not pending. (3) A person having actual knowledge of the pending liquidation is not acting in good faith. (4) A person asserting the validity of a transfer under this subsection has the burden of proof. Except as provided in this subsection, a transfer by or on behalf of the seller after the date of the petition for liquidation by any person other than the liquidator is not valid against the liquidator. c. A person receiving any property from the seller or any benefit of the property of the seller which is a fraudulent transfer under paragraph "a" is personally liable for the property or benefit and shall account to the liquidator. d. This chapter does not impair the negotiability of currency or negotiable instruments. 9. Voidable preferences and liens. a. (1) A preference is a transfer of the property of a seller to or for the benefit of a creditor for an antecedent debt made or suffered by the seller within one year before the filing of a successful petition for liquidation under this chapter, the effect of which transfer may be to enable the creditor to obtain a greater percentage of this debt than another creditor of the same class would receive. If a liquidation order is entered while the seller is already subject to a receivership, then the transfers are preferences if made or suffered within one year before the filing of the successful petition for the receivership, or within two years before the filing of the successful petition for liquidation, whichever time is shorter. (2) A preference may be avoided by the liquidator if any of the following exist: (a) The seller was insolvent at the time of the transfer. (b) The transfer was made within four months before the filing of the petition. (c) At the time the transfer was made, the creditor receiving it or to be benefited by the transfer or the creditor's agent acting with reference to the transfer had reasonable cause to believe that the seller was insolvent or was about to become insolvent. (d) The creditor receiving the transfer was an officer, or an employee, attorney, or other person who was in fact in a position of comparable influence in the business of the seller to an officer whether or not the person held the position of an officer, owner, or other person, firm, corporation, association, or aggregation of persons with whom the seller did not deal at arm's length. (3) Where the preference is voidable, the liquidator may recover the property. If the property has been converted, the liquidator may recover its value from a person who has received or converted the property. However, if a bona fide purchaser or lienor has given less than the present fair equivalent value, the purchaser or lienor shall have a lien upon the property to the extent of the consideration actually given. Where a preference by way of lien or security interest is voidable, the court may on due notice order the lien or security interest to be preserved for the benefit of the estate, in which event the lien or title shall pass to the liquidator. b. (1) A transfer of property other than real property is made when it becomes perfected so that a subsequent lien obtainable by legal or equitable proceedings on a simple contract could not become superior to the rights of the transferee. (2) A transfer of real property is made when it becomes perfected so that a subsequent bona fide purchaser from the seller could not obtain rights superior to the rights of the transferee. (3) A transfer which creates an equitable lien is not perfected if there are available means by which a legal lien could be created. (4) A transfer not perfected prior to the filing of a petition for liquidation is deemed to be made immediately before the filing of the successful petition. (5) This subsection applies whether or not there are or were creditors who might have obtained liens or persons who might have become bona fide purchasers. c. (1) A lien obtainable by legal or equitable proceedings upon a simple contract is one arising in the ordinary course of the proceedings upon the entry or docketing of a judgment or decree, or upon attachment, garnishment, execution, or like process, whether before, upon, or after judgment or decree and whether before or upon levy. It does not include liens which under applicable law are given a special priority over other liens which are prior in time. (2) A lien obtainable by legal or equitable proceedings may become superior to the rights of a transferee, or a purchaser may obtain rights superior to the rights of a transferee within the meaning of paragraph "b", if such consequences follow only from the lien or purchase itself, or from the lien or purchase followed by a step wholly within the control of the respective lienholder or purchaser, with or without the aid of ministerial action by public officials. However, a lien could not become superior and a purchase could not create superior rights for the purpose of paragraph "b" through an act subsequent to the obtaining of a lien or subsequent to a purchase which requires the agreement or concurrence of any third party or which requires further judicial action or ruling. d. A transfer of property for or on account of a new and contemporaneous consideration, which