CHAPTER 321 MOTOR VEHICLES AND LAW OF THE ROAD
Surcharge imposed on certificate fees under § 321.20, 321.20A, 321.23, 321.42, 321.46, 321.47, 321.48, 321.50, and 321.52; see § 321.52A Fines doubled for moving traffic violations occurring

321.1 DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND PHRASES.
321.1A PRESUMPTION OF RESIDENCY.
321.2 ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT.
321.3 POWERS AND DUTIES OF DIRECTOR.
321.4 RULES.
321.5 DUTY TO OBEY.
321.6 RECIPROCAL ENFORCEMENT -- PATROL BEATS.
321.7 SEAL OF DEPARTMENT.
321.8 DIRECTOR TO PRESCRIBE FORMS.
321.9 AUTHORITY TO ADMINISTER OATHS AND ACKNOWLEDGE SIGNATURES.
321.10 CERTIFIED COPIES OF RECORDS.
321.11 RECORDS OF DEPARTMENT.
321.11A PERSONAL INFORMATION DISCLOSURE -- EXCEPTION.
321.12 DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS.
321.13 AUTHORITY TO GRANT OR REFUSE APPLICATIONS.
321.14 SEIZURE OF DOCUMENTS AND PLATES.
321.15 PUBLICATION OF LAW.
321.16 GIVING OF NOTICES.
321.17 MISDEMEANOR TO VIOLATE REGISTRATION PROVISIONS.
321.18 VEHICLES SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION -- EXCEPTION.
321.18A RECORDS OF IMPLEMENTS OF HUSBANDRY.
321.19 EXEMPTIONS -- DISTINGUISHING PLATES -- DEFINITIONS OF URBAN TRANSIT COMPANY AND REGIONAL TRANSIT SYSTEM.
321.20 APPLICATION FOR REGISTRATION AND CERTIFICATE OF TITLE.
321.20A CERTIFICATE OF TITLE AND REGISTRATION FEES -- COMMERCIAL VEHICLES.
321.20B PROOF OF SECURITY AGAINST LIABILITY -- DRIVING WITHOUT LIABILITY COVERAGE.
321.22 URBAN AND REGIONAL TRANSIT EQUIPMENT CERTIFICATES AND PLATES.
321.23A AFFIDAVIT OF CORRECTION.
321.24 ISSUANCE OF REGISTRATION AND CERTIFICATE OF TITLE.
321.25 APPLICATION FOR REGISTRATION AND TITLE -- CARDS ATTACHED.
321.26 MULTIPLE REGISTRATION PERIODS AND ADJUSTMENTS.
321.28 FAILURE TO REGISTER.
321.29 RENEWAL NOT PERMITTED.
321.30 GROUNDS FOR REFUSING REGISTRATION OR TITLE.
321.31 RECORDS SYSTEM.
321.32 REGISTRATION CARD CARRIED AND EXHIBITED.
321.33 EXCEPTION.
321.34 PLATES OR VALIDATION STICKER FURNISHED -- RETAINED BY OWNER -- SPECIAL PLATES.
321.35 PLATES -- REFLECTIVE MATERIAL -- BIDDING PROCEDURES.
321.37 DISPLAY OF PLATES.
321.38 PLATES, METHOD OF ATTACHING -- IMITATIONS PROHIBITED.
321.39 EXPIRATION OF REGISTRATION.
321.40 APPLICATION FOR RENEWAL -- NOTIFICATION -- REASONS FOR REFUSAL.
321.41 CHANGE OF ADDRESS OR NAME OR FUEL TYPE.
321.42 LOST OR DAMAGED CERTIFICATES, CARDS, AND PLATES -- REPLACEMENTS.
321.43 NEW IDENTIFYING NUMBERS.
321.44 RULES GOVERNING CHANGE OF ENGINES, DRIVETRAIN ASSEMBLIES AND RELATED PARTS.
321.45 TITLE MUST BE TRANSFERRED WITH VEHICLE.
321.46 NEW TITLE AND REGISTRATION UPON TRANSFER OF OWNERSHIP -- CREDIT.
321.46A CHANGE FROM PROPORTIONAL REGISTRATION -- CREDIT.
321.47 TRANSFERS BY OPERATION OF LAW.
321.48 VEHICLES ACQUIRED FOR RESALE.
321.49 TIME LIMIT -- PENALTY -- POWER OF ATTORNEY.
321.50 SECURITY INTEREST PROVISIONS.
321.51 TERMINAL RENTAL ADJUSTMENT CLAUSE -- VEHICLE LEASES THAT ARE NOT SALES OR SECURITY INTERESTS.
321.52 OUT-OF-STATE SALES -- JUNKED, DISMANTLED, WRECKED, OR SALVAGE VEHICLES.
321.52A CERTIFICATE OF TITLE SURCHARGE -- ALLOCATION OF MONEYS.
321.53 NONRESIDENT OWNERS OF PASSENGER VEHICLES AND TRUCKS.
321.54 REGISTRATION AND FINANCIAL LIABILITY COVERAGE REQUIRED OF CERTAIN NONRESIDENT CARRIERS.
321.55 REGISTRATION AND FINANCIAL LIABILITY COVERAGE REQUIRED FOR CERTAIN VEHICLES OWNED OR OPERATED BY NONRESIDENTS.
321.56 REPAIR OF OUT-OF-STATE COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES -- PERMITS.
321.57 OPERATION UNDER SPECIAL PLATES.
321.58 APPLICATION.
321.59 ISSUANCE OF CERTIFICATE.
321.60 ISSUANCE OF SPECIAL PLATES.
321.61 EXPIRATION OF SPECIAL PLATES.
321.62 RECORDS REQUIRED.
321.63 DIFFERENT PLACES OF BUSINESS.
321.65 GARAGE RECORD.
321.66 DUTY TO HOLD VEHICLES.
321.67 CERTIFICATE OF TITLE MUST BE EXECUTED.
321.68 SALE IN BULK.
321.69 DAMAGE DISCLOSURE STATEMENT.
321.70 DEALER VEHICLES.
321.71 ODOMETER REQUIREMENTS.
321.71A NONOPERATIVE AIR BAGS.
321.72 REPORT OF STOLEN AND RECOVERED MOTOR VEHICLES.
321.73 REPORTS BY OWNERS.
321.74 ACTION BY DEPARTMENT.
321.76 AND 321.77
321.78 INJURING OR TAMPERING WITH VEHICLE.
321.79 INTENT TO INJURE.
321.81 PRESUMPTIVE EVIDENCE.
321.82 AND 321.83
321.84 SEIZURE OF VEHICLES.
321.85 STOLEN VEHICLES OR COMPONENT PARTS.
321.86 NOTICE BY DIRECTOR.
321.87 DELIVERY TO OWNER.
321.88 FAILURE OF OWNER TO CLAIM.
321.89 ABANDONED VEHICLES.
321.90 DISPOSAL OF ABANDONED MOTOR VEHICLES.
321.91 LIMITATION ON LIABILITY -- PENALTY FOR ABANDONMENT.
321.92 ALTERING OR CHANGING NUMBERS.
321.93 DEFENSE.
321.94 TEST TO DETERMINE TRUE NUMBER.
321.95 RIGHT OF INSPECTION.
321.96 PROHIBITED PLATES -- CERTIFICATES.
321.97 FRAUDULENT APPLICATIONS.
321.98 OPERATION WITHOUT REGISTRATION.
321.99 FRAUDULENT USE OF REGISTRATION.
321.100 FALSE EVIDENCES OF REGISTRATION.
321.101 SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION OF REGISTRATION OR CANCELLATION OF CERTIFICATE OF TITLE BY DEPARTMENT.
321.101A REVOCATION OF REGISTRATION BY COUNTY TREASURER.
321.102 SUSPENDING OR REVOKING SPECIAL REGISTRATION.
321.103 OWNER TO RETURN EVIDENCES OF REGISTRATION AND TITLE.
321.104 PENAL OFFENSES AGAINST TITLE LAW.
321.105 ANNUAL REGISTRATION FEE REQUIRED.
321.105A FEE FOR NEW REGISTRATION.
321.106 REGISTRATION FOR FRACTIONAL PART OF YEAR.
321.109 MOTOR VEHICLE FEE -- TRANSIT FEE.
321.110 REJECTING FRACTIONAL DOLLARS.
321.111 CONVERSION OF CAR -- EFFECT.
321.112 MINIMUM MOTOR VEHICLE FEE.
321.113 AUTOMATIC REDUCTION.
321.115 ANTIQUE VEHICLES -- MODEL YEAR PLATES PERMITTED.
321.115A REPLICA VEHICLES AND STREET RODS -- MODEL YEAR PLATES PERMITTED -- PENALTY.
321.116 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES.
321.117 MOTORCYCLE, AMBULANCE, AND HEARSE FEES.
321.119 CHURCH BUSES.
321.120 BUSINESS-TRADE TRUCKS.
321.121 SPECIAL TRUCKS FOR FARM USE.
321.122 TRUCKS, TRUCK TRACTORS, AND ROAD TRACTORS -- FEES.
321.123 TRAILERS.
321.124 MOTOR HOMES AND MULTIPURPOSE VEHICLES -- FEES.
321.125 EFFECT OF EXEMPTION.
321.126 REFUNDS OF ANNUAL REGISTRATION FEES.
321.127 PAYMENT OF REFUND.
321.128 PAYMENT AUTHORIZED.
321.129 WHEN FEES RETURNABLE.
321.130 FEES IN LIEU OF TAXES.
321.131 LIEN OF FEE.
321.132 WHEN LIEN ATTACHES.
321.133 METHODS OF COLLECTION.
321.134 MONTHLY PENALTY.
321.135 WHEN FEES DELINQUENT.
321.136 THROUGH 321.144
321.145 DISPOSITION OF MONEYS AND FEES.
321.148 MONTHLY ESTIMATE.
321.149 SUPPLIES.
321.150 TIME LIMIT.
321.151 DUTY AND LIABILITY OF TREASURER.
321.152 COLLECTION FEES RETAINED BY COUNTY.
321.153 TREASURER'S REPORT TO DEPARTMENT.
321.154 REPORTS BY DEPARTMENT.
321.155 DUTY OF TREASURER OF STATE.
321.156 AUDIT BY DEPARTMENT.
321.157 SCHEDULE OF PRICES AND WEIGHTS.
321.158 REGISTRATION DEPENDENT ON SCHEDULE.
321.159 EXCEPTIONAL CASES -- ANNUAL REGISTRATION FEE.
321.160 DEPARTMENT TO MAINTAIN STATEMENT.
321.161 DEPARTMENT TO FIX VALUES AND WEIGHT.
321.162 METHOD OF FIXING VALUE AND WEIGHT.
321.165 MANUFACTURE BY STATE.
321.166 VEHICLE PLATE SPECIFICATIONS.
321.167 DELIVERY OF PLATES, STICKERS, AND EMBLEMS.
321.168 ADDITIONAL DELIVERIES.
321.169 ACCOUNT OF PLATES.
321.170 PLATES FOR EXEMPT VEHICLES.
321.171 TITLE OF PLATES.
321.173 WHEN FEES RETURNABLE.
321.174 OPERATORS LICENSED -- OPERATION OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES.
321.174A OPERATION OF MOTOR VEHICLE WITH EXPIRED LICENSE.
321.176 PERSONS EXEMPT FROM DRIVER'S LICENSING REQUIREMENTS.
321.176A PERSONS EXEMPT FROM COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE REQUIREMENTS.
321.176B PERSONS EXEMPT BY RULE FROM COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE REQUIREMENTS.
321.177 PERSONS NOT TO BE LICENSED.
321.178 DRIVER EDUCATION -- RESTRICTED LICENSE -- RECIPROCITY.
321.180 INSTRUCTION PERMITS.
321.180A SPECIAL INSTRUCTION PERMIT.
321.180B GRADUATED DRIVER'S LICENSES FOR PERSONS AGED FOURTEEN THROUGH SEVENTEEN.
321.181 TEMPORARY PERMIT.
321.182 APPLICATION.
321.184 APPLICATIONS OF UNMARRIED MINORS.
321.185 DEATH OF PERSON SIGNING APPLICATION -- EFFECT.
321.186 EXAMINATION OF NEW OR INCOMPETENT OPERATORS.
321.186A VISION REPORT IN LIEU OF VISION TEST.
321.187 EXAMINERS.
321.188 COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE REQUIREMENTS.
321.189 DRIVER'S LICENSE -- CONTENT.
321.189A DRIVER'S LICENSE FOR UNDERCOVER LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS -- FEE -- PENALTIES.
321.190 ISSUANCE OF NONOPERATOR'S IDENTIFICATION CARDS -- FEE.
321.191 FEES FOR DRIVER'S LICENSES.
321.192 WAIVERS OR REFUNDS OF FEES.
321.193 RESTRICTIONS ON LICENSES -- PENALTY.
321.194 SPECIAL MINORS' LICENSES.
321.195 DUPLICATE DRIVER'S LICENSES AND NONOPERATOR'S IDENTIFICATION CARDS.
321.196 EXPIRATION OF LICENSE -- RENEWAL.
321.198 MILITARY SERVICE EXCEPTION.
321.199 DRIVER'S LICENSE RECORDS.
321.200 CONVICTION AND ACCIDENT FILE.
321.200A CONVICTIONS BASED UPON FRAUD.
321.203 SUSPENDING PRIVILEGES OF NONRESIDENTS.
321.204 CERTIFICATION OF CONVICTION -- NOTIFICATION OF COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE DISQUALIFICATION.
321.205 CONVICTION OR ADMINISTRATIVE DECISION IN ANOTHER JURISDICTION.
321.206 SURRENDER OF LICENSE -- DUTY OF COURT.
321.208 COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE DISQUALIFICATION -- REPLACEMENT DRIVER'S LICENSE -- TEMPORARY LICENSE.
321.208A OPERATION IN VIOLATION OF OUT-OF-SERVICE ORDER -- PENALTIES.
321.209 MANDATORY REVOCATION.
321.210 SUSPENSION.
321.210A SUSPENSION FOR FAILURE TO PAY FINE, PENALTY, SURCHARGE, OR COURT COSTS.
321.210B INSTALLMENT AGREEMENT.
321.210C PROBATION PERIOD.
321.210D VEHICULAR HOMICIDE SUSPENSION -- TERMINATION UPON REVOCATION OF LICENSE -- REOPENING OF SUSPENSION.
321.211 NOTICE AND HEARING -- APPROPRIATION.
321.211A APPEAL OF EXTENDED SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION.
321.212 PERIOD OF SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION -- SURRENDER OF LICENSE.
321.213 LICENSE SUSPENSIONS OR REVOCATIONS DUE TO VIOLATIONS BY JUVENILE DRIVERS.
321.213A LICENSE SUSPENSION FOR JUVENILES ADJUDICATED DELINQUENT FOR CERTAIN DRUG OR ALCOHOL OFFENSES.
321.213B SUSPENSION FOR FAILURE TO ATTEND.
321.215 TEMPORARY RESTRICTED LICENSE.
321.216 UNLAWFUL USE OF LICENSE OR NONOPERATOR'S IDENTIFICATION CARD -- PENALTY.
321.216A FALSIFYING DRIVER'S LICENSES, NONOPERATOR'S IDENTIFICATION CARDS, OR FORMS.
321.216B USE OF DRIVER'S LICENSE OR NONOPERATOR'S IDENTIFICATION CARD BY UNDERAGE PERSON TO OBTAIN ALCOHOL.
321.217 PERJURY.
321.218 OPERATING WITHOUT VALID DRIVER'S LICENSE OR WHEN DISQUALIFIED -- PENALTIES.
321.218A CIVIL PENALTY -- DISPOSITION -- REINSTATEMENT.
321.219 PERMITTING UNAUTHORIZED MINOR TO DRIVE.
321.220 PERMITTING UNAUTHORIZED PERSON TO DRIVE.
321.221 EMPLOYING UNLICENSED CHAUFFEUR.
321.222 RENTING MOTOR VEHICLE TO ANOTHER.
321.223 DRIVER'S LICENSE INSPECTION FOR MOTOR VEHICLE RENTAL.
321.224 RECORD KEPT.
321.225 THROUGH 321.227
321.228 PROVISIONS REFER TO HIGHWAYS -- EXCEPTIONS.
321.229 OBEDIENCE TO PEACE OFFICERS.
321.230 PUBLIC OFFICERS NOT EXEMPT.
321.231 AUTHORIZED EMERGENCY VEHICLES AND POLICE BICYCLES.
321.232 RADAR JAMMING DEVICES -- PENALTY.
321.233 ROAD WORKERS EXEMPTED.
321.234 BICYCLES, ANIMALS, OR ANIMAL-DRAWN VEHICLES.
321.234A ALL-TERRAIN VEHICLES -- HIGHWAY USE.
321.235 PROVISIONS UNIFORM.
321.235A ELECTRIC PERSONAL ASSISTIVE MOBILITY DEVICES.
321.236 POWERS OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES.