is under paragraph "b" made or suffered after the transfer because of delay in perfecting it, does not become a transfer for or on account of an antecedent debt if any acts required by the applicable law to be performed in order to perfect the transfer as against liens or a bona fide purchaser's rights are performed within twenty-one days or any period expressly allowed by the law, whichever is less. A transfer to secure a future loan, if a loan is actually made, or a transfer which becomes security for a future loan, shall have the same effect as a transfer for or on account of a new and contemporaneous consideration. e. If a lien which is voidable under paragraph "a", subparagraph (2), has been dissolved by the furnishing of a bond or other obligation, the surety of which has been indemnified directly or indirectly by the transfer or the creation of a lien upon property of a seller before the filing of a petition under this chapter which results in the liquidation order, the indemnifying transfer or lien is also voidable. f. The property affected by a lien voidable under paragraphs "a" and "e" is discharged from the lien. The property and any of the indemnifying property transferred to or for the benefit of a surety shall pass to the liquidator. However, the court may on due notice order a lien to be preserved for the benefit of the estate and the court may direct that the conveyance be executed to evidence the title of the liquidator. g. The court shall have summary jurisdiction in a proceeding by a liquidator to hear and determine the rights of the parties under this section. Reasonable notice of hearing in the proceeding shall be given to all parties in interest, including the obligee of a releasing bond or other like obligation. Where an order is entered for the recovery of indemnifying property in kind or for the avoidance of an indemnifying lien, upon application of any party in interest, the court shall in the same proceeding ascertain the value of the property or lien. If the value is less than the amount for which the property is indemnified or less than the amount of the lien, the transferee or lienholder may elect to retain the property or lien upon payment of its value, as ascertained by the court, to the liquidator within the time as fixed by the court. h. The liability of a surety under a releasing bond or other like obligation is discharged to the extent of the value of the indemnifying property recovered or the indemnifying lien nullified and avoided by the liquidator. Where the property is retained under paragraph "g", the liability of the surety is discharged to the extent of the amount paid to the liquidator. i. If a creditor has been preferred for property which becomes a part of the seller's estate, and afterward in good faith gives the seller further credit without security of any kind, the amount of the new credit remaining unpaid at the time of the petition may be set off against the preference which would otherwise be recoverable from the creditor. j. If within four months before the filing of a successful petition for liquidation under this chapter, or at any time in contemplation of a proceeding to liquidate, a seller, directly or indirectly, pays money or transfers property to an attorney for services rendered or to be rendered, the transaction may be examined by the court on its own motion or shall be examined by the court on petition of the liquidator. The payment or transfer shall be held valid only to the extent of a reasonable amount to be determined by the court. The excess may be recovered by the liquidator for the benefit of the estate. However, where the attorney is in a position of influence in the business of the seller or an affiliate, payment of any money or the transfer of any property to the attorney for services rendered or to be rendered shall be governed by the provisions of paragraph "a", subparagraph (2), subparagraph division (d). k. (1) An officer, manager, employee, shareholder, subscriber, attorney, or other person acting on behalf of the seller who knowingly participates in giving any preference when the person has reasonable cause to believe the seller is or is about to become insolvent at the time of the preference is personally liable to the liquidator for the amount of the preference. There is an inference that reasonable cause exists if the transfer was made within four months before the date of filing of this successful petition for liquidation. (2) A person receiving property from the seller or the benefit of the property of the seller as a preference voidable under paragraph "a" is personally liable for the property and shall account to the liquidator. (3) This subsection shall not prejudice any other claim by the liquidator against any person. 