        

321.1 DEFINITIONS OF WORDS AND PHRASES. The following words and phrases when used in this chapter shall, for the purpose of this chapter, have the meanings respectively ascribed to them. 1. "Agricultural hazardous material" means a hazardous material, other than hazardous waste, whose end use directly supports the production of an agricultural commodity, including, but not limited to, a fertilizer, pesticide, soil conditioner, or fuel. "Agricultural hazardous material" is limited to material in class 3, 8, or 9, division 2.1, 2.2, 5.1, or 6.1, or an ORM-D material as defined in 49 C.F.R. § 171.8. 1A. "Alcohol concentration" means the number of grams of alcohol per any of the following: a. One hundred milliliters of blood. b. Two hundred ten liters of breath. c. Sixty-seven milliliters of urine. 2. "Alcoholic beverage" includes alcohol, wine, spirits, beer, or any other beverage which contains ethyl alcohol and is fit for human consumption. 3. "Alley" means a thoroughfare laid out, established, and platted as such, by constituted authority. 4. "All-terrain vehicle" means a motor vehicle designed to travel on three or more wheels and designed primarily for off-road recreational use but not including farm tractors or equipment, construction equipment, forestry vehicles, or lawn and grounds maintenance vehicles. 5. "Ambulance" means a motor vehicle which is equipped with life support systems and used to transport sick and injured persons who require emergency medical care to medical facilities. 6. "Authorized emergency vehicle" means vehicles of the fire department, police vehicles, ambulances, and emergency vehicles owned by the United States, this state, any subdivision of this state, or any municipality of this state, and privately owned vehicles as are designated or authorized by the director of transportation under section 321.451. 6A. "Bona fide business address" means the current street or highway address of a firm, association, or corporation. 6B. "Bona fide residence" or "bona fide address" means the current street or highway address of an individual's residence. The bona fide residence of a person with more than one dwelling is the dwelling for which the person claims a homestead tax credit under chapter 425, if applicable. The bona fide residence of a homeless person is a primary nighttime residence meeting one of the criteria listed in section 48A.2, subsection 2. 7. "Business district" means the territory contiguous to and including a highway when fifty percent or more of the frontage thereon for a distance of three hundred feet or more is occupied by buildings in use for business. 7A. "Business-trade truck" means a motor truck with an unladen weight of ten thousand pounds or less which is owned by a corporation, limited liability company, or partnership or by a person who files a schedule C or schedule F form with the federal internal revenue service and which is eligible for depreciation under § 167 of the Internal Revenue Code. If the motor truck is a leased vehicle, the motor truck is a business-trade truck only if the lessee is a corporation, limited liability company, or partnership and the truck is used primarily for purposes of the business operations of the corporation, limited liability company, or partnership or the lessee is a person who files a schedule C or schedule F form with the federal internal revenue service and the truck is used primarily for purposes of the person's own business or farming operation. 8. "Chauffeur" means a person who operates a motor vehicle, including a school bus, in the transportation of persons for wages, compensation, or hire, or a person who operates a truck tractor, road tractor, or a motor truck which has a gross vehicle weight rating exceeding sixteen thousand pounds. a. A person is not a chauffeur when the operation of the motor vehicle, other than a truck tractor, by the owner or operator is occasional and merely incidental to the owner's or operator's principal business. b. A person is not a chauffeur when the operation is by a volunteer fire fighter operating fire apparatus, or is by a volunteer ambulance or rescue squad attendant operating ambulance or rescue squad apparatus. If a volunteer fire fighter or ambulance or rescue squad operator receives nominal compensation not based upon the value of the services performed, the fire fighter or operator shall be considered to be receiving no compensation and classified as a volunteer. c. If authorized to transport inmates, probationers, parolees, or work releasees by the director of the Iowa department of corrections or the director's designee, an employee of the Iowa department of corrections or a district department of correctional services is not a chauffeur when transporting the inmates, probationers, parolees, or work releasees. d. A farmer or the farmer's hired help is not a chauffeur when operating a truck, other than a truck tractor, owned by the farmer and used exclusively in connection with the transportation of the farmer's own products or property. e. If authorized to transport patients or clients by the director of the department of human services or the director's designee, an employee of the department of human services is not a chauffeur when transporting the patients or clients in an automobile. f. A person is not a chauffeur when the operation is by a home care aide in the course of the home care aide's duties. g. If authorized to transport students or clients by the superintendent of the Iowa braille and sight saving school or of the Iowa school for the deaf, or the superintendent's respective designee, an employee of the Iowa braille and sight saving school or the Iowa school for the deaf is not a chauffeur when transporting the students or clients. h. If authorized to transport patients or residents of the Iowa veterans home by the commandant or the commandant's designee, an employee of or volunteer at the Iowa veterans home is not a chauffeur when transporting the patients or residents in an automobile in the course of the employee's or volunteer's normal duties. 9. "Combination" or "combination of vehicles" shall be construed to mean a group consisting of two or more motor vehicles, or a group consisting of a motor vehicle and one or more trailers, semitrailers or vehicles, which are coupled or fastened together for the purpose of being moved on the highways as a unit. 10. a. "Combined gross weight" means the gross weight of a combination of vehicles. b. "Gross combination weight rating" means the combined gross vehicle weight ratings for each vehicle in a combination of vehicles. In the absence of a weight specified by the manufacturer for a towed vehicle, the gross vehicle weight rating of the towed vehicle is its gross weight. 11. For purposes of administering and enforcing the commercial driver's license provisions: a. "Commercial driver" means the operator of a commercial motor vehicle. b. "Commercial driver's license" means a driver's license valid for the operation of a commercial motor vehicle. c. "Commercial driver's license information system" means the national information system established to serve as a clearinghouse for locating information related to the licensing and identification of commercial motor vehicle drivers. d. "Commercial motor carrier" means a person responsible for the safe operation of a commercial motor vehicle. e. "Commercial motor vehicle" means a motor vehicle or combination of vehicles used to transport passengers or property if any of the following apply: (1) The combination of vehicles has a gross combination weight rating of twenty-six thousand one or more pounds provided the towed vehicle or vehicles have a gross weight rating or gross combination weight rating of ten thousand one or more pounds. (2) The motor vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating of twenty-six thousand one or more pounds. (3) The motor vehicle is designed to transport sixteen or more persons, including the operator, or is of a size and design to transport sixteen or more persons, including the operator, but is redesigned or modified to transport less than sixteen persons with disabilities. (4) The motor vehicle is used in the transportation of hazardous material of a type or quantity requiring vehicle placarding. f. "Employer" means any person, including the United States, a state, the District of Columbia, or a political subdivision of a state, who owns or leases a commercial motor vehicle or assigns an employee to operate such a vehicle. g. "Foreign jurisdiction" means a jurisdiction outside the fifty United States, the District of Columbia, and Canada. h. "Nonresident commercial driver's license" means a commercial driver's license issued to a person who is not a resident of the United States or Canada. i. "Tank vehicle" means a commercial motor vehicle that is designed to transport any liquid or gaseous materials within a tank that is either permanently or temporarily attached to the vehicle or chassis. For purposes of this paragraph, "tank" does not include a portable tank with a rated capacity of less than one thousand gallons or a permanent tank with a rated capacity of one hundred nineteen gallons or less. 12. "Commercial vehicle" means a vehicle or combination of vehicles designed principally to transport passengers or property of any kind if any of the following apply: a. The vehicle or any combination of vehicles has a gross weight or combined gross weight of ten thousand one or more pounds. b. The vehicle or any combination of vehicles has a gross vehicle weight rating or gross combination weight rating of ten thousand one or more pounds. c. The vehicle is designed to transport sixteen or more persons, including the driver. d. The vehicle is used in the transportation of hazardous material of a type or quantity requiring vehicle placarding. 12A. "Completed motor vehicle" means a motor vehicle which does not require any additional manufacturing operations to perform its intended function except the addition of readily attachable equipment, components, or minor finishing operations. 13. "Component part" means any part of a vehicle, other than a tire, having a component part number. 14. "Component part number" means the vehicle identification derivative consisting of numerical and alphabetical designations affixed to a component part by the manufacturer or the department or affixed by, or caused to be affixed by, the owner pursuant to rules promulgated by the department as a means of identifying the component part. 15. "Conviction" means a final conviction, a final administrative ruling or determination, or an unvacated forfeiture of bail or collateral deposited to secure a person's appearance in court. 15A. "Crane" means a machine for raising, shifting, and lowering heavy weights by means of a projecting swinging arm. 16. "Crosswalk" means that portion of a roadway ordinarily included within the prolongation or connection of the lateral lines of sidewalks at intersections, or any portion of a roadway distinctly indicated for pedestrian crossing by lines or other markings on the surface. 17. "Dealer" means every person engaged in the business of buying, selling, or exchanging vehicles of a type required to be registered hereunder and who has an established place of business for such purpose in this state. "Dealer" includes those persons required to be licensed as dealers under chapters 322 and 322C. 18. "Demolisher" means any agency or person whose business is to convert a vehicle to junk, processed scrap, or scrap metal, or otherwise to wreck or dismantle vehicles. 19. "Department" means the state department of transportation. "Commission" means the state transportation commission. 20. "Director" means the director of the state department of transportation or the director's designee. 20A. "Driver's license" means any license or permit issued to a person to operate a motor vehicle on the highways of this state, including but not limited to a temporary restricted or temporary license and an instruction, chauffeur's instruction, commercial driver's instruction, or temporary permit. For purposes of license suspension, revocation, bar, disqualification, cancellation, or denial under this chapter and chapters 321A, 321C, and 321J, "driver's license" includes any privilege to operate a motor vehicle. 20B. "Electric personal assistive mobility device" means a self-balancing, nontandem two-wheeled device powered by an electric propulsion system that averages seven hundred fifty watts and is designed to transport one person, with a maximum speed on a paved level surface of less than twenty miles per hour. The maximum speed shall be calculated based on operation of the device by a person who weighs one hundred seventy pounds when the device is powered solely by the electric propulsion system. For purposes of this chapter, "electric personal assistive mobility device" does not include an assistive device as defined in section 216E.1. 21. "Endorsement" means an authorization to a person's driver's license required to permit the person to operate certain types of motor vehicles or to transport certain types or quantities of hazardous materials. 22. "Essential parts" mean all integral and body parts of a vehicle of a type required to be registered hereunder, the removal, alteration, or substitution of which would tend to conceal the identity of the vehicle or substantially alter its appearance, model, type, or mode of operation. 23. "Established place of business" means the place actually occupied either continuously or at regular periods by a dealer or manufacturer where the dealer's or manufacturer's books and records are kept and a large share of the dealer's or manufacturer's business is transacted. 24. "Farm tractor" means every motor vehicle designed and used primarily as a farm implement for drawing plows, mowing machines, and other implements of husbandry. 24A. "Fence-line feeder" means a vehicle used exclusively for the mixing and dispensing of nutrients to bovine animals at a feedlot. 24B. "Financial liability coverage" means any of the following: a. An owner's policy of liability insurance which is issued by an insurance carrier authorized to do business in Iowa to or for the benefit of the person named in the policy as insured, and insuring the person named as insured and any person using an insured motor vehicle with the express or implied permission of the named insured against loss from liability imposed by law for damages arising out of the ownership, maintenance, or use of an insured motor vehicle within the United States of America or Canada, but subject to minimum limits, exclusive of interest and costs, in the amounts specified in section 321A.21 or specified in another provision of the Code, whichever is greater. b. A bond filed with the department pursuant to section 321A.24. c. A valid statement issued by the treasurer of state pursuant to section 321A.25 attesting to the filing of a certificate of deposit with the treasurer of state. d. A valid certificate of self-insurance issued by the department pursuant to section 321A.34. 25. "Fire vehicle" means a motor vehicle which is equipped with pumps, tanks, hoses, nozzles, ladders, generators, or other fire apparatus used to transport fire personnel, fight fires, and respond to emergencies. 26. "Foreign vehicle" means every vehicle of a type required to be registered hereunder brought into this state from another state, territory, or country other than in the ordinary course of business by or through a manufacturer or dealer and not registered in this state. 27. The linear measure of the plot of ground upon which the building is located abutting upon the highway shall be deemed "frontage occupied by the building", and the phrase "frontage on such highway for a distance of three hundred feet or more" shall mean the total frontage on both sides of the highway for such distance. 28. "Garage" means every place of business where motor vehicles are received for housing, storage, or repair for compensation. 28A. "Grain cart" means a vehicle with a nonsteerable single or tandem axle designed to move grain. 29. a. "Gross weight" means the empty weight of a vehicle plus the maximum load to be carried by the vehicle. The maximum load to be carried by a passenger-carrying vehicle shall be determined by multiplying one hundred fifty pounds by the number of passenger seats carried by such vehicle. b. "Unladen weight" means the weight of a vehicle or vehicle combination without load. c. "Gross vehicle weight rating" means the weight specified by the manufacturer as the loaded weight of a single vehicle. 30. "Guaranteed arrest bond certificate" means any printed, unexpired certificate issued by an automobile club or association to any of its members, or any printed, unexpired certificate issued by an insurance company authorized to write automobile liability insurance within this state, which certificate is signed by such member or insured and contains a printed statement that such automobile club, association, or insurance company and a surety company which is doing business in this state under the provisions of section 515.48, subsection 2, guarantee the appearance of the person whose signature appears on the certificate and that they will, in the event of failure of such person to appear in court at the time of trial, pay any fine or forfeiture imposed on such person in an amount not to exceed one thousand dollars. If such insurance company is itself qualified under the provisions of section 515.48, subsection 2, the insurance company may be its own surety. Bail in this form shall be subject to the forfeiture and enforcement provisions with respect to bail bonds in criminal cases as provided by law. 31. "Hazardous material" means a substance or material which has been determined by the United States secretary of transportation to be capable of posing an unreasonable risk to health, safety, and property when transported in commerce, and which has been so designated. 32. "Implement of husbandry" means a vehicle or special mobile equipment manufactured, designed, or reconstructed for agricultural purposes and, except for incidental uses, exclusively used in the conduct of agricultural operations. "Implements of husbandry" includes all-terrain vehicles operated in compliance with section 321.234A, subsection 1, paragraph "a", fence-line feeders, and vehicles used exclusively for the application of organic or inorganic plant food materials, organic agricultural limestone, or agricultural chemicals. To be considered an implement of husbandry, a self-propelled implement of husbandry must be operated at speeds of thirty-five miles per hour or less. "Reconstructed" as used in this subsection means materially altered from the original construction by the removal, addition, or substitution of essential parts, new or used. A vehicle covered under this subsection, if it otherwise qualifies, may be operated as special mobile equipment and under such circumstances this subsection shall not be applicable to such vehicle, and such vehicle shall not be required to comply with sections 321.384 through 321.423, when such vehicle is moved during daylight hours; however, the provisions of section 321.383 shall remain applicable to such vehicle. 33. "Intersection" means the area embraced within the prolongation or connection of the lateral curb lines, or, if none, then the lateral boundary lines of the roadways of two highways which join one another at, or approximately at, right angles, or the area within which vehicles traveling upon different highways joining at any other angle may come in conflict. 34. "Laned highway" means a highway the roadway of which is divided into three or more clearly marked lanes for vehicular traffic. 35. "Light delivery truck", "panel delivery truck", or "pickup" means any motor vehicle designed to carry merchandise or freight of any kind, not to exceed two thousand pounds. 36. "Local authorities" means every county, municipal, and other local board or body having authority to adopt local police regulations under the Constitution and laws of this state. 36A. "Low-speed vehicle" means a motor vehicle manufactured in compliance with the national highway and traffic safety administration standards for low-speed vehicles in 49 C.F.R. § 571.500. A low-speed vehicle which is in compliance with the equipment requirements in 49 C.F.R. § 571.500 shall be deemed to be in compliance with all equipment requirements of this chapter. 36B. "Manufactured home" is a factory-built structure constructed under authority of 42 U.S.C. § 5403, which is required by federal law to display a seal from the United States department of housing and urban development, and was constructed on or after June 15, 1976. 36C. a. "Manufactured or mobile home" means any vehicle without motive power used or so manufactured or constructed as to permit its being used as a conveyance upon the public streets and highways and so designed, constructed, or reconstructed as will permit the vehicle to be used as a place for human habitation by one or more persons. b. "Travel trailer" means a vehicle without motive power used, manufactured, or constructed to permit its use as a conveyance upon the public streets and highways and designed to permit its use as a place of human habitation by one or more persons. The vehicle may be up to eight feet six inches in width and its overall length shall not exceed forty feet. The vehicle shall be customarily or ordinarily used for vacation or recreational purposes and not used as a place of permanent habitation. If the vehicle is used in this state as a place of human habitation for more than ninety consecutive days in one location it shall be classed as a manufactured or mobile home regardless of the size limitations provided in this paragraph. c. "Fifth-wheel travel trailer" means a type of travel trailer which is towed by a pickup by a connecting device known as a fifth wheel. However, this type of travel trailer may have an overall length which shall not exceed forty feet. d. "Motor home" means a motor vehicle designed as an integral unit to be used as a conveyance upon the public streets and highways and for use as a temporary or recreational dwelling and having at least four, two of which shall be systems specified in subparagraphs (1), (4), or (5) of this paragraph, of the following permanently installed systems which meet American national standards institute and national fire protection association standards in effect on the date of manufacture: (1) Cooking facilities. (2) Ice box or mechanical refrigerator. (3) Potable water supply including plumbing and a sink with faucet either self-contained or with connections for an external source, or both. (4) Self-contained toilet or a toilet connected to a plumbing system with connection for external water disposal, or both. (5) Heating or air conditioning system or both, separate from the vehicle engine or the vehicle engine electrical system. (6) A one hundred ten--one hundred fifteen volt alternating current electrical system separate from the vehicle engine electrical system either with its own power supply or with a connection for an external source, or both, or a liquefied petroleum system and supply. 37. "Manufacturer" means every person engaged in the business of fabricating or assembling vehicles of a type required to be registered. It does not include a person who converts, modifies, or alters a completed motor vehicle manufactured by another person. It includes a person who uses a completed motor vehicle manufactured by another person to construct a class "B" motor home as defined in section 321.124. 38. "Metal tire" means every tire the surface of which in contact with the highway is wholly or partly of metal or other hard, nonresilient material. 39. Reserved. 40. a. "Motorcycle" means every motor vehicle having a saddle or seat for the use of the rider and designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground including a motor scooter but excluding a tractor and a motorized bicycle. b. "Motorized bicycle" means a motor vehicle having a saddle or a seat for the use of a rider, designed to travel on not more than three wheels in contact with the ground, and not capable of operating at a speed in excess of thirty miles per hour on level ground unassisted by human power. c. "Bicycle" means either of the following: (1) A device having two wheels and having at least one saddle or seat for the use of a rider which is propelled by human power. (2) A device having two or three wheels with fully operable pedals and an electric motor of less than seven hundred fifty watts (one horsepower), whose maximum speed on a paved level surface, when powered solely by such a motor while ridden, is less than twenty miles per hour. 41. "Motor truck" means every motor vehicle designed primarily for carrying livestock, merchandise, freight of any kind, or over nine persons as passengers. 42. a. "Motor vehicle" means a vehicle which is self-propelled and not operated upon rails. b. "Used motor vehicle" or "secondhand motor vehicle" or "used car" means a motor vehicle of a type subject to registration under the laws of this state which has been sold "at retail" as defined in chapter 322 and previously registered in this or any other state. c. "New motor vehicle or new car" means a motor vehicle subject to registration which has not been sold "at retail" as defined in chapter 322. d. "Car" or "automobile" means a motor vehicle designed primarily for carrying nine passengers or less, excluding motorcycles and motorized bicycles. 43. Reserved. 44. "Multipurpose vehicle" means a motor vehicle designed to carry not more than ten people, and constructed either on a truck chassis or with special features for occasional off-road operation. 45. "Nonresident" means every person who is not a resident of this state. 46. "Official traffic-control devices" means all signs, signals, markings, and devices not inconsistent with this chapter placed or erected by authority of a public body or official having jurisdiction, for the purpose of regulating, warning, or guiding traffic. 47. "Official traffic-control signal" means any device, whether manually, electrically or mechanically operated, by which traffic is alternately directed to stop and to proceed. 48. "Operator" or "driver" means every person who is in actual physical control of a motor vehicle upon a highway. 49. "Owner" means a person who holds the legal title of a vehicle, or in the event a vehicle is the subject of a security agreement with an immediate right of possession vested in the debtor, then such debtor shall be deemed the owner for the purpose of this chapter. 50. "Peace officer" means every officer authorized to direct or regulate traffic or to make arrests for violations of traffic regulations in addition to its meaning in section 801.4. 51. "Pedestrian" means any person afoot. 52. "Person" means every natural person, firm, partnership, association, or corporation. Where the term "person" is used in connection with the registration of a motor vehicle, it shall include any corporation, association, partnership, company, firm, or other aggregation of individuals which owns or controls such motor vehicle as actual owner, or for the purpose of sale or for renting, whether as agent, salesperson, or otherwise. 53. "Pneumatic tire" means every tire in which compressed air is designed to support the load. 54. "Private road" or "driveway" means every way or place in private ownership and used for vehicular travel by the owner and those having express or implied permission from the owner but not by other persons. 54A. "Product identification number" or the acronym PIN means a group of unique numerical or alphabetical designations assigned to a complete fence-line feeder, grain cart, or tank wagon by the manufacturer or by the department and affixed to the vehicle, pursuant to rules adopted by the department, as a means of identifying the vehicle or the year of manufacture. 54B. "Proof of financial liability coverage card" means either a liability insurance card issued under section 321.20B, a bond insurance card issued under section 321A.24, a security insurance card issued under section 321A.25, or a self-insurance card issued under section 321A.34. 55. "Railroad" means a carrier of persons or property upon cars operated upon stationary rails. 56. "Railroad corporation" means any corporation organized under the laws of this state or any other state for the purpose of operating the railroad within this state. 57. "Railroad sign" or "signal" means any sign, signal, or device erected by authority of a public body or official or by a railroad and intended to give notice of the presence of railroad tracks or the approach of a railroad train. 58. "Railroad train" means an engine or locomotive with or without cars coupled thereto, operated upon rails. 59. "Reconstructed vehicle" means every vehicle of a type required to be registered under this chapter materially altered from its original construction by the removal, addition, or substitution of essential parts, new or used. "Reconstructed vehicle" does not include a street rod or replica vehicle. 59A. "Registration fees", unless otherwise specified, means both the annual vehicle registration fee and the fee for new registration, to the extent applicable, for purposes of administering the provisions of this chapter concerning vehicle registration fees. 60. "Registration year" means the period of twelve consecutive months beginning on the first day of the month following the month of the birth of the owner of the vehicle for vehicles registered by the county treasurer and the calendar year for vehicles registered by the department or motor trucks and truck tractors with a combined gross weight exceeding five tons which are registered by the county treasurer. For leased vehicles registered by the county treasurer, except for motor trucks and truck tractors with a combined gross weight exceeding five tons, "registration year" means the period of twelve consecutive months beginning on the first day of the month following the month in which the lease expires. 61. "Replica vehicle" means any completed motor vehicle other than a motorcycle or motorized bicycle with a gross vehicle weight rating of less than ten thousand pounds consisting of a body, frame, and other essential parts, assembled as a reproduction of a vehicle originally manufactured by a generally recognized manufacturer of motor vehicles with the substitution or addition of essential parts to update the vehicle for purposes of safety, performance, or reliability. For purposes of vehicle registration, the model year of a replica vehicle shall be the same as the model year of the motor vehicle that it is designed to resemble. 62. "Rescue vehicle" means a motor vehicle which is equipped with rescue, fire, or life support equipment used to assist and rescue persons in emergencies or support emergency personnel in the performance of their duties. 63. "Residence district" means the territory within a city contiguous to and including a highway, not comprising a business, suburban, or school district, where forty percent or more of the frontage on such highway for a distance of three hundred feet or more is occupied by dwellings or by dwellings and buildings in use for business. 63A. "Retractable axle" means an axle designed with the capability of manipulation or adjustment of the weight on the axle. 64. "Right-of-way" means the privilege of the immediate use of the highway. 64A. "Road tractor" means every motor vehicle designed and used for drawing other vehicles and not so constructed as to carry any load thereon either independently or any part of the weight of a vehicle or load so drawn. 65. "Roadway" means that portion of a highway improved, designed, or ordinarily used for vehicular travel. 66. "Road work zone" means the portion of a highway which is identified by posted or moving signs as the site of construction, maintenance, survey, or utility work. The zone starts upon meeting the first sign identifying the zone and continues until a posted or moving sign indicates that the work zone has ended. 67. "Rural residence district" means an unincorporated area established by a county board of supervisors which is contiguous to and including a secondary highway, not comprising a business district, where forty percent or more of the frontage of the highway for a distance of three hundred feet or more is occupied by dwellings or by dwellings and buildings in use for business. For purposes of this subsection, farm houses and farm buildings are not to be considered. 68. "Safety zone" means the area or space officially set apart within a roadway for the exclusive use of pedestrians and which is protected or so marked or indicated by adequate signs as to be plainly visible at all times while set apart as a safety zone. 68A. "Salvage pool" means the business of selling at auction wrecked or salvage vehicles, as defined in section 321.52. 69. "School bus" means every vehicle operated for the transportation of children to or from school, except vehicles which are: a. Privately owned and not operated for compensation; b. Used exclusively in the transportation of the children in the immediate family of the driver; c. Operated by a municipally or privately owned urban transit company or a regional transit system as defined in section 324A.1 for the transportation of children as part of or in addition to their regularly scheduled service; or d. Designed to carry not more than nine persons as passengers, either school owned or privately owned, which are used to transport pupils to activity events in which the pupils are participants or used to transport pupils to their homes in case of illness or other emergency situations. The vehicles operated under the provisions of this paragraph shall be operated by employees of the school district who are specifically approved by the local superintendent of schools for the assignment. 70. "School district" means the territory contiguous to and including a highway for a distance of two hundred feet in either direction from a schoolhouse in a city. 71. "Semitrailer" means every vehicle without motive power designed for carrying persons or property and for being drawn by a motor vehicle and so constructed that some part of its weight and that of its load rests upon or is carried by another vehicle. Wherever the word "trailer" is used in this chapter, same shall be construed to also include "semitrailer". A "semitrailer" shall be considered in this chapter separately from its power unit. 72. "Sidewalk" means that portion of a street between the curb lines, or the lateral lines of a roadway, and the adjacent property lines intended for the use of pedestrians. 73. "Solid tire" means every tire of rubber or other resilient material which does not depend upon compressed air for the support of the load. 74. "Specially constructed vehicle" means every vehicle of a type required to be registered under this chapter not originally constructed under a distinctive name, make, model, or type by a generally recognized manufacturer of vehicles and not materially altered from its original construction. A "specially constructed vehicle" does not include a street rod or replica vehicle. 75. "Special mobile equipment" means every vehicle not designed or used primarily for the transportation of persons or property and incidentally operated or moved over the highways, including road construction or maintenance machinery and ditch-digging apparatus. This description does not exclude other vehicles which are within the general terms of this subsection. 76. "Special truck" means a motor truck or truck tractor not used for hire with a gross weight registration of six through thirty-two tons used by a person engaged in farming to transport commodities produced only by the owner, or to transport commodities purchased by the owner for use in the owner's own farming operation or occasional use for charitable purposes. "Special truck" also means a motor truck or truck tractor not used for hire with a gross weight registration of six through thirty-two tons used by a person engaged in farming who assists another person engaged in farming through an exchange of services. A "special truck" does not include a truck tractor operated more than fifteen thousand miles annually. 77. "Stinger-steered automobile transporter" means any vehicle combination designed and used specifically for the transport of assembled highway vehicles, recreational vehicles, or boats in which the fifth wheel is located on a drop frame located below and behind the rearmost axle of the power unit. 78. "Street" or "highway" means the entire width between property lines of every way or place of whatever nature when any part thereof is open to the use of the public, as a matter of right, for purposes of vehicular traffic. 78A. "Street rod" means any car or motor truck with a gross vehicle weight rating of less than ten thousand pounds required to be registered under this chapter, manufactured by a generally recognized manufacturer of motor vehicles prior to the year 1949, which may contain a body or frame not manufactured by the original manufacturer, or any motor vehicle designed and manufactured to resemble a motor vehicle manufactured prior to the year 1949. For purposes of vehicle registration, the model year of a street rod shall be the same as the model year of the motor vehicle that it is designed to resemble. 79. "Suburban district" means all other parts of a city not included in the business, school, or residence districts. 80. "Tandem axle" means any two or more consecutive axles whose centers are more than forty inches but not more than ninety-six inches apart. 80A. "Tank wagon" means a vehicle designed to carry liquid animal or human excrement. 81. "Through (or thru) highway" means every highway or portion thereof at the entrances to which vehicular traffic from intersecting highways is required by law to stop before entering or crossing the same and when stop signs are erected as provided in this chapter or such entrances are controlled by a peace officer or traffic-control signal. The term "arterial" is synonymous with "through" or "thru" when applied to highways of this state. 82. "Tourist attraction" means a business, activity, service, or site where a major portion of the product or service provided is tourist oriented. 83. "Tourist-oriented directional sign" means a sign providing identification and directional information for a tourist attraction. 83A. "Towing or recovery vehicle" means a motor vehicle equipped with booms, winches, slings, or wheel lifts used to tow, recover, or transport other motor vehicles. 83B. "Tracked implement of husbandry" means a fence-line feeder, grain cart, or tank wagon that is mounted on a chassis attached to a pair of tracks that transfer the weight of the implement to the ground or the roadway surface. 84. "Traffic" means pedestrians, ridden or herded animals, vehicles, streetcars, and other conveyances either singly or together while using any highway for purposes of travel. 85. "Trailer" means every vehicle without motive power designed for carrying persons or property and for being drawn by a motor vehicle and so constructed that no part of its weight rests upon the towing vehicle. 86. Reserved. 87. "Transporter" means a person engaged in the business of delivering vehicles of a type required to be registered or titled in this state who has received authority to make delivery as specified by rules adopted by the department. 88. "Truck tractor" means every motor vehicle designed and used primarily for drawing other vehicles and not so constructed as to carry a load other than a part of the weight of the vehicle and load so drawn. However, a truck tractor may have a box, deck, or plate for carrying freight, mounted on the frame behind the cab, and forward of the fifth-wheel connection point. 89. "Used vehicle parts dealer" means a person engaged in the business of selling bodies, parts of bodies, frames, or component parts of used vehicles subject to registration under this chapter. 90. "Vehicle" means every device in, upon, or by which any person or property is or may be transported or drawn upon a highway. "Vehicle" does not include: a. Any device moved by human power. b. Any device used exclusively upon stationary rails or tracks. c. Any integral part of a truck tractor or road tractor which is mounted on the frame of the truck tractor or road tractor immediately behind the cab and which may be used to transport persons and property but which cannot be drawn upon the highway by the truck tractor or another motor vehicle. d. Any steering axle, dolly, auxiliary axle, or other integral part of another vehicle which in and of itself is incapable of commercially transporting any person or property but is used primarily to support another vehicle. 91. "Vehicle identification number" or the initials VIN mean the numerical and alphabetical designations affixed to a vehicle or a component part of a vehicle by the manufacturer or the department or affixed by, or caused to be affixed by, the owner pursuant to rules promulgated by the department as a means of identifying the vehicle. 92. "Vehicle rebuilder" means a person engaged in the business of rebuilding or restoring to operating condition vehicles subject to registration under this chapter, which have been damaged or wrecked. 93. "Vehicle salvager" means a person engaged in the business of scrapping vehicles, dismantling or storing wrecked or damaged vehicles or selling reusable parts of vehicles or storing vehicles not currently registered which vehicles are subject to registration under this chapter. 94. "Where a vehicle is kept" shall refer to the county of residence of the owner or to the county where the vehicle is mainly kept if said owner is a nonresident of the state.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m1, -m20; C24, 27, § 4863, 5030, 13012; C31, 35, §
      4863, 4960-d1, 5030, 13012; C39, § 5000.01; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.1; 81 Acts, ch 101, § 1; 81 Acts 2d
      Ex, ch 2, § 5; 82 Acts, ch 1056, § 1, ch 1122, § 1, ch 1254, § 1] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 1, 2, 38; 83 Acts, ch 9, § 3, 8; 83 Acts, ch
      24, § 1, 12; 84 Acts, ch 1219, § 21; 84 Acts, ch 1252, § 1; 84 Acts,
      ch 1292, § 2; 85 Acts, ch 21, § 41; 85 Acts, ch 35, § 1, 2; 85 Acts,
      ch 37, § 1; 85 Acts, ch 40, § 1; 86 Acts, ch 1056, § 1; 86 Acts, ch
      1071, § 1; 86 Acts, ch 1210, § 1, 2; 86 Acts, ch 1237, § 19; 86 Acts,
      ch 1238, § 13; 87 Acts, ch 170, § 2--4; 87 Acts, ch 186, § 1, 2; 87
      Acts, ch 189, § 1; 88 Acts, ch 1047, § 1; 88 Acts, ch 1083, § 1, 2;
      89 Acts, ch 34, § 1; 89 Acts, ch 83, § 40, 41; 89 Acts, ch 118, § 1;
      90 Acts, ch 1183, § 3; 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 6--14; 91 Acts, ch 56, §
      1; 91 Acts, ch 219, § 14; 92 Acts, ch 1048, § 1; 92 Acts, ch 1104, §
      1; 92 Acts, ch 1175, § 19, 28; 93 Acts, ch 114, § 1; 93 Acts, ch 139,
      § 7; 94 Acts, ch 1087, §1; 95 Acts, ch 10, § 1; 95 Acts, ch 55, § 1,
      2; 95 Acts, ch 56, §1; 95 Acts, ch 118, §1, 2; 96 Acts, ch 1005, § 1;
      96 Acts, ch 1129, § 113; 97 Acts, ch 100, § 1; 97 Acts, ch 104, §5;
      97 Acts, ch 108, § 1, 2; 97 Acts, ch 139, § 1, 17, 18; 97 Acts, ch
      148, § 7, 9; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §1--4; 98 Acts, ch 1075, §20; 98 Acts,
      ch 1121, §8; 99 Acts, ch 13, §1--3, 29; 99 Acts, ch 108, §1--3; 99
      Acts, ch 188, §1; 2000 Acts, ch 1005, §1; 2000 Acts, ch 1016, §1;
      2000 Acts, ch 1025, §1, 6; 2000 Acts, ch 1133, §1; 2001 Acts, ch 32,
      §15; 2001 Acts, ch 132, §1; 2001 Acts, ch 153, §15, 17; 2001 Acts, ch
      176, §80; 2002 Acts, ch 1063, §17, 18; 2003 Acts, ch 6, §1; 2003
      Acts, ch 24, §2; 2004 Acts, ch 1013, §1, 35; 2004 Acts, ch 1132, §80;
      2004 Acts, ch 1175, §397, 400; 2005 Acts, ch 8, §2, 3; 2005 Acts, ch
      20, §4; 2006 Acts, ch 1068, §6, 7, 41; 2008 Acts, ch 1018, § 1--3;
      2008 Acts, ch 1021, § 1--4; 2008 Acts, ch 1032, § 106; 2008 Acts, ch
      1044, §1--4, 8; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, § 2, 11, 38; 2009 Acts, ch 90,
      §1; 2009 Acts, ch 130, §20
         Referred to in § 15G.201, 123.48, 142D.2, 321.20B, 321.24, 321.56,
      321.105A, 321.121, 321.126, 321.235A, 321.260, 321.285, 321.471,
      321.474, 321.486, 321A.1, 321A.32, 321E.7, 321E.14, 321E.34, 321G.9,
      321G.20, 321G.24, 321I.7, 321I.21, 321J.4, 321J.6, 321J.8, 322.3,
      322.4, 322.27A, 322.35, 322D.1, 325A.2, 326.2, 327F.39, 423.1, 423.6,
      423B.2, 452A.74A, 452A.76, 453A.4, 455B.301, 462A.34A, 476.27,
      481A.54, 522A.2, 537.3604, 537B.2, 537B.4, 669.14, 670.4, 707.6A,
      713.6A, 713.6B, 714.2, 714.8, 805.8A(14i), 805.9, 805.16, 811.9
        