10. Claims of holder of void or voidable rights. a. A claim of a creditor who has received or acquired a preference, lien, conveyance, transfer, assignment, or encumbrance, voidable under this chapter, shall not be allowed unless the creditor surrenders the preference, lien, conveyance, transfer, assignment, or encumbrance. If the avoidance is effected by a proceeding in which a final judgment has been entered, the claim shall not be allowed unless the money is paid or the property is delivered to the liquidator within thirty days from the date of the entering of the final judgment. However, the court having jurisdiction over the liquidation may allow further time if there is an appeal or other continuation of the proceeding. b. A claim allowable under paragraph "a" by reason of a voluntary or involuntary avoidance, preference, lien, conveyance, transfer, assignment, or encumbrance may be filed as an excused late filing under subsection 12, if filed within thirty days from the date of the avoidance or within the further time allowed by the court under paragraph "a". 11. Liquidator's proposal to distribute assets. a. From time to time as assets become available, the liquidator shall make application to the court for approval of a proposal to disburse assets out of marshaled assets. b. The proposal shall at least include provisions for all of the following: (1) Reserving amounts for the payment of all the following: (a) Expenses of administration. (b) To the extent of the value of the security held, the payment of claims of secured creditors. (c) Claims falling within the priorities established in subsection 18, paragraphs "a" and "b". (2) Disbursement of the assets marshaled to date and subsequent disbursement of assets as they become available. c. Action on the application may be taken by the court provided that the liquidator's proposal complies with paragraph "b". 12. Filing of claims. a. Proof of all claims shall be filed with the liquidator in the form required by subsection 13 on or before the last day for filing specified in the notice required under subsection 4. b. The liquidator may permit a claimant making a late filing to share in distributions, whether past or future, as if the claimant were not late, to the extent that the payment will not prejudice the orderly administration of the liquidation under any of the following circumstances: (1) The existence of the claim was not known to the claimant and the claimant filed the claim as promptly as reasonably possible after learning of it. (2) A transfer to a creditor was avoided under subsections 7 through 9, or was voluntarily surrendered under subsection 10, and the filing satisfies the conditions of subsection 10. (3) The valuation under subsection 17 of security held by a secured creditor shows a deficiency, which is filed within thirty days after the valuation. c. The liquidator may consider any claim filed late and permit the claimant to receive distributions which are subsequently declared on any claims of the same or lower priority if the payment does not prejudice the orderly administration of the liquidation. The late-filing claimant shall receive at each distribution the same percentage of the amount allowed on the claim as is then being paid to claimants of any lower priority. This shall continue until the claim has been paid in full. 13. Proof of claim. a. Proof of claim shall consist of a statement signed by the claimant that includes all of the following that are applicable: (1) The particulars of the claim, including the consideration given for it. (2) The identity and amount of the security on the claim. (3) The payments, if any, made on the debt. (4) A statement that the sum claimed is justly owing and that there is no setoff, counterclaim, or defense to the claim. (5) Any right of priority of payment or other specific right asserted by the claimant. (6) A copy of the written instrument which is the foundation of the claim. (7) The name and address of the claimant and the attorney who represents the claimant, if any. b. A claim need not be considered or allowed if it does not contain all the information identified in paragraph "a" which is applicable. The liquidator may require that a prescribed form be used and may require that other information and documents be included. c. At any time the liquidator may request the claimant to present information or evidence supplementary to that required under paragraph "a", and may take testimony under oath, require production of affidavits or depositions, or otherwise obtain additional information or evidence. d. A judgment or order against a seller entered after the date of filing of a successful petition for liquidation, or a judgment or order against the seller entered at any time by default or by collusion need not be considered as evidence of liability or of the amount of damages. A judgment or order against a seller before the filing of the petition need not be considered as evidence of liability or of the amount of damages. 14. Special claims. a. A claim may be allowed even if contingent, if it is filed pursuant to subsection 12. The claim may be allowed and the claimant may participate in all distributions declared after it is filed to the extent that it does not prejudice the orderly administration of the liquidation. b. Claims that are due except for the passage of time shall be treated as absolute claims are treated. However, the claims may be discounted at the legal rate of interest. c. Claims made under employment contracts by directors, principal officers, or persons in fact performing similar functions or having similar powers are limited to payment for services rendered prior to the issuance of an order of liquidation under subsection 2. 