321.1A PRESUMPTION OF RESIDENCY. For purposes of this chapter there is a rebuttable presumption that a natural person is a resident of this state if any of the following elements exist: 1. The person has filed for a homestead tax exemption on property in this state. 2. The person is a veteran who has filed for a military tax exemption on property in this state. 3. The person is registered to vote in this state. 4. The person enrolls the person's child to be educated in a public elementary or secondary school in this state. 5. The person is receiving public assistance from this state. 6. The person resides or has continuously remained in this state for a period exceeding thirty days except for infrequent or brief absences. 7. The person has accepted employment or engages in any trade, profession, or occupation within this state, except as provided in section 321.55. "Resident" does not include a person who is attending a college or university in this state, if the person has a domicile in another state and has a valid driver's license issued by the state of domicile. "Resident" also does not include members of the armed forces that are stationed in Iowa, providing that their vehicles are properly registered in their state of residency. A corporation, association, partnership, company, firm, or other aggregation of individuals whose principal place of business is located within this state is a resident of this state.

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 125, § 1; 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 15; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9

         Referred to in § 321.182, 321I.1
        

321.2 ADMINISTRATION AND ENFORCEMENT. 1. Except as otherwise provided by law, the state department of transportation shall administer and enforce the provisions of this chapter. 2. The division of state patrol of the department of public safety shall enforce the provisions of this chapter relating to traffic on the public highways of the state, including those relating to the safe and legal operation of passenger cars, motorcycles, motor trucks and buses, and to see that proper safety rules are observed. 3. The state department of transportation and the department of public safety shall cooperate to insure the proper and adequate enforcement of the provisions of this chapter. 4. The director of revenue shall administer and enforce the collection of the fee for new registration as provided in section 321.105A.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4863; C39, § 5000.02; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.2] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         98 Acts, ch 1074, §20; 2005 Acts, ch 35, §31; 2008 Acts, ch 1113,
      §39
        

321.3 POWERS AND DUTIES OF DIRECTOR. The director is hereby vested with the power and is charged with the duty of observing, administering, and enforcing the provisions of this chapter.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5000.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.3]
        

321.4 RULES. The commissioner of public safety is authorized to adopt and promulgate administrative rules governing procedures as may be necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter; and to carry out any other laws the enforcement of which is vested in the department of public safety.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5004; C39, § 5000.04; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.4]
        

321.5 DUTY TO OBEY. All local officials charged with the administration and enforcement of this chapter shall be governed in their official acts by the rules promulgated by the department.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5005; C39, § 5000.05; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.5]
         Referred to in § 331.653
        

321.6 RECIPROCAL ENFORCEMENT -- PATROL BEATS. There shall be reciprocal co-operation between the members of the department, the state department of public safety and local authorities in the enforcing of local and state traffic laws and in making inspections, although this section shall not be construed to give the state department of public safety any right to establish regular patrol beats inside municipal limits unless requested for a special occasion or emergency by the mayor of such city or the sheriff of the county.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5017; C39, § 5000.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.6]
         Referred to in § 331.653
        

321.7 SEAL OF DEPARTMENT. The department may adopt an official seal.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5000.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.7]
        

321.8 DIRECTOR TO PRESCRIBE FORMS. The director shall prescribe and provide suitable forms of applications, registration cards, certificates of title and all other forms requisite or deemed necessary to carry out the provisions of this chapter and any other laws, the enforcement and administration of which are vested in the department except manufacturer's or importer's certificates. Manufacturer's and importer's certificates shall be provided by the manufacturer or importer and be in the form prescribed by the department.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5000.08; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.8] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 41, § 1
        

321.9 AUTHORITY TO ADMINISTER OATHS AND ACKNOWLEDGE SIGNATURES. Officers and employees of the department designated by the director, county officials authorized under this chapter to issue motor vehicle registrations and titles, and county officials authorized under chapter 321M to issue driver's licenses are authorized, for the purpose of administering the motor vehicle laws, to administer oaths and acknowledge signatures, and shall do so without fee.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5000.09; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.9] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2005 Acts, ch 8, §4
        

321.10 CERTIFIED COPIES OF RECORDS. 1. The director and officers of the department designated by the director are authorized to prepare under the seal of the department and provide upon request a certified copy of any record of the department, charging a fee of fifty cents for each document so authenticated, and every such certified copy shall be admissible in any proceeding in any court in like manner as the original and shall be considered to be true and accurate unless shown otherwise by an objecting party. The seal of the department may be applied electronically on certified copies of records. 2. Any records or certified copies of records prepared pursuant to this section and any certified abstract, or a copy of a certified abstract, of the operating record of a driver or a motor vehicle owner prepared pursuant to this chapter, chapter 321A, or chapter 321J shall be received in evidence if determined to be relevant, in any court, preliminary hearing, grand jury proceeding, civil proceeding, administrative hearing, or forfeiture proceeding in the same manner and with the same force and effect as if the director or the director's designee had testified in person.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5000.10; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.10] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         98 Acts, ch 1075, §21; 2006 Acts, ch 1010, §87; 2008 Acts, ch
      1018, §4
         Referred to in §321.11
        

321.11 RECORDS OF DEPARTMENT. 1. All records of the department, other than those made confidential or not permitted to be open in accordance with 18 U.S.C. § 2721 et seq., adopted as of a specific date by rule of the department, shall be open to public inspection during office hours. 2. Notwithstanding subsection 1, personal information shall not be disclosed to a requester, except as provided in 18 U.S.C. § 2721, unless the person whose personal information is requested has provided express written consent allowing disclosure of the person's personal information. As used in this section, "personal information" means information that identifies a person, including a person's photograph, social security number, driver's license number, name, address, telephone number, and medical or disability information, but does not include information on vehicular accidents, driving violations, and driver's status or a person's zip code. 3. Notwithstanding other provisions of this section to the contrary, the department shall not release personal information to a person, other than to an officer or employee of a law enforcement agency, an employee of a federal or state agency or political subdivision in the performance of the employee's official duties, a contract employee of the department of inspections and appeals in the conduct of an investigation, or a licensed private investigation agency or a licensed security service or a licensed employee of either, if the information is requested by the presentation of a registration plate number. In addition, an officer or employee of a law enforcement agency may release the name, address, and telephone number of a motor vehicle registrant to a person requesting the information by the presentation of a registration plate number if the officer or employee of the law enforcement agency believes that the release of the information is necessary in the performance of the officer's or employee's duties. 4. The department shall not release personal information that is in the form of a person's photograph or digital image or a digital reproduction of a person's photograph to a person other than an officer or employee of a law enforcement agency, an employee of a federal or state agency or political subdivision in the performance of the employee's official duties, a contract employee of the department of inspections and appeals in the conduct of an investigation, or a licensed private investigation agency or a licensed security service or a licensed employee of either, regardless of whether a person has provided express written consent to disclosure of the information. The department may collect reasonable fees for copies of records or other services provided pursuant to this section or section 22.3, 321.10, or 622.46.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5000.11; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.11] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         96 Acts, ch 1102, § 1, 3; 97 Acts, ch 108, § 3; 98 Acts, ch 1035,
      §1; 99 Acts, ch 198, §4; 2000 Acts, ch 1133, §2, 18; 2001 Acts, ch
      90, §1
         Referred to in § 321.11A, 321.183, 321A.3
        

321.11A PERSONAL INFORMATION DISCLOSURE -- EXCEPTION. 1. Notwithstanding section 321.11, the department, upon request, shall provide personal information that identifies a person by the social security number of the person to the following: a. The department of revenue for the purpose of collecting debt. b. The judicial branch for the purpose of collecting court debt pursuant to section 602.8107. c. The department of administrative services for the purpose of administering the setoff program pursuant to section 8A.504. 2. The social security number obtained by the department of revenue or the judicial branch shall retain its confidentiality and shall only be used for the purposes provided in this section.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2008 Acts, ch 1172, §17
        

321.12 DESTRUCTION OF RECORDS. 1. The director may destroy any records of the department which have been maintained on file for three years which the director deems obsolete and of no further service in carrying out the powers and duties of the department, except as otherwise provided in this section. 2. Operating records relating to a person who has been issued a commercial driver's license shall be maintained on file in accordance with rules adopted by the department. 3. The following records may be destroyed according to the following requirements: a. Records concerning suspensions authorized under section 321.210, subsection 1, paragraph "g", and section 321.210A may be destroyed six months after the suspension is terminated and the requirements of section 321.191 have been satisfied. b. Records concerning suspensions and surrender of licenses or registrations required under section 321A.31 for failing to maintain proof of financial responsibility, as defined in section 321A.1, may be destroyed six months after the requirements of sections 321.191 and 321A.29 have been satisfied. 4. The director shall not destroy any operating records pertaining to arrests or convictions for operating while intoxicated, in violation of section 321J.2 or operating records pertaining to revocations for violations of section 321J.2A, except that a conviction or revocation under section 321J.2 or 321J.2A that is not subject to 49 C.F.R. § 383 shall be deleted from the operating records twelve years after the date of conviction or the effective date of revocation. Convictions or revocations that are retained in the operating records for more than twelve years under this subsection shall be considered only for purposes of disqualification actions under 49 C.F.R. § 383.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5000.12; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.12] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §16; 94 Acts, ch 1164, §1, 2; 95 Acts, ch 48, §
      2; 95 Acts, ch 55, § 3; 97 Acts, ch 177, §1; 98 Acts, ch 1138, §1,
      37; 2005 Acts, ch 8, §5
         Referred to in §321J.2
        

321.13 AUTHORITY TO GRANT OR REFUSE APPLICATIONS. The department shall examine and determine the genuineness, regularity, and legality of every application made to the department, and may investigate or require additional information. The department may reject any application if not satisfied of the genuineness, regularity, or legality of the application or the truth of any statement made within the application, or for any other reason, when authorized by law. The department may retain possession of any record or document until the investigation of the application is completed if it appears that the record or document is fictitious or unlawfully or erroneously issued and shall not return the record or document if it is determined to be fictitious or unlawfully or erroneously issued.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5000.13; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.13] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         95 Acts, ch 118, §3
        

321.14 SEIZURE OF DOCUMENTS AND PLATES. The department is hereby authorized to take possession of any registration card, certificate of title, permit, or registration plate, certificate of inspection or any inspection document or form, upon expiration, revocation, cancellation, or suspension thereof, or which is fictitious, or which has been unlawfully or erroneously issued.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5000.14; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.14]
        

321.15 PUBLICATION OF LAW. The department shall issue, in pamphlet or electronic form, such parts of this chapter together with such rules, instructions, and explanatory matter as may seem advisable. Such information shall be distributed as determined by the department and shall be furnished to each county treasurer.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5018; C39, § 5000.15; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.15] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2004 Acts, ch 1013, §2, 35
         Referred to in § 321J.1A
        

321.16 GIVING OF NOTICES. 1. When the department is authorized or required to give notice under this chapter or any other law regulating the operation of vehicles, unless a different method of giving notice is expressly prescribed, notice shall be given either by personal delivery to the person to be so notified or by personal service in the manner of original notice by rule of civil procedure 1.305(1), or by first class mail addressed to the person at the address shown in the records of the department, notwithstanding chapter 17A. The department shall adopt rules regarding the giving of notice by first class mail, the updating of addresses in department records, and the development of affidavits verifying the mailing of notices under this chapter and chapter 321J. A person's refusal to accept or a claim of failure to receive a notice of revocation, suspension, or bar mailed by first class mail to the person's last known address shall not be a defense to a charge of driving while suspended, revoked, denied, or barred. 2. Proof of the giving of notice by personal service may be made by the certificate of any officer or employee of the department or affidavit of any person over eighteen years of age, naming the person to whom such notice was given and specifying the time, place, and manner of the giving thereof. 3. If a peace officer serves notice of immediate suspension or revocation of a driver's license as provided in this chapter or any other chapter, the peace officer may destroy the license or send the license to the department.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5000.16; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.16] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 121, §1; 2001 Acts, ch 32, §41; 2007 Acts, ch 143, §7
         Referred to in § 321.211A, 321.556
        

321.17 MISDEMEANOR TO VIOLATE REGISTRATION PROVISIONS. It is a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection 2, paragraph "b", for any person to drive or move or for an owner knowingly to permit to be driven or moved upon the highway a vehicle of a type required to be registered under this chapter which is not registered, or for which the appropriate fees have not been paid, except as provided in section 321.109, subsection 3.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5085; C39, § 5001.01; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.17] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         96 Acts, ch 1152, § 1; 2001 Acts, ch 176, §49, 59; 2008 Acts, ch
      1113, §48
         Referred to in § 331.557, 805.8A(2b)
        

321.18 VEHICLES SUBJECT TO REGISTRATION -- EXCEPTION. Every motor vehicle, trailer, and semitrailer when driven or moved upon a highway shall be subject to the registration provisions of this chapter except: 1. Any such vehicle driven or moved upon a highway in conformance with the provisions of this chapter relating to manufacturers, transporters, dealers, or nonresidents as contemplated by section 321.53 and chapter 326, or under a temporary registration permit issued by the department as hereinafter authorized. 2. Any such vehicle which is driven or moved upon a highway only for the purpose of crossing such highway from one property to another. 3. Any implement of husbandry. 4. Any special mobile equipment as herein defined. 5. Any vehicle which is used exclusively for interplant purposes, in the operation of an industrial or manufacturing plant, consisting of a single unit comprising a group of buildings separated by streets, alleys, or railroad tracks, and which vehicle is used solely to transport materials from one part of the plant to another or from an adjacent railroad track to the plant and in so doing incidentally using said streets or alleys for not more than one thousand feet. 6. Any vehicle which is propelled by electric power obtained from overhead trolley wires, but not operated upon rails. 7. Any school bus in this state used exclusively for the transportation of pupils to and from school or a school function or for the purposes provided in section 285.1, subsection 1, and section 285.10, subsection 9, or used exclusively for the transportation of children enrolled in a federal head start program. Upon application the department shall, without charge, issue a registration certificate and registration plates. The plates shall be attached to the front and rear of each bus exempt from registration under this subsection. 8. Any mobile home or manufactured home and any temporary undercarriage used solely for transporting manufactured homes, modular homes, or other portable buildings used or intended to be used for human occupancy. 9. A motor home purchased by a nonresident at a rally in this state pursuant to section 322E.2, which is driven on a highway solely for the purpose of removing the motor home from the state.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4864; C39, § 5001.02; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.18; 82 Acts, ch 1251, § 4] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         95 Acts, ch 118, §4; 99 Acts, ch 188, §2; 2001 Acts, ch 153, § 17;
      2006 Acts, ch 1068, § 8; 2007 Acts, ch 131, §1, 6; 2009 Acts, ch 130,
      §21
         Referred to in § 321.20B, 322E.2, 331.557, 423.1, 423B.2, 452A.17
      

         Footnotes

         For the period beginning July 1, 2007, and ending June 30, 2012,
      new subsection 9 applies only to motor home manufacturers' club
      rallies held annually on the grounds of the county fair in Clay
      county; reporting of violations; 2007 Acts, ch 131, §6
        

321.18A RECORDS OF IMPLEMENTS OF HUSBANDRY. A person selling at retail new implements of husbandry with a retail list price in excess of five thousand dollars upon which the manufacturer has affixed a vehicle identification number, shall maintain for ten years a record of the number, the name and address of the purchaser, and the date of sale.

         Section History: Recent Form

         91 Acts, ch 97, §43
         Referred to in § 331.557
         Subject formerly codified at § 321.100, Code 1991
        

321.19 EXEMPTIONS -- DISTINGUISHING PLATES -- DEFINITIONS OF URBAN TRANSIT COMPANY AND REGIONAL TRANSIT SYSTEM. 1. All vehicles owned or leased for a period of sixty days or more by the government and used in the transaction of official business by the representatives of foreign governments or by officers, boards, or departments of the government of the United States, and by the state, counties, municipalities and other political subdivisions of the state including vehicles used by an urban transit company operated by a municipality or a regional transit system, and self-propelling vehicles used neither for the conveyance of persons for hire, pleasure, or business nor for the transportation of freight other than those used by an urban transit company operated by a municipality or a regional transit system, all fire trucks, providing they are not owned and operated for a pecuniary profit, and authorized emergency vehicles used only in disaster relief owned and operated by an organization not operated for pecuniary profit, are exempted from the payment of the registration fees imposed by this chapter, except as provided for urban transit companies in subsection 2, but are not exempt from the penalties provided in this chapter. The department shall furnish, on application, free of charge, distinguishing plates for vehicles thus exempted, which plates except plates on state patrol vehicles shall bear the word "official" and the department shall keep a separate record. Registration plates issued for state patrol vehicles, except unmarked patrol vehicles, shall bear two red stars on a yellow background, one before and one following the registration number on the plate, which registration number shall be the officer's badge number. Registration plates issued for county sheriff's patrol vehicles shall display one seven-pointed gold star followed by the letter "S" and the call number of the vehicle. However, the director of the department of administrative services or the director of transportation may order the issuance of regular registration plates for any exempted vehicle used by peace officers in the enforcement of the law, persons enforcing chapter 124 and other laws relating to controlled substances, persons in the department of justice, the alcoholic beverages division of the department of commerce, disease investigators of the Iowa department of public health, the department of inspections and appeals, and the department of revenue, who are regularly assigned to conduct investigations which cannot reasonably be conducted with a vehicle displaying "official" state registration plates, persons in the Iowa lottery authority whose regularly assigned duties relating to security or the carrying of lottery tickets cannot reasonably be conducted with a vehicle displaying "official" registration plates, persons in the department of economic development who are regularly assigned duties relating to existing industry expansion or business attraction, and mental health professionals or health care professionals who provide off-site or in-home medical or mental health services to clients of publicly funded programs. For purposes of sale of exempted vehicles, the exempted governmental body, upon the sale of the exempted vehicle, may issue for in-transit purposes a pasteboard card bearing the words "Vehicle in Transit", the name of the official body from which the vehicle was purchased, together with the date of the purchase plainly marked in at least one-inch letters, and other information required by the department. The in-transit card is valid for use only within forty-eight hours after the purchase date as indicated on the bill of sale which shall be carried by the driver. 2. "Urban transit company" means any person, firm, corporation, company, or municipality which operates buses or trolley cars or both, primarily upon the streets of cities over well-defined routes between certain termini, for the transportation of passengers for a uniform fare, and which accepts for passengers all who present themselves for transportation without discrimination up to the limit of the capacity of each vehicle. Included are street railways, plants, equipment, property, and rights, used and useful in the transportation of passengers. Motor carriers and interurbans subject to the jurisdiction of the state department of transportation, and taxicabs, are not included. The department, in accordance with subsection 1, shall furnish distinguishing plates for vehicles used by urban transit companies operated by a municipality. No other provision of law providing for the payment of taxes, registration, or license fees for vehicles shall be applicable to any bus, car, or vehicle for the transportation of passengers owned and operated by any urban transit company. Chapter 326 is not applicable to urban transit companies or systems. 3. "Regional transit system" means a public transit system serving one county or all or part of a multicounty area whose boundaries correspond to the same boundaries as those of the regional planning areas designated by the governor, except as agreed upon by the department. Each county board of supervisors within the region is responsible for determining the service and funding within its county. However, the administration and overhead support services for the overall regional transit system shall be consolidated into one existing or new agency to be mutually agreed upon by the participating members. Privately chartered bus services and uses other than providing services that are open and public on a shared ride basis shall not be construed to be a regional transit system.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4867, 4922; C39, § 5001.03; C46, 50, 54,
      58, 62, § 321.19; C66, 71, 73, § 321.19, 386C.1--386C.3; C75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.19] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 40, § 1; 84 Acts, ch 1253, § 1--3; 85 Acts, ch 67, §
      34; 85 Acts, ch 115, § 2; 86 Acts, ch 1042, § 10; 92 Acts, ch 1244, §
      41; 95 Acts, ch 118, § 5; 96 Acts, ch 1034, § 19; 96 Acts, ch 1066, §
      1; 96 Acts, ch 1211, § 33; 97 Acts, ch 104, §6; 97 Acts, ch 158, §1;
      98 Acts, ch 1028, §1; 98 Acts, ch 1074, §21; 99 Acts, ch 141, § 37;
      2003 Acts, ch 145, §244; 2003 Acts, ch 178, §109, 121; 2003 Acts, ch
      179, §142; 2005 Acts, ch 35, §31; 2006 Acts, ch 1022, §1; 2008 Acts,
      ch 1113, §49
         Referred to in § 8A.362, 321.39, 321.166, 321E.11, 331.557, 721.8
         See also § 8A.362, 321.170
        

321.20 APPLICATION FOR REGISTRATION AND CERTIFICATE OF TITLE. 1. Except as provided in this chapter, an owner of a vehicle subject to registration shall make application to the county treasurer of the county of the owner's residence, or if a nonresident, to the county treasurer of the county where the primary users of the vehicle are located, or if a lessor of the vehicle pursuant to chapter 321F which vehicle has a gross vehicle weight of less than ten thousand pounds, to the county treasurer of the county of the lessee's residence, or if a firm, association, or corporation with vehicles in multiple counties, the owner may make application to the county treasurer of the county where the primary user of the vehicle is located, for the registration and issuance of a certificate of title for the vehicle upon the appropriate form furnished by the department. However, upon the transfer of ownership, the owner of a vehicle subject to the proportional registration provisions of chapter 326 shall make application for registration and issuance of a certificate of title to either the department or the appropriate county treasurer. The application shall be accompanied by a fee of twenty dollars, and shall bear the owner's signature. A nonresident owner of two or more vehicles subject to registration may make application for registration and issuance of a certificate of title for all vehicles subject to registration to the county treasurer of the county where the primary user of any of the vehicles is located. The owner of a mobile home or manufactured home shall make application for a certificate of title under this section from the county treasurer of the county where the mobile home or manufactured home is located. The application shall contain: a. The full legal name; social security number or Iowa driver's license number or Iowa nonoperator's identification card number; date of birth; bona fide residence; and mailing address of the owner and of the lessee if the vehicle is being leased. If the owner or lessee is a firm, association, or corporation, the application shall contain the bona fide business address and federal employer identification number of the owner or lessee. Up to three owners' names may be listed on the application. If the vehicle is a leased vehicle, the application shall state whether the notice of registration renewal shall be sent to the lessor or to the lessee and whether the lessor or the lessee shall receive the refund of the annual registration fee, if any. Information relating to the lessee of a vehicle shall not be required on an application for registration and a certificate of title for a vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of ten thousand pounds or more. b. A description of the vehicle including, insofar as the specified data may exist with respect to a given vehicle, the make, model, type of body, the number of cylinders, the type of motor fuel used, the vehicle identification number or other assigned number, and whether new or used and, if a new vehicle, the date of sale by the manufacturer or dealer to the person intending to operate the vehicle. If the vehicle is a new low-speed vehicle, the manufacturer's or importer's certificate required to accompany the application under paragraph "d" shall certify that the vehicle was manufactured in compliance with the national highway traffic safety administration standards for low-speed vehicles in 49 C.F.R. § 571.500. c. Such further information as may reasonably be required by the department. d. A statement of the applicant's title and of all liens or encumbrances upon the vehicle and the names and mailing addresses of all persons having any interest in the vehicle and the nature of every such interest. When the application refers to a new vehicle, it shall be accompanied by a manufacturer's or importer's certificate duly assigned as provided in section 321.45. e. The amount of the fee for new registration to be paid under section 321.105A or the amount of tax to be paid under section 423.26, subsection 1. f. If the vehicle is owned by a nonresident but is subject to issuance of an Iowa certificate of title or registration, the application shall also contain the full legal name, Iowa driver's license number or Iowa nonoperator's identification card number, date of birth, bona fide residence, and mailing address of the primary user of the vehicle. If the primary user is a firm, association, or corporation, the application shall contain the bona fide business address and federal employer identification number of the primary user. The primary user's name and address shall not be printed on the registration receipt or the certificate of title. 2. Notwithstanding contrary provisions of this chapter or chapter 326 regarding titling and registration by means other than electronic means, the department may develop and implement a program to allow for electronic applications, titling, registering, and electronic funds transfer for vehicles subject to registration in order to improve the efficiency and timeliness of the processes and to reduce costs for all parties involved. 3. The department shall adopt rules on the method for providing signatures for applications made by electronic means.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, SS15, § 1571-m2; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4869, 5008, 5009; C39, §
      5001.04; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.20; 82 Acts, ch 1251, § 5] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1305, § 47; 87 Acts, ch 46, §1; 87 Acts, ch 108, §1;
      95 Acts, ch 194, §1, 12; 97 Acts, ch 104, §7; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9;
      99 Acts, ch 8, §1; 99 Acts, ch 188, §3; 2000 Acts, ch 1005, §2; 2000
      Acts, ch 1016, §39--41, 47; 2000 Acts, ch 1134, §1; 2001 Acts, ch
      153, §17; 2003 Acts, 1st Ex, ch 2, §163, 205; 2004 Acts, ch 1013, §3,
      35; 2005 Acts, ch 34, §3, 26; 2006 Acts, ch 1068, §9; 2006 Acts, ch
      1070, §2; 2008 Acts, ch 1018, §5; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §13, 21, 50, 51

         Referred to in § 312.2, 321.29, 321.52A, 321.109, 321.126,
      331.557, 435.27
         Surcharge imposed; § 321.52A
        

321.20A CERTIFICATE OF TITLE AND REGISTRATION FEES -- COMMERCIAL VEHICLES. 1. Notwithstanding other provisions of this chapter, the owner of a commercial vehicle subject to the proportional registration provisions of chapter 326 may make application to the department or the appropriate county treasurer for a certificate of title. The application for certificate of title shall be made within thirty days of purchase or transfer and shall be accompanied by a twenty dollar title fee and the appropriate fee for new registration. The department or the county treasurer shall deliver the certificate of title to the owner if there is no security interest. If there is a security interest, the title, when issued, shall be delivered to the first secured party. Delivery may be made using electronic means. 2. An owner of more than fifty commercial vehicles subject to the proportional registration provisions of chapter 326 who is issued a certificate of title under this section shall not be subject to annual registration fees until the commercial vehicle is driven or moved upon the highways. The annual registration fee due shall be prorated for the remaining unexpired months of the registration year. Ownership of the commercial vehicle shall not be transferred until annual registration fees have been paid to the department.

         Section History: Recent Form

         95 Acts, ch 118, §6; 96 Acts, ch 1089, § 1; 96 Acts, ch 1152, § 2;
      2000 Acts, ch 1016, §2; 2001 Acts, ch 132, §2; 2004 Acts, ch 1013,
      §4, 35; 2006 Acts, ch 1070, §3; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §14, 21, 52
         Referred to in § 312.2, 321.52A, 331.557
         Surcharge imposed, § 321.52A
        

321.20B PROOF OF SECURITY AGAINST LIABILITY -- DRIVING WITHOUT LIABILITY COVERAGE. 1. a. Notwithstanding chapter 321A, which requires certain persons to maintain proof of financial responsibility, a person shall not drive a motor vehicle on the highways of this state unless financial liability coverage, as defined in section 321.1, subsection 24B, is in effect for the motor vehicle and unless the driver has in the motor vehicle the proof of financial liability coverage card issued for the motor vehicle, or if the vehicle is registered in another state, other evidence that financial liability coverage is in effect for the motor vehicle. b. It shall be conclusively presumed that a motor vehicle driven upon a parking lot which is available to the public without charge or which is available to customers or invitees of a business or facility without charge was driven on the highways of this state in order to enter the parking lot, and this section shall be applicable to such a motor vehicle. As used in this section, "parking lot" includes access roads, drives, lanes, aisles, entrances, and exits to and from a parking lot described in this paragraph. c. This subsection does not apply to the operator of a motor vehicle owned by or leased to the United States, this state or another state, or any political subdivision of this state or of another state, or to a motor vehicle which is subject to section 325A.6. 2. a. An insurance company transacting business in this state shall issue to its insured owners of motor vehicles registered in this state a financial liability coverage card for each motor vehicle insured. Each financial liability coverage card shall identify the registration number or vehicle identification number of the motor vehicle insured and shall indicate the expiration date of the applicable insurance coverage. The financial liability coverage card shall also contain the name and address of the insurer or the name of the insurer and the name and address of the insurance agency, the name of the insured, and an emergency telephone number of the insurer or emergency telephone number of the insurance agency. b. The department shall adopt rules regarding the contents of a financial liability coverage card to be issued pursuant to this section. (1) Notwithstanding the provisions of this section, a fleet owner who is issued a certificate of self-insurance pursuant to section 321A.34, subsection 1, is not required to maintain in each vehicle a financial liability coverage card with the individual registration number or the vehicle identification number of the vehicle included on the card. Such fleet owner shall be required to maintain a financial liability coverage card in each vehicle in the fleet including information deemed appropriate by the director. (2) An association of individual members that is issued a certificate of self-insurance pursuant to section 321A.34, subsection 2, is required to maintain in each vehicle of an individual member a financial liability coverage card that complies with the provisions of this section and in addition contains information relating to the association and the association's certificate of self-insurance as is deemed appropriate by the director. 3. If the financial liability coverage for a motor vehicle which is registered in this state is canceled or terminated effective prior to the expiration date indicated on the financial liability coverage card issued for the vehicle, the person to whom the financial liability coverage card was issued shall destroy the card. 4. a. If a peace officer stops a motor vehicle registered in this state and the driver is unable to provide proof of financial liability coverage, the peace officer shall do one of the following: (1) Issue a warning memorandum to the driver. (2) Issue a citation to the driver. (3) Issue a citation and remove the motor vehicle's license plates and registration receipt. (a) Upon removing the license plates and registration receipt, the peace officer shall deliver the plates for destruction, as appropriate, and forward the registration receipt and evidence of the violation, as determined by the department, to the county treasurer of the county in which the motor vehicle is registered. (b) The motor vehicle may be driven for a time period of up to forty-eight hours after receiving the citation solely for the purpose of removing the motor vehicle from the highways of this state, unless the driver's operating privileges are otherwise suspended. After receiving the citation, the driver shall keep the citation in the motor vehicle at all times while driving the motor vehicle as provided in this subparagraph, as proof of the driver's privilege to drive the motor vehicle for such limited time and purpose. (4) (a) Issue a citation, remove the motor vehicle's license plates and registration receipt, and impound the motor vehicle. The peace officer shall deliver the plates for destruction, as appropriate, and forward the registration receipt and evidence of the violation, as determined by the department, to the county treasurer of the county in which the motor vehicle is registered. (b) A motor vehicle which is impounded may be claimed by a person if the owner provides proof of financial liability coverage and proof of payment of any applicable fine and the costs of towing and storage for the motor vehicle. If the motor vehicle is not claimed within thirty days after impoundment, the motor vehicle may be treated as an abandoned vehicle pursuant to section 321.89. (c) The holder of a security interest in a motor vehicle which is impounded pursuant to this subparagraph shall be notified of the impoundment within seventy-two hours of the impoundment of the motor vehicle and shall have the right to claim the motor vehicle upon the payment of all fees. However, if the value of the vehicle is less than the security interest, all fees shall be divided equally between the lienholder and the political subdivision impounding the vehicle. b. An owner or driver of a motor vehicle who is charged with a violation of subsection 1 and issued a citation under paragraph "a", subparagraph (3) or (4), is subject to the following: (1) An owner or driver who produces to the clerk of court, prior to the date of the individual's court appearance as indicated on the citation, proof that financial liability coverage was in effect for the motor vehicle at the time the person was stopped and cited, or, if the driver is not the owner of the motor vehicle, proof that liability coverage was in effect for the driver with respect to the motor vehicle being driven at the time the driver was stopped and cited, in the same manner as if the motor vehicle were owned by the driver, shall be given a receipt indicating that such proof was provided and be subject to one of the following: (a) If the person was cited pursuant to paragraph "a", subparagraph (3), the owner or driver shall provide a copy of the receipt to the county treasurer of the county in which the motor vehicle is registered and the owner shall be assessed a fifteen dollar administrative fee by the county treasurer who shall issue new license plates and registration to the person after payment of the fee. (b) If the person was cited pursuant to paragraph "a", subparagraph (4), the owner or driver, after the owner provides proof of financial liability coverage to the clerk of court, may claim the motor vehicle after such person pays any applicable fine and the costs of towing and storage for the motor vehicle, and the owner or driver provides a copy of the receipt and the owner pays to the county treasurer of the county in which the motor vehicle is registered a fifteen dollar administrative fee, and the county treasurer shall issue new license plates and registration to the person. (2) An owner or driver who is charged with a violation of subsection 1 and is unable to show that financial liability coverage was in effect for the motor vehicle at the time the person was stopped and cited may do either of the following: (a) Sign an admission of violation on the citation and remit to the clerk of court a scheduled fine as provided in section 805.8A, subsection 14, paragraph "f", for a violation of subsection 1. Upon payment of the fine to the clerk of court of the county where the citation was issued, payment of a fifteen dollar administrative fee to the county treasurer of the county in which the motor vehicle is registered, and providing proof of payment of any applicable fine and proof of financial liability coverages to the county treasurer of the county in which the motor vehicle is registered, the treasurer shall issue new license plates and registration to the owner. (b) Request an appearance before the court on the matter. If the matter goes before the court, and the owner or driver is found guilty of a violation of subsection 1, the court may impose a fine as provided in section 805.8A, subsection 14, paragraph "f", for a violation of subsection 1, or the court may order the person to perform unpaid community service instead of the fine. Upon the payment of the fine or the entry of the order for unpaid community service, the person shall provide proof of payment or entry of such order and the county treasurer of the county in which the motor vehicle is registered shall issue new license plates and registration to the owner upon the owner providing proof of financial liability coverage and paying a fifteen dollar administrative fee to the county treasurer. c. An owner or driver cited for a violation of subsection 1, who produces to the clerk of court prior to the date of the person's court appearance as indicated on the citation proof that financial liability coverage was in effect for the motor vehicle at the time the person was stopped and cited, shall not be convicted of such violation and the citation issued shall be dismissed by the court. Upon dismissal, the court or clerk of court shall assess the costs of the action against the defendant named on the citation. 5. If the motor vehicle is not registered in this state and the driver is a nonresident, the peace officer shall do one of the following: a. Issue a warning memorandum to the driver. b. Issue a citation. An owner or driver who produces to the clerk of court prior to the date of the person's court appearance as indicated on the citation proof that the financial liability coverage was in effect for the motor vehicle at the time the person was stopped and cited, or if the driver is not the owner of the motor vehicle, proof that liability coverage was in effect for the driver with respect to the motor vehicle being driven at the time the driver was stopped and cited in the same manner as if the motor vehicle were owned by the driver, shall be given a receipt indicating that proof was provided, and the citation issued shall be dismissed by the court. Upon dismissal, the court or clerk of court shall assess the costs of the action against the defendant named on the citation. 6. This section does not apply to a snowmobile or all-terrain vehicle or to a motor vehicle identified in section 321.18, subsections 1 through 6, and subsection 8. 7. This section does not apply to a lienholder who has a security interest in a motor vehicle subject to the registration requirements of this chapter, so long as such lienholder maintains financial liability coverage for any motor vehicle driven or moved by the lienholder in which the lienholder has an interest. 8. This section does not apply to a motor vehicle owned by a motor vehicle dealer or wholesaler licensed pursuant to chapter 322. 9. The director of transportation and the commissioner of insurance shall adopt rules pursuant to chapter 17A to administer this section.