15. Disputed claims. a. If a claim is denied in whole or in part by the liquidator, written notice of the determination shall be given to the claimant or the claimant's attorney by first-class mail at the address shown in the proof of claim. Within sixty days from the mailing of the notice, the claimant may file objections with the liquidator. Unless a filing is made, the claimant shall not further object to the determination. b. If objections are filed with the liquidator and the liquidator does not alter the denial of the claim as a result of the objections, the liquidator shall ask the court for a hearing as soon as practicable and give notice of the hearing by first-class mail to the claimant or the claimant's attorney and to any other persons directly affected. The notice shall be given not less than ten nor more than thirty days before the date of hearing. The matter shall be heard by the court or by a court-appointed referee. The referee shall submit findings of fact along with a recommendation. 16. Claims of other person. If a creditor, whose claim against a seller is secured in whole or in part by the undertaking of another person, fails to prove and file that claim, then the other person may do so in the creditor's name and shall be subrogated to the rights of the creditor, whether the claim has been filed by the creditor or by the other person in the creditor's name to the extent that the other person discharges the undertaking. However, in the absence of an agreement with the creditor to the contrary, the other person is not entitled to any distribution until the amount paid to the creditor on the undertaking plus the distributions paid on the claim from the seller's estate to the creditor equal the amount of the entire claim of the creditor. An excess received by the creditor shall be held by the creditor in trust for the other person. 17. Secured creditor's claims. a. The value of the security held by a secured creditor shall be determined in one of the following ways, as the court may direct: (1) By converting the security into money according to the terms of the agreement pursuant to which the security was delivered to the creditors. (2) By agreement, arbitration, compromise, or litigation between the creditor and the liquidator. b. The determination shall be under the supervision and control of the court with due regard for the recommendation of the liquidator. The amount so determined shall be credited upon the secured claim. A deficiency shall be treated as an unsecured claim. If the claimant surrenders the security to the liquidator, the entire claim shall be allowed as if unsecured. 18. The priority of distribution of claims from the seller's estate shall be in accordance with the order in which each class of claims is set forth. Claims in each class shall be paid in full or adequate funds retained for the payment before the members of the next class receive any payment. Subclasses shall not be established within a class. The order of distribution of claims is as follows: a. Class 1. The costs and expenses of administration, including but not limited to the following: (1) Actual and necessary costs of preserving or recovering the assets of the seller. (2) Compensation for all authorized services rendered in the liquidation. (3) Necessary filing fees. (4) Fees and mileage payable to witnesses. (5) Authorized reasonable attorney fees and other professional services rendered in the liquidation. b. Class 2. Reasonable compensation to employees for services performed to the extent that they do not exceed two months of monetary compensation and represent payment for services performed within one year before the filing of the petition for liquidation. Officers and directors are not entitled to the benefit of this priority. The priority is in lieu of other similar priority which may be authorized by law as to wages or compensation of employees. c. Class 3. Claims under purchase agreements. d. Class 4. Claims of general creditors. e. Class 5. Claims of the federal or of any state or local government. Claims, including those of a governmental body for a penalty or forfeiture, are allowed in this class only to the extent of the pecuniary loss sustained from the act, transaction, or proceeding out of which the penalty or forfeiture arose, with reasonable and actual costs incurred. The remainder of such claims shall be postponed to the class of claims under paragraph "g". f. Class 6. Claims filed late or any other claims other than claims under paragraph "g". g. Class 7. The claims of shareholders or other owners. 