         Section History: Recent Form

         97 Acts, ch 139, §2, 17, 18; 98 Acts, ch 1100, §41; 98 Acts, ch
      1121, §1--4, 8, 9; 99 Acts, ch 110, §1; 99 Acts, ch 114, §19; 2001
      Acts, ch 32, §16; 2002 Acts, ch 1050, §32; 2003 Acts, ch 151,
      §23--25; 2006 Acts, ch 1144, §1--3; 2007 Acts, ch 215, §105; 2008
      Acts, ch 1031, §111
         Referred to in § 321.1, 321.54, 321.55, 321A.34, 321K.1, 326.25,
      331.557, 805.8A(14f)
        

321.21 Repealed by 99 Acts, ch 13, § 28, 29; 2000 Acts, ch 1154, § 46, 50.

321.22 URBAN AND REGIONAL TRANSIT EQUIPMENT CERTIFICATES AND PLATES. 1. An urban transit company or system having a franchise to operate in any city and any regional transit system may make application to the department, upon forms furnished by the department, for a certificate containing a distinguishing number and for one or more pairs of registration plates to be attached to the front and rear of buses owned or operated by the transit company or system. 2. The department shall issue to the applicant a certificate, or certificates, containing but not limited to the applicant's name and address, the distinguishing number assigned to the applicant, and such other information deemed necessary by the department for proper identification of the buses. 3. The department shall issue registration plates to the applicant. 4. The department shall issue the certificates and plates without fee.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.22] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1253, § 4; 85 Acts, ch 195, § 31; 92 Acts, ch 1244, §
      42; 2009 Acts, ch 130, §22
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.23 TITLES TO SPECIALLY CONSTRUCTED AND RECONSTRUCTED VEHICLES, STREET RODS, REPLICA VEHICLES, AND FOREIGN VEHICLES. 1. a. If the vehicle to be registered is a specially constructed vehicle, reconstructed vehicle, street rod, replica vehicle, or foreign vehicle, such fact shall be stated in the application. A fee of ten dollars shall be paid by the person making the application upon issuance of a certificate of title by the county treasurer. For a specially constructed vehicle, reconstructed vehicle, street rod, or replica vehicle subject to registration, the application shall be accompanied by a statement from the department authorizing the motor vehicle to be titled and registered in this state. b. The department shall cause a physical inspection to be made of all specially constructed vehicles, reconstructed vehicles, street rods, and replica vehicles upon application for a certificate of title by the owner, to determine whether the motor vehicle complies with the definition of specially constructed vehicle, reconstructed vehicle, street rod, or replica vehicle in this chapter and to determine that the integral component parts are properly identified and that the rightful ownership is established before issuing the owner the authority to have the motor vehicle registered and titled. The purpose of the physical inspection under this section is not to determine whether the motor vehicle is in a condition safe to operate. c. The owner of a specially constructed vehicle, reconstructed vehicle, street rod, or replica vehicle shall apply for a certificate of title and registration for the vehicle at the county treasurer's office within thirty days of the inspection. For a foreign vehicle which has been registered outside this state, the owner shall surrender to the treasurer all registration plates, registration cards, and certificates of title, or if the vehicle to be registered is from a nontitle state, the evidence of foreign registration and ownership as may be prescribed by the department except as provided in subsection 2. d. Upon completion of every specially constructed vehicle, reconstructed vehicle, street rod, or replica vehicle, the owner shall certify on a form prescribed by the department that such vehicle is in compliance with all equipment specifications required under this chapter. 2. Where in the course of operation of a vehicle registered in another state it is desirable to retain registration of said vehicle in such other state, such applicant need not surrender but shall submit for inspection said evidence of such foreign registration and the treasurer upon a proper showing shall register said vehicle in this state but shall not issue a certificate of title for such vehicle. 3. In the event an applicant for registration of a foreign vehicle for which a certificate of title has been issued is able to furnish evidence of being the registered owner of the vehicle to the county treasurer of the owner's residence, although unable to surrender such certificate of title, the county treasurer may issue a registration receipt and plates upon receipt of the required annual registration fee and the fee for new registration but shall not issue a certificate of title thereto. Upon surrender of the certificate of title from the foreign state, the county treasurer shall issue a certificate of title to the owner, or person entitled thereto, of such vehicle as provided in this chapter. The owner of a vehicle registered under this subsection shall not be required to obtain a certificate of title in this state and may transfer ownership of the vehicle to a motor vehicle dealer licensed under chapter 322 if, at the time of the transfer, the certificate of title is held by a secured party and the dealer has forwarded to the secured party the sum necessary to discharge the security interest pursuant to section 321.48, subsection 1. 4. A vehicle which does not meet the equipment requirements of this chapter due to the particular use for which it is designed or intended, may be registered by the department upon payment of appropriate fees and after inspection and certification by the department that the vehicle is not in an unsafe condition. A person is not required to have a certificate of title to register a vehicle under this subsection. If the owner elects to have a certificate of title issued for the vehicle, a fee of twenty dollars shall be paid by the person making the application upon issuance of a certificate of title. If the department's inspection reveals that the vehicle may be safely operated only under certain conditions or on certain types of roadways, the department may restrict the registration to limit operation of the vehicle to the appropriate conditions or roadways. This subsection does not apply to snowmobiles as defined in section 321G.1. Section 321.382 does not apply to a vehicle registered under this subsection which is operated exclusively by a person with a disability who has obtained a persons with disabilities parking permit as provided in section 321L.2, if the persons with disabilities parking permit is carried in or on the vehicle and shown to a peace officer on request.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5001.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.23] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 9, § 4, 8; 84 Acts, ch 1305, § 48; 88 Acts, ch 1158,
      §65; 89 Acts, ch 247, §3; 96 Acts, ch 1171, § 1; 97 Acts, ch 70, § 2;
      98 Acts, ch 1073, §5; 99 Acts, ch 13, §4; 2005 Acts, ch 8, §6; 2008
      Acts, ch 1044, §5, 8; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §15, 21, 53; 2008 Acts, ch
      1191, §127
         Referred to in § 312.2, 321.30, 321.52A, 321.67, 331.557
         Surcharge imposed; § 321.52A
        

321.23A AFFIDAVIT OF CORRECTION. When information is printed incorrectly on a certificate of title, application for certificate of title, damage disclosure statement, or other document required for a title transfer or when these documents contain an alteration or erasure, the county treasurer may accept a notarized affidavit of correction. This section does not apply to an odometer certification statement. The department shall consult with a representative of the Iowa state county treasurer's association and shall promulgate rules and adopt a standard affidavit form or forms to administer this section.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2004 Acts, ch 1092, §1
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.24 ISSUANCE OF REGISTRATION AND CERTIFICATE OF TITLE. 1. Upon receipt of the application for title and payment of the required fees for a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer, the county treasurer or the department shall, when satisfied as to the application's genuineness and regularity, and, in the case of a mobile home or manufactured home, that taxes are not owing under chapter 423 or 435, issue a certificate of title and, except for a mobile home or manufactured home, a registration receipt, and shall file the application, the manufacturer's or importer's certificate, the certificate of title, or other evidence of ownership, as prescribed by the department. The registration receipt shall be delivered to the owner and shall contain upon its face the date issued, the name and address of the owner, the registration number assigned to the vehicle, the amount of the fee paid, the type of fuel used, a description of the vehicle as determined by the department, and a form for notice of transfer of the vehicle. The name and address of any lessee of the vehicle shall not be printed on the registration receipt or certificate of title. Up to three owners may be listed on the registration receipt and certificate of title. 2. The county treasurer shall maintain in the county record system information contained on the registration receipt. The information shall be accessible by registration number and shall be open for public inspection during reasonable business hours. Copies the department requires shall be sent to the department in the manner and at the time the department directs. 3. The certificate of title shall contain upon its face the identical information required upon the face of the registration receipt. In addition, the certificate of title shall contain a statement of the owner's title, the title number assigned to the owner or owners of the vehicle, the name and address of the previous owner, and a statement of all security interests and encumbrances as shown in the application, upon the vehicle described, including the nature of the security interest, date of perfection, and name and mailing address of the secured party. 4. If the prior certificate of title is from another state and indicates that the vehicle was rebuilt, the new certificate of title and registration receipt shall contain the designation "REBUILT" printed on its face together with the name of the state issuing the prior title. The designation shall be retained on the face of all subsequent certificates of title and registration receipts for the vehicle. 5. If the prior certificate of title is from another state and indicates that the vehicle was junked, an Iowa junking certificate shall be issued according to section 321.52, subsections 2 and 3. If the prior certificate of title from another state indicates that the vehicle is salvaged and not rebuilt or is a salvage certificate of title, an Iowa salvage certificate of title shall be issued and a "SALVAGE" designation shall be retained on all subsequent Iowa certificates of title and registration receipts for the vehicle, except as provided under section 321.52, subsection 4, paragraph "b". The department may require that subsequent Iowa certificates of title retain other states' designations which indicate that a vehicle had incurred prior damage. The department shall determine the manner in which other states' rebuilt, salvage, or other designations are to be indicated on Iowa titles. 6. If the prior certificate of title is from another state and indicates that the vehicle was returned to the manufacturer pursuant to a law of another state similar to chapter 322G, the new registration receipt and certificate of title, and all subsequent registration receipts and certificates of title issued for the vehicle, shall contain a designation indicating the vehicle was returned to the manufacturer. The department shall determine the manner in which other states' designations are to be indicated on Iowa registration receipts and certificates of title. The department may determine that a "REBUILT" or "SALVAGE" designation supersedes the designation required by this subsection and include the "REBUILT" or "SALVAGE" designation on the registration receipt and certificate of title in lieu of the designation required by this subsection. 7. The certificate shall contain the name of the county treasurer or of the department and, if the certificate of title is printed, the signature of the county treasurer, the deputy county treasurer, or the department director or deputy designee. The certificate of title shall contain upon the reverse side a form for assignment of title or interest and warranty by the owner, for reassignments by a dealer licensed in this state or in another state if the state in which the dealer is licensed permits Iowa licensed dealers to similarly reassign certificates of title. However, titles for mobile homes or manufactured homes shall not be reassigned by licensed dealers. Notwithstanding section 321.1, subsection 17, as used in this paragraph "dealer" means every person engaged in the business of buying, selling, or exchanging vehicles of a type required to be registered under this chapter. 8. The original certificate of title shall be delivered to the owner if there is no security interest. Otherwise the certificate of title shall be delivered by the county treasurer or the department to the person holding the first security interest. Delivery may be made using electronic means. 9. The county treasurer or the department shall maintain in the county or department records system information contained on the certificate of title. The information shall be accessible by title certificate number for a period of three years from the date of notification of cancellation of title or that a new title has been issued as provided in this chapter. Copies the department requires shall be sent to the department in the manner and at the time the department directs. The department shall designate a uniform system of title numbers to indicate the county of issuance. 10. A vehicle shall be registered for the registration year. A vehicle registered for the first time in this state shall be registered for the remaining unexpired months of the registration year and pay an annual registration fee prorated for the remaining unexpired months of the registration year plus a fee for new registration if applicable pursuant to section 321.105A. Except for a vehicle registered under chapter 326, a vehicle registered for the first time during the eleventh month of the owner's registration year may be registered for the remaining unexpired months of the registration year as provided in this paragraph or for the remaining unexpired months of the registration year and for the next registration year, upon payment of the applicable registration fees. 11. If the county treasurer or department is not satisfied as to the ownership of the vehicle or that there are no undisclosed security interests in it, or a junking certificate has been issued for the vehicle but a certificate of title will not be reissued under section 321.52, subsection 3, and the vehicle qualifies as an antique vehicle under section 321.115, subsection 1, the county treasurer or department may register the vehicle but shall, as a condition of issuing a certificate of title and registration receipt, require the applicant to file with the department a bond in the form prescribed by the department and executed by the applicant, and either accompanied by the deposit of cash with the department or also executed by a person authorized to conduct a surety business in this state. The owner of a vehicle subject to the bond requirements of this subsection shall apply for a certificate of title and registration for the vehicle at the county treasurer's office within thirty days of issuance of written authorization from the department. The bond shall be in an amount equal to one and one-half times the current value of the vehicle as determined by the department and conditioned to indemnify any prior owner and secured party and any subsequent purchaser of the vehicle or person acquiring any security interest in it, and their respective successors in interest, against any expense, loss, or damage, including reasonable attorney fees, by reason of the issuance of the certificate of title for the vehicle or on account of any defect in or undisclosed security interest upon the right, title, and interest of the applicant in and to the vehicle. Any such interested person has a right of action to recover on the bond for any breach of its conditions, but the aggregate liability of the surety to all persons shall not exceed the amount of the bond. The bond, and any deposit accompanying it, shall be returned at the end of three years or earlier if the vehicle is no longer registered in this state and the currently valid certificate of title is surrendered to the department, unless the department has been notified of the pendency of an action to recover on the bond. The department may authorize issuance of a certificate of title as provided in this subsection for a vehicle with an unreleased security interest upon presentation of satisfactory evidence that the security interest has been extinguished or that the holder of the security interest cannot be located to release the security interest as provided in section 321.50.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4873; C39, § 5001.08; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.24; 82 Acts, ch 1251, § 8] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 3, 38; 87 Acts, ch 108, § 2; 87 Acts, ch 130,
      § 1; 88 Acts, ch 1089, §3; 89 Acts, ch 185, §1; 90 Acts, ch 1116, §
      1; 91 Acts, ch 142, § 1; 92 Acts, ch 1104, § 2; 94 Acts, ch 1199,
      §77; 95 Acts, ch 45, §1; 99 Acts, ch 188, §4; 2000 Acts, ch 1016,
      §42, 47; 2000 Acts, ch 1028, §1, 4; 2000 Acts, ch 1047, §1, 4; 2001
      Acts, ch 153, §17; 2003 Acts, 1st Ex, ch 2, §164, 205; 2004 Acts, ch
      1013, §5, 35; 2005 Acts, ch 8, §7, 8; 2006 Acts, ch 1070, §4; 2007
      Acts, ch 143, §8; 2008 Acts, ch 1018, §6; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §54;
      2009 Acts, ch 41, §113
         Referred to in § 321.46, 321.52, 321.69, 321.152, 331.557
         Certain trailers exempt, see § 321.123
        

321.25 APPLICATION FOR REGISTRATION AND TITLE -- CARDS ATTACHED. A vehicle may be operated upon the highways of this state without registration plates for a period of forty-five days after the date of delivery of the vehicle to the purchaser from a dealer if a card bearing the words "registration applied for" is attached on the rear of the vehicle. The card shall have plainly stamped or stenciled the registration number of the dealer from whom the vehicle was purchased and the date of delivery of the vehicle. In addition, a dealer licensed to sell new motor vehicles may attach the card to a new motor vehicle delivered by the dealer to the purchaser even if the vehicle was purchased from an out-of-state dealer and the card shall bear the registration number of the dealer that delivered the vehicle. A dealer shall not issue a card to a person known to the dealer to be in possession of registration plates which may be attached to the vehicle. A dealer shall not issue a card unless an application for registration and certificate of title has been made by the purchaser and a receipt issued to the purchaser of the vehicle showing the fee paid by the person making the application. Dealers' records shall indicate the agency to which the fee is sent and the date the fee is sent. The dealer shall forward the application by the purchaser to the county treasurer or state office within thirty calendar days from the date of delivery of the vehicle. However, if the vehicle is subject to a security interest and has been offered for sale pursuant to section 321.48, subsection 1, the dealer shall forward the application by the purchaser to the county treasurer or state office within thirty calendar days from the date of the delivery of the vehicle to the purchaser. The department shall, upon request by any dealer, furnish "registration applied for" cards free of charge. Only cards furnished by the department shall be used. Only one card shall be issued in accordance with this subsection for each vehicle purchased.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m10; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4880; C39, § 5001.09;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, § 321.25; C77, § 321.25--321.27;
      C79, 81, § 321.25] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 82, § 1; 93 Acts, ch 47, § 1; 97 Acts, ch 108, §4; 99
      Acts, ch 13, §5; 2000 Acts, ch 1016, §3
         Referred to in § 321.46, 331.557, 805.8A(2c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 2,
      paragraph c
        

321.26 MULTIPLE REGISTRATION PERIODS AND ADJUSTMENTS. 1. There are established twelve registration periods for the registration of vehicles by the county treasurer. Each registration period shall commence on the first day of each calendar month following the month of the birth of the owner of the vehicle and end on the last day of the twelfth month. 2. The county treasurer may adjust the renewal or expiration date of vehicles when deemed necessary to equalize the number of vehicles registered in each twelve-month period or for the administrative efficiency of the county treasurer's office. The adjustment shall be accomplished by delivery of a written notice to the vehicle owner of the adjustment and allowance of a credit for the remaining months of the unused portion of the annual registration fee, rounded to the nearest whole dollar, which amount shall be deducted from the annual registration fee due at the time of registration. Upon receipt of the notification the owner shall, within thirty days, surrender the registration card and registration plates to the county treasurer of the county where the vehicle is registered, except that the registration plates shall not be surrendered if validation stickers or other emblems are used to designate the month and year of expiration of registration. Upon payment of the annual registration fee, less the credit allowed for the remaining months of the unused portion of the annual registration fee, the county treasurer shall issue a new registration card and registration plates, validation stickers, or emblems which indicate the month and year of expiration of registration. 3. Vehicles subject to registration which are owned by a person other than a natural person shall be registered for a registration year as determined by the county treasurer.

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 34, 38; 83 Acts, ch 24, § 8, 12; 2008 Acts, ch
      1113, §55
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.27 Repealed by 97 Acts, ch 108, § 49.

321.28 FAILURE TO REGISTER. The treasurer shall withhold the registration of any vehicle the owner of which shall have failed to register the same under the provisions of this chapter, for any previous period or periods for which it appears that registration should have been made, until the fee for such previous period or periods shall be paid.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4870; C39, § 5001.12; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.28]
         Referred to in § 321.101, 331.557
        

321.29 RENEWAL NOT PERMITTED. Any vehicle once registered in the state and by removal no longer subject to registration in this state, shall upon being returned to this state and subject to registration be again registered in accordance with section 321.20.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4876; C39, § 5001.13; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.29]
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.30 GROUNDS FOR REFUSING REGISTRATION OR TITLE. 1. The department or the county treasurer shall refuse registration and issuance of a certificate of title or any transfer of title and registration upon any of the following grounds: a. That the application contains any false or fraudulent statement or that the applicant has failed to furnish required information or reasonable additional information requested by the department or that the applicant is not entitled to registration and issuance of a certificate of title of the vehicle under this chapter. b. That the vehicle is mechanically unfit or unsafe to be operated or moved upon the highways, providing such condition is revealed by a member of this department, or any peace officer. c. That the department or the county treasurer has reasonable ground to believe that the vehicle is a stolen or embezzled vehicle or that the granting of registration and issuance of a certificate of title would constitute a fraud against the rightful owner. d. That the registration of the vehicle stands suspended or revoked for any reason as provided in the motor vehicle laws of this state. e. That the required registration fees have not been paid except as provided in section 321.48. f. For a vehicle subject only to a certificate of title or a manufactured home, that the required use tax has not been paid. g. If application for registration and certificate of title for a new vehicle is not accompanied by a manufacturer's or importer's certificate duly assigned. h. If application for a transfer of registration and issuance of a certificate of title for a used vehicle registered in this state is not accompanied by a certificate of title duly assigned. i. If application and supporting documents are insufficient to authorize the issuance of a certificate of title as provided by this chapter, except that an initial registration or transfer of registration may be issued as provided in section 321.23. j. In the case of a mobile home or manufactured home, that taxes are owing under chapter 435 for a previous year. k. In the case of a mobile home or manufactured home converted from real estate, real estate taxes which are delinquent. l. If a commercial motor vehicle has been assigned to be operated by a commercial motor carrier whose ability to operate has been terminated or denied by a federal agency. m. If the applicant is under eighteen years of age, unless the applicant has an Iowa driver's license or the application is being made by more than one applicant and one of the applicants is at least eighteen years of age. 2. Unless otherwise provided for in this chapter, the department or the county treasurer shall refuse registration and issuance of a certificate of title unless the vehicle bears a manufacturer's label pursuant to 49 C.F.R. pt. 567 certifying that the vehicle meets federal motor vehicle safety standards. 3. The department or the county treasurer shall refuse registration of a vehicle if the applicant for registration of the vehicle has failed to pay the required annual registration fee or the fee for new registration of any vehicle owned or previously owned when the fee was required to be paid by the applicant, and for which vehicle the registration was suspended or revoked under section 321.101, subsection 1, paragraph "d", or section 321.101A, until the fee is paid together with any accrued penalties.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5001.14; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.30; 82 Acts, ch 1164, § 1, ch 1251, § 9] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 98, §3; 87 Acts, ch 108, §3--5; 95 Acts, ch 55, § 4;
      95 Acts, ch 194, §2, 12; 99 Acts, ch 188, §5; 2000 Acts, ch 1016, §4,
      5; 2001 Acts, ch 153, §17; 2003 Acts, ch 145, §245; 2006 Acts, ch
      1068, §10, 41; 2007 Acts, ch 126, §53; 2008 Acts, ch 1018, §7, 8;
      2008 Acts, ch 1113, §56, 57
         Referred to in § 321.101, 331.557
         See also § 321.40
        

321.31 RECORDS SYSTEM. A state and county records system shall be maintained in the following manner: 1. State records system. The department shall install and maintain a records system which shall contain the name and address of the vehicle owner, current and previous registration number, vehicle identification number, make, model, style, date of purchase, registration certificate number, maximum gross weight, weight, list price or value of the vehicle as fixed by the department, fees paid and date of payment. The records system shall also contain a record of the certificate of title including such information as the department deems necessary. The information to be kept in the records system shall be entered within forty-eight hours after receipt insofar as is practical. The records system shall constitute the permanent record of ownership of each vehicle titled under the laws of this state. The department may make photostatic, microfilm, or other photographic copies of certificates of title, registration receipts, or other records, reports or documents which are required to be retained by the department. When copies have been made, the department may destroy the original records in such manner as prescribed by the director. The photostatic, microfilm, or other photographic copies, when no longer of use, may be destroyed in the manner prescribed by the director, subject to the approval of the state records commission. Photostatic, microfilm, or other photographic copies of records shall be admissible in evidence when duly certified and authenticated by the officer having custody and control of the copies of records. Records of vehicle certificates of title may be destroyed seven years after the date of issue. The director shall maintain a records system of delinquent accounts owed to the state using information provided through the computerized data bank established in section 421.17. The department and county treasurers shall use the information maintained in the records system to determine if applicants for renewal of registration have delinquent accounts, charges, fees, loans, taxes, or other indebtedness owed to or being collected by the state as provided pursuant to section 8A.504. The director, the director of the department of administrative services, and the director of revenue shall establish procedures for updating the delinquent accounts records to add and remove accounts, as applicable. 2. County records system. Each county treasurer's office shall maintain a county records system for vehicle registration and certificate of title documents. The records system shall consist of information from the certificate of title, including the date of perfection and cancellation of security interests, and information from the registration receipt. The information shall be maintained in a manner approved by the department. Records of vehicle certificates of title for vehicles that are delinquent for five or more consecutive years may be destroyed by the county treasurer. Automated files, optical disks, microfiche records, and photostatic, microfilm or other photographic copies of records shall be admissible in evidence when duly certified and authenticated by the officer having custody and control of the records.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m2; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5010; C39, § 5001.15; C46,
      50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.31] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         89 Acts, ch 185, §2; 95 Acts, ch 194, §3, 12; 2003 Acts, ch 145,
      §246; 2004 Acts, ch 1013, §6, 35
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.32 REGISTRATION CARD CARRIED AND EXHIBITED. A vehicle's registration card shall at all times be carried in the vehicle to which it refers and shall be shown to any peace officer upon the officer's request.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m11; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4879; C39, § 5001.16;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.32] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         91 Acts, ch 27, §1
         Referred to in § 331.557, 805.8A(2a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 2,
      paragraph a
        