19. Liquidator's recommendations to the court. a. The liquidator shall review claims duly filed in the liquidation and shall make further investigation as necessary. The liquidator may compound, compromise, or in any other manner negotiate the amount for which claims will be recommended to the court except where the liquidator is required by law to accept claims as settled by a person or organization. Unresolved disputes shall be determined under subsection 15. As soon as practicable, the liquidator shall present to the court a report of the claims against the seller with the liquidator's recommendations. The report shall include the name and address of each claimant and the amount of the claim finally recommended. b. The court may approve, disapprove, or modify the report on claims by the liquidator. Reports not modified by the court within sixty days following submission by the liquidator shall be treated by the liquidator as allowed claims, subject to later modification or to rulings made by the court pursuant to subsection 15. A claim under a policy of insurance shall not be allowed for an amount in excess of the applicable policy limits. 20. Distribution of assets. Under the direction of the court, the liquidator shall pay distributions in a manner that will ensure the proper recognition of priorities and a reasonable balance between the expeditious completion of the liquidation and the protection of unliquidated and undetermined claims, including third-party claims. Distribution of assets in kind may be made at valuations set by agreement between the liquidator and the creditor and approved by the court. 21. Unclaimed and withheld funds. a. Unclaimed funds subject to distribution remaining in the liquidator's hands when the liquidator is ready to apply to the court for discharge, including the amount distributable to a creditor, owner, or other person who is unknown or cannot be found, shall be deposited with the treasurer of state, and shall be paid without interest, except as provided in subsection 18, to the person entitled or to the person's legal representative upon proof satisfactory to the treasurer of state of the right to the funds. Any amount on deposit not claimed within six years from the discharge of the liquidator is deemed to have been abandoned and shall become the property of the state without formal escheat proceedings and be transferred to the insurance division regulatory fund. b. Funds withheld under subsection 14 and not distributed shall upon discharge of the liquidator be deposited with the treasurer of state and paid pursuant to subsection 18. Sums remaining which under subsection 18 would revert to the undistributed assets of the seller shall be transferred to the insurance division regulatory fund and become the property of the state as provided under paragraph "a", unless the commissioner in the commissioner's discretion petitions the court to reopen the liquidation pursuant to subsection 23. c. Notwithstanding any other provision of this chapter, funds as identified in paragraph "a", with the approval of the court, shall be made available to the commissioner for use in the detection and prevention of future insolvencies. The commissioner shall hold these funds in the insurance division regulatory fund and shall pay without interest, except as provided in subsection 18, to the person entitled to the funds or to the person's legal representative upon proof satisfactory to the commissioner of the person's right to the funds. The funds shall be held by the commissioner for a period of two years at which time the rights and duties to the unclaimed funds shall vest in the commissioner. 22. Termination of proceedings. a. When all assets justifying the expense of collection and distribution have been collected and distributed under this chapter, the liquidator shall apply to the court for discharge. The court may grant the discharge and make any other orders, including an order to transfer remaining funds that are uneconomical to distribute, as appropriate. b. Any other person may apply to the court at any time for an order under paragraph "a". If the application is denied, the applicant shall pay the costs and expenses of the liquidator in resisting the application, including a reasonable attorney fee. 23. Reopening liquidation. At any time after the liquidation proceeding has been terminated and the liquidator discharged, the commissioner or other interested party may petition the court to reopen the proceedings for good cause including the discovery of additional assets. The court shall order the proceeding reopened if it is satisfied that there is justification for the reopening. 24. Disposition of records during and after termination of liquidation. If it appears to the commissioner that the records of the business of a seller in the process of liquidation or completely liquidated are no longer useful, the commissioner may recommend to the court and the court shall direct what records shall be retained for future reference and what records shall be destroyed. 25. External audit of liquidator's books. The court may order audits to be made of the books of the commissioner relating to a liquidation established under this chapter, and a report of each audit shall be filed with the commissioner and with the court. The books, records, and other documents of the liquidation shall be made available to the auditor at any time without notice. The expense of an audit shall be considered a cost of administration of the liquidation.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 118, §54; 2002 Acts, ch 1050, §50; 2002 Acts, ch
      1119, §85, 86; 2007 Acts, ch 175, §74--94; 2008 Acts, ch 1123, §53;
      2009 Acts, ch 41, §263

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