321.33 EXCEPTION. The provisions requiring that a registration card be carried in the vehicle to which it refers shall not apply when such card is used for the purpose of making application for renewal of registration or upon a transfer of registration of said vehicle.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5001.17; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.33]
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.34 PLATES OR VALIDATION STICKER FURNISHED -- RETAINED BY OWNER -- SPECIAL PLATES. 1. Plates issued. The county treasurer upon receiving application, accompanied by proper fee, for registration of a vehicle shall issue to the owner one registration plate for a motorcycle, motorized bicycle, truck tractor, trailer, or semitrailer and two registration plates for every other motor vehicle. The registration plates, including special registration plates, shall be assigned to the owner of a vehicle. When the owner of a registered vehicle transfers or assigns ownership of the vehicle to another person, the owner shall remove the registration plates from the vehicle. The owner shall forward the plates to the county treasurer where the vehicle is registered or the owner may have the plates assigned to another vehicle within thirty days after transfer, upon payment of the fees required by law. The owner shall immediately affix registration plates retained by the owner to another vehicle owned or acquired by the owner, providing the owner complies with section 321.46. The department shall adopt rules providing for the assignment of registration plates to the transferee of a vehicle for which a credit is allowed under section 321.46, subsection 6. 2. Validation stickers. In lieu of issuing new registration plates each registration year for a vehicle renewing registration, the department may reassign the registration plates previously issued to the vehicle and may adopt and prescribe an annual validation sticker indicating payment of annual registration fees. The department shall issue one validation sticker for each set of registration plates. The sticker shall specify the month and year of expiration of the registration plates. The sticker shall be displayed only on the rear registration plate, except that the sticker shall be displayed on the front registration plate of a truck tractor. The state department of transportation shall adopt rules to provide for the placement of the motor vehicle registration validation sticker. 3. Radio operators plates. The owner of an automobile, motorcycle, trailer, or motor truck who holds an amateur radio license issued by the federal communications commission may, upon written application to the county treasurer accompanied by a fee of five dollars, order special registration plates bearing the call letters authorized the radio station covered by the person's amateur radio license. When received by the county treasurer, such special registration plates shall be issued to the applicant in exchange for the registration plates previously issued to the person. Not more than one set of special registration plates may be issued to an applicant. Said fee shall be in addition to and not in lieu of the fee for regular registration plates. Special registration plates must be surrendered upon expiration of the owner's amateur radio license and the owner shall thereupon be entitled to the owner's regular registration plates. The county treasurer shall validate special plates in the same manner as regular registration plates, upon payment of five dollars in addition to the regular annual registration fee. 4. Multiyear plates. In lieu of issuing annual registration plates for trailers, semitrailers, motor trucks, and truck tractors, the department may issue a multiyear registration plate for a three-year period or a permanent registration plate for trailers and semitrailers licensed under chapter 326, and a permanent registration plate for motor trucks and truck tractors licensed under chapter 326, upon payment of the appropriate registration fee. Payment of fees for trailers and semitrailers for a permanent registration plate shall, at the option of the registrant, be made at five-year intervals or on an annual basis. Fees from three-year and five-year payments shall not be reduced or prorated. Payment of fees for motor trucks and truck tractors shall be made on an annual basis. 5. Personalized registration plates. a. Upon application and the payment of a fee of twenty-five dollars, the director may issue to the owner of a motor vehicle registered in this state or a trailer or travel trailer registered in this state, personalized registration plates marked with up to seven initials, letters, or combination of numerals and letters requested by the owner. However, personalized registration plates for motorcycles and motorized bicycles shall be marked with no more than six initials, letters, or combinations of numerals and letters. Upon receipt of the personalized registration plates, the applicant shall surrender the regular registration plates to the county treasurer. The fee for issuance of the personalized registration plates shall be in addition to the regular annual registration fee. b. The county treasurer shall validate personalized registration plates in the same manner as regular registration plates are validated under this section at an annual fee of five dollars in addition to the regular annual registration fee. A person renewing a personalized registration plate within one month following the time requirements under section 321.40 may renew the personalized plate without paying the additional registration fee under paragraph "a" but shall pay the five-dollar fee in addition to the regular annual registration fee and any penalties subject to regular registration plate holders for late renewal. c. The fees collected by the director under this subsection shall be paid to the treasurer of state and credited by the treasurer of state as provided in section 321.145. 6. Sample vehicle registration plates. Vehicle registration plates displaying the general design of regular registration plates, with the word "sample" displayed on the plate, may be furnished to any person upon payment of a fee of three dollars, except that such plates may be furnished to governmental agencies without cost. Sample registration plates shall not be attached to a vehicle moved on the highways of this state. 7. Collegiate plates. a. Upon application and payment of the proper fees, the director may issue to the owner of a motor vehicle subject to registration under section 321.109, subsection 1, motor truck, motor home, multipurpose vehicle, trailer over two thousand pounds, or travel trailer registered in this state, collegiate registration plates created pursuant to this subsection. Upon receipt of the collegiate registration plates, the applicant shall surrender the regular registration plates to the county treasurer. b. Collegiate registration plates shall be designed for each of the three state universities. The collegiate registration plates shall be designated as follows: (1) The letters "ISU" followed by a four-digit number all in cardinal on a gold background for Iowa state university of science and technology. (2) The letters "UNI" followed by a four-digit number all in purple on a gold background for the university of northern Iowa. (3) The letters "UI" followed by a four-digit number all in black on a gold background for the state university of Iowa. (4) In lieu of the letter-number designation provided under subparagraphs (1) through (3), the collegiate registration plates may be designated in the manner provided for personalized registration plates under subsection 5, paragraph "a", in the colors designated for the respective universities under subparagraphs (1) through (3). c. (1) The fees for a collegiate registration plate are as follows: (a) A registration fee of twenty-five dollars. (b) A special collegiate registration fee of twenty-five dollars. (2) These fees are in addition to the regular annual registration fee. The fees collected by the director under this subsection shall be paid monthly to the treasurer of state and deposited in the road use tax fund. The treasurer of state shall credit monthly from the statutory allocations fund created under section 321.145, subsection 2, to Iowa state university of science and technology, the university of northern Iowa, and the state university of Iowa respectively, the amount of the special collegiate registration fees collected in the previous month for collegiate registration plates designed for the university. The moneys credited are appropriated to the respective universities to be used for scholarships for students attending the universities. d. The county treasurer shall validate collegiate registration plates in the same manner as regular registration plates are validated under this section at an annual fee of five dollars in addition to the regular annual registration fee. e. A collegiate registration plate shall not be issued if its combination of alphanumeric characters are identical to those contained on a current personalized registration plate issued under subsection 5. However, the owner of a motor vehicle who has a personalized registration plate issued for the motor vehicle may, after proper application and payment of fees, be issued a collegiate registration plate containing the same alphanumeric characters as those on the personalized plate. Upon receipt of the collegiate registration plates, the owner shall surrender the personalized registration plates to the county treasurer. 7A. Collegiate plates -- Private four-year colleges and universities. a. Upon application by a private four-year college or university located in this state and payment of the initial set-up costs for establishing the collegiate plate, the department, in consultation with the college or university, may design a special collegiate registration plate displaying the colors associated with the college or university. b. Upon application and payment of the proper fees, the director may issue to the owner of a motor vehicle subject to registration under section 321.109, subsection 1, motor truck, motor home, multipurpose vehicle, trailer over two thousand pounds, or travel trailer registered in this state, collegiate registration plates created pursuant to this subsection. The fee for the issuance of collegiate registration plates is twenty-five dollars, which fee is in addition to the regular annual registration fee for the vehicle. An applicant may obtain a personalized collegiate registration plate upon payment of the additional fee for a personalized plate as provided in subsection 5 in addition to the collegiate plate fee and the regular registration fee. The county treasurer shall validate collegiate registration plates issued under this subsection in the same manner as regular registration plates, upon payment of five dollars in addition to the regular annual registration fee. Upon receipt of the collegiate registration plates, the applicant shall surrender the regular registration plates to the county treasurer. c. A personalized collegiate registration plate shall not be issued if its combination of alphanumeric characters are identical to those contained on a current personalized registration plate issued under subsection 5. However, the owner of a motor vehicle who has a personalized registration plate issued for the motor vehicle may, after proper application and payment of fees, be issued a collegiate registration plate containing the same alphanumeric characters as those on the personalized plate. Upon receipt of the collegiate registration plates, the owner shall surrender the personalized registration plates to the county treasurer. 8. Medal of honor plates. The owner of a motor vehicle subject to registration under section 321.109, subsection 1, motorcycle, trailer, or motor truck who has been awarded the medal of honor may, upon written application to the department, order special registration plates which shall be red, white, and blue in color and shall bear an emblem of the medal of honor and an identifying number. Each applicant applying for special registration plates under this subsection may order only one set of registration plates under this subsection. The application is subject to approval by the department and the special registration plates shall be issued at no charge to the applicant in exchange for the registration plates previously issued to the person. A person who is issued special plates under this subsection is exempt from payment of any annual registration fee for the motor vehicle bearing the special plates. The department shall validate the special plates in the same manner as regular registration plates are validated under this section. The department shall not issue special registration plates until service organizations in the state have furnished the department either the special dies or the cost of the special dies necessary for the manufacture of the special registration plate. The surviving spouse of a person who was issued special plates under this subsection may continue to use the special plates subject to registration of the special plates in the surviving spouse's name. If the surviving spouse remarries, the surviving spouse shall return the special plates to the department and the department shall issue regular registration plates to the surviving spouse. 8A. Ex-prisoner of war special plates. The owner of a motor vehicle subject to registration under section 321.109, subsection 1, motorcycle, trailer, or motor truck who was a prisoner of war during a time of military conflict may, upon written application to the department, order only one set of special registration plates with an ex-prisoner of war processed emblem. The emblem shall be designed by the department in cooperation with the adjutant general and shall signify that the owner was a prisoner of war as described in this subsection. The application is subject to approval by the department, in consultation with the adjutant general. The special plates shall be issued at no charge and are subject to an annual registration fee of fifteen dollars. The county treasurer shall validate the special plates in the same manner as regular registration plates are validated under this section. The surviving spouse of a person who was issued special plates under this subsection may continue to use or apply for and use the special plates subject to registration of the special plates in the surviving spouse's name and upon payment of the annual registration fee. If the surviving spouse remarries, the surviving spouse shall return the special plates to the department and the department shall issue regular registration plates to the surviving spouse. 9. Leased vehicles. Registration plates under this section, including disabled veteran plates specified in section 321.105, may be issued to the lessee of a motor vehicle if the lessee provides evidence of a lease for a period of more than sixty days and if the lessee complies with the requirements, under this section, for issuance of the specific registration plates. 10. Fire fighter plates. a. An owner referred to in subsection 12 who is a current or retired member of a paid or volunteer fire department may, upon written application to the department, order special registration plates, designed by the department in cooperation with representatives designated by the Iowa fire fighters' associations, which signify that the applicant is a current or retired member of a paid or volunteer fire department. b. The application shall be approved by the department in consultation with representatives designated by the Iowa fire fighters' associations, and the special registration plates shall be issued to the applicant in exchange for the registration plates previously issued to the person. The fee for the special plates is twenty-five dollars which shall be paid in addition to the regular annual registration fee. The department shall validate the special plates in the same manner as regular registration plates are validated under this section at the regular annual registration fee. c. The special fees collected by the director under this subsection shall be paid monthly to the treasurer of state and deposited in the road use tax fund. The treasurer of state shall transfer monthly from the statutory allocations fund created under section 321.145, subsection 2, to the Paul Ryan memorial fire fighter safety training fund created pursuant to section 100B.12 the amount of the special fees collected in the previous month for the fire fighter plates. d. For purposes of this subsection, a person is considered to be retired if the person is recognized by the chief of the fire department where the individual served, and on record, as officially retired from the fire department. Special registration plates with a fire fighter emblem shall be surrendered, as provided in subsection 12, in exchange for regular registration plates upon termination of the motor vehicle owner's membership in the paid or volunteer fire department, unless the person is a retired member in good standing. 10A. Emergency medical services plates. a. The owner of a motor vehicle referred to in subsection 12 who is a current member of a paid or volunteer emergency medical services agency may, upon written application to the department, order special registration plates, designed by the department in cooperation with representatives designated by the Iowa emergency medical services association, which plates signify that the applicant is a current member of a paid or volunteer emergency medical services agency. The application shall be approved by the department, in consultation with representatives designated by the Iowa emergency medical services association, and the special registration plates shall be issued to the applicant in exchange for the registration plates previously issued to the person. The fee for the special plates is twenty-five dollars which is in addition to the regular annual registration fee. The department shall validate the special plates in the same manner as regular registration plates are validated under this section at the regular annual registration fee. b. The special fees collected by the director under this subsection shall be paid monthly to the treasurer of state and deposited in the road use tax fund. The treasurer of state shall transfer monthly from the statutory allocations fund created under section 321.145, subsection 2, to the emergency medical services fund created in section 135.25 the amount of the special fees collected in the previous month for issuance of emergency medical services plates. 11. Natural resources plates. a. Upon application and payment of the proper fees, the director may issue natural resources plates to the owner of a motor vehicle subject to registration under section 321.109, subsection 1, motor truck, motor home, multipurpose vehicle, motorcycle, trailer, or travel trailer. b. Natural resources plates shall be designed by the department in cooperation with the department of natural resources which design shall include on the plate the name of the county where the vehicle is registered. c. (1) The special natural resources fee for letter-number designated natural resources plates is forty-five dollars. The fee for personalized natural resources plates is forty-five dollars which shall be paid in addition to the special natural resources fee of forty-five dollars. The fees collected by the director under this subsection shall be paid monthly to the treasurer of state and deposited in the road use tax fund. The treasurer of state shall credit monthly from the statutory allocations fund created under section 321.145, subsection 2, to the Iowa resources enhancement and protection fund created pursuant to section 455A.18, the amount of the special natural resources fees collected in the previous month for the natural resources plates. (2) From the moneys credited to the Iowa resources enhancement and protection fund under subparagraph (1), ten dollars of the fee collected for each natural resources plate issued, and fifteen dollars from each renewal fee, shall be allocated to the department of natural resources wildlife bureau to be used for nongame wildlife programs. d. Upon receipt of the special registration plates, the applicant shall surrender the current registration plates to the county treasurer. The county treasurer shall validate the special registration plates in the same manner as regular registration plates are validated under this section. The annual special natural resources fee for letter-number designated plates is twenty-five dollars which shall be paid in addition to the regular annual registration fee. The annual fee for personalized natural resources plates is five dollars which shall be paid in addition to the annual special natural resources fee and the regular annual registration fee. The annual special natural resources fee shall be credited as provided under paragraph "c". 11A. Love our kids plates. a. Upon application and payment of the proper fees, the director may issue "love our kids" plates to the owner of a motor vehicle subject to registration under section 321.109, subsection 1, motor truck, motor home, multipurpose vehicle, motorcycle, trailer, or travel trailer. b. Love our kids plates shall be designed by the department in cooperation with the Iowa department of public health. c. The special fee for letter-number designated love our kids plates is thirty-five dollars. The fee for personalized love our kids plates is twenty-five dollars, which shall be paid in addition to the special love our kids fee of thirty-five dollars. The fees collected by the director under this subsection shall be paid monthly to the treasurer of state and deposited in the road use tax fund. The treasurer of state shall transfer monthly from the statutory allocations fund created under section 321.145, subsection 2, to the Iowa department of public health the amount of the special fees collected in the previous month for the love our kids plates. Notwithstanding section 8.33, moneys transferred under this subsection shall not revert to the general fund of the state. d. Upon receipt of the special registration plates, the applicant shall surrender the current registration plates to the county treasurer. The county treasurer shall validate the special registration plates in the same manner as regular registration plates are validated under this section. The annual special love our kids fee for letter-number designated plates is ten dollars, which shall be paid in addition to the regular annual registration fee. The annual fee for personalized love our kids plates is five dollars, which shall be paid in addition to the annual special love our kids fee and the regular annual registration fee. The annual love our kids fee shall be credited as provided under paragraph "c". 11B. Motorcycle rider education plates. a. Upon application and payment of the proper fees, the director may issue "motorcycle rider education" plates to the owner of a motor vehicle subject to registration under section 321.109, subsection 1, motor truck, motor home, multipurpose vehicle, motorcycle, trailer, or travel trailer. b. Motorcycle rider education plates shall be designed by the department. c. The special fee for letter-number designated motorcycle rider education plates is thirty-five dollars. The fee for personalized motorcycle rider education plates is twenty-five dollars, which shall be paid in addition to the special motorcycle rider education fee of thirty-five dollars. The fees collected by the director under this subsection shall be paid monthly to the treasurer of state and deposited in the road use tax fund. The treasurer of state shall transfer monthly from the statutory allocations fund created under section 321.145, subsection 2, to the department for use in accordance with section 321.180B, subsection 6, the amount of the special fees collected in the previous month for the motorcycle rider education plates. d. Upon receipt of the special registration plates, the applicant shall surrender the current registration plates to the county treasurer. The county treasurer shall validate the special registration plates in the same manner as regular registration plates are validated under this section. The annual special motorcycle rider education fee for letter-number designated plates is ten dollars, which shall be paid in addition to the regular annual registration fee. The annual fee for personalized motorcycle rider education plates is five dollars, which shall be paid in addition to the annual special motorcycle rider education fee and the regular annual registration fee. The annual motorcycle rider education fee shall be credited as provided under paragraph "c". 12. Special registration plates -- general provisions. a. The owner of a motor vehicle subject to registration pursuant to section 321.109, subsection 1, motor truck, motor home, multipurpose vehicle, motorcycle, trailer, or travel trailer may, upon written application to the department, order special registration plates with a distinguishing processed emblem as authorized by this section or as approved by the department. The fee for the issuance of special registration plates is twenty-five dollars for each vehicle, unless otherwise provided by this section, which fee is in addition to the regular annual registration fee. The county treasurer shall validate special registration plates with a distinguishing processed emblem in the same manner as regular registration plates, upon payment of five dollars in addition to the regular annual registration fee. b. Upon receipt of a special registration plate with a distinguishing processed emblem as authorized by this section or as approved by the department, the applicant shall surrender the regular registration plates to the county treasurer. An applicant no longer eligible for a special registration plate shall surrender the special vehicle registration plates to the county treasurer for issuance of regular registration plates. c. An applicant may, upon payment of the additional fee for a personalized plate as provided in subsection 5, obtain a personalized special registration plate with a processed emblem. Personalized plates authorized by this section with the processed emblem shall be limited to no more than five initials, letters, or combinations of numerals and letters. d. A special registration plate issued for a motorcycle or motorized bicycle under this section shall be designated in the manner provided for personalized registration plates under subsection 5, paragraph "a". 12A. Special registration plates -- armed forces services. a. An owner of a vehicle referred to in subsection 12 who applies for any type of special registration plates associated with service in the United States armed forces shall be issued one set of the special registration plates at no charge, but shall be subject to the annual registration fee of fifteen dollars, if the owner is eligible for, but has relinquished to the department or the county treasurer or has not been issued, ex-prisoner of war or legion of merit special registration plates under this section. b. An owner of a vehicle referred to in subsection 12 who applies for any type of special registration plates associated with service in the United States armed forces shall be issued one set of the special registration plates at no charge and subject to no annual registration fee if the owner is eligible for, but has relinquished to the department or the county treasurer or has not been issued, medal of honor registration plates under subsection 8 or disabled veteran registration plates under section 321.105. c. The owner shall provide the appropriate information regarding the owner's eligibility for any of the special registration plates described in paragraph "a" or "b", and regarding the owner's eligibility for the special registration plates for which the owner has applied, as required by the department. d. The surviving spouse of a person who was issued special plates under this subsection may continue to use the special plates subject to registration of the special plates in the surviving spouse's name and upon payment of the same annual registration fee, if applicable. If the surviving spouse remarries, the surviving spouse shall return the special plates to the department and the department shall issue regular registration plates to the surviving spouse. 13. New special registration plates -- department review. a. Any person may submit a request to the department to recommend a new special registration plate with a processed emblem. The request shall provide a proposed design for the processed emblem, the purpose of the special registration plate with the processed emblem, any eligibility requirements for purchase or receipt of the special registration plate with the processed emblem, and evidence there is sufficient interest in the special registration plate with the processed emblem to pay implementation costs. The department shall consider the request and make a recommendation based upon criteria established by the department which shall include consideration of the information included in the request, the number of special registration plates with processed emblems currently authorized, and any other relevant factors. b. If a request for a proposed special registration plate with a processed emblem meets the criteria established by the department, the department shall, in consultation with the persons seeking the special registration plate with the processed emblem, approve a recommended design for the processed emblem, and propose eligibility requirements for the special registration plate with the processed emblem. c. The department shall adopt rules pursuant to chapter 17A regarding the approval and issuance of special registration plates. d. A state agency may submit a request to the department recommending a special registration plate. The alternate fee for letter-number designated plates is thirty-five dollars with a ten dollar annual special renewal fee. The fee for personalized plates is twenty-five dollars which is in addition to the alternative fee of thirty-five dollars with an annual personalized plate renewal fee of five dollars which is in addition to the special renewal fee of ten dollars. The alternate fees are in addition to the regular annual registration fee. The alternate fees collected under this paragraph shall be paid monthly to the treasurer of state and deposited in the road use tax fund. The treasurer of state shall credit monthly from the statutory allocations fund created under section 321.145, subsection 2, the amount of the alternate fees collected in the previous month to the state agency that recommended the special registration plate. 14. Persons with disabilities special plates. An owner referred to in subsection 12 or an owner of a trailer used to transport a wheelchair who is a person with a disability, or who is the parent or guardian of a child who resides with the parent or guardian owner and who is a person with a disability, as defined in section 321L.1, may, upon written application to the department, order special registration plates with a persons with disabilities processed emblem designed by the department bearing the international symbol of accessibility. The special registration plates with a persons with disabilities processed emblem shall only be issued if the application is accompanied with a statement from a physician licensed under chapter 148 or 149, a physician assistant licensed under chapter 148C, an advanced registered nurse practitioner licensed under chapter 152, or a chiropractor licensed under chapter 151, written on the physician's, physician assistant's, nurse practitioner's, or chiropractor's stationery, stating the nature of the applicant's or the applicant's child's disability and such additional information as required by rules adopted by the department, including proof of residency of a child who is a person with a disability. If the application is approved by the department, the special registration plates with a persons with disabilities processed emblem shall be issued to the applicant. There shall be no fee in addition to the regular annual registration fee for the special registration plates with a persons with disabilities processed emblem. The authorization for special registration plates with a persons with disabilities processed emblem shall not be renewed without the applicant furnishing evidence to the department that the owner of the vehicle or the owner's child is still a person with a disability as defined in section 321L.1. An owner who has a child who is a person with a disability shall provide satisfactory evidence to the department that the child with a disability continues to reside with the owner. The registration plates with a persons with disabilities processed emblem shall be surrendered in exchange for regular registration plates as provided in subsection 12 when the owner of the vehicle or the owner's child no longer qualifies as a person with a disability as defined in section 321L.1 or when the owner's child who is a person with a disability no longer resides with the owner. 15. Legion of merit special plates. The owner of a motor vehicle subject to registration under section 321.109, subsection 1, motorcycle, trailer, or motor truck who has been awarded the legion of merit shall be issued one set of special registration plates with a legion of merit processed emblem, upon written application to the department and presentation of satisfactory proof of the award of the legion of merit as established by the Congress of the United States. The emblem shall be designed by the department in cooperation with the adjutant general and shall signify that the owner was awarded the legion of merit. The application is subject to approval by the department, in consultation with the adjutant general. The special plates shall be issued at no charge and are subject to an annual registration fee of fifteen dollars. The county treasurer shall validate the special plates in the same manner as regular registration plates are validated under this section. The surviving spouse of a person who was issued special plates under this subsection may continue to use or apply for and use the special plates subject to registration of the special plates in the surviving spouse's name and upon payment of the annual registration fee. If the surviving spouse remarries, the surviving spouse shall return the special plates to the department and the department shall issue regular registration plates to the surviving spouse. 16. National guard special plates. An owner referred to in subsection 12 who is a member of the national guard, as defined in chapter 29A, may, upon written application to the department, order special registration plates with a national guard processed emblem with the emblem designed by the department in cooperation with the adjutant general which emblem signifies that the applicant is a member of the national guard. The application shall be approved by the department in consultation with the adjutant general. The special plate fees collected by the director under subsection 12, paragraphs "a" and "c", from the issuance and annual validation of letter-number designated and personalized national guard plates shall be paid monthly to the treasurer of state and deposited in the road use tax fund. The treasurer of state shall transfer monthly from the statutory allocations fund created under section 321.145, subsection 2, to the veterans license fee fund created in section 35A.11 the amount of the special fees collected under subsection 12, paragraph "a", in the previous month for national guard plates. Special registration plates with a national guard processed emblem shall be surrendered, as provided in subsection 12, in exchange for regular registration plates upon termination of the owner's membership in the active national guard. The surviving spouse of a person who was issued special plates under this subsection may continue to use or apply for and use the special plates subject to registration of the special plates in the surviving spouse's name and upon payment of the annual five-dollar special plate fee and the regular annual registration fee for the vehicle. If the surviving spouse remarries, the surviving spouse shall return the special plates to the department and the department shall issue regular registration plates to the surviving spouse. 17. Pearl Harbor special plates. An owner referred to in subsection 12 who was at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, as a member of the armed services of the United States on December 7, 1941, may, upon written application to the department, order special registration plates with a Pearl Harbor processed emblem. The emblem shall be designed by the department in consultation with service organizations. The application is subject to approval by the department. The special plate fees collected by the director under subsection 12, paragraphs "a" and "c", from the issuance and annual validation of letter-number designated and personalized Pearl Harbor plates shall be paid monthly to the treasurer of state and deposited in the road use tax fund. The treasurer of state shall transfer monthly from the statutory allocations fund created under section 321.145, subsection 2, to the veterans license fee fund created in section 35A.11 the amount of the special fees collected under subsection 12, paragraph "a", in the previous month for Pearl Harbor plates. The surviving spouse of a person who was issued special plates under this subsection may continue to use or apply for and use the special plates subject to registration of the special plates in the surviving spouse's name and upon payment of the annual five-dollar special plate fee and the regular annual registration fee for the vehicle. If the surviving spouse remarries, the surviving spouse shall return the special plates to the department and the department shall issue regular registration plates to the surviving spouse. 18. Purple heart special plates. An owner referred to in subsection 12 who was awarded a purple heart medal by the United States government for wounds received in military or naval combat against an armed enemy of the United States may, upon written application to the department and presentation of satisfactory proof of the award of the purple heart medal, order special registration plates with a purple heart processed emblem. The design of the emblem shall include a representation of a purple heart medal and ribbon. The application is subject to approval by the department in consultation with the adjutant general. The special plate fees collected by the director under subsection 12, paragraphs "a" and "c", from the issuance and annual validation of letter-number designated and personalized purple heart plates shall be paid monthly to the treasurer of state and deposited in the road use tax fund. The treasurer of state shall transfer monthly from the statutory allocations fund created under section 321.145, subsection 2, to the veterans license fee fund created in section 35A.11 the amount of the special fees collected under subsection 12, paragraph "a", in the previous month for purple heart plates. The surviving spouse of a person who was issued special plates under this subsection may continue to use or apply for and use the special plates subject to registration of the special plates in the surviving spouse's name and upon payment of the annual five-dollar special plate fee and the regular annual registration fee for the vehicle. If the surviving spouse remarries, the surviving spouse shall return the special plates to the department and the department shall issue regular registration plates to the surviving spouse. 19. United States armed forces retired special plates. An owner referred to in subsection 12 who is a retired member of the United States armed forces may, upon written application to the department and upon presentation of satisfactory proof of membership, order special registration plates with a United States armed forces retired processed emblem. The emblem shall be designed by the department in consultation with service organizations. The application is subject to approval by the department. For purposes of this subsection, a person is considered to be retired if the person is recognized by the United States armed forces as retired from the United States armed forces. The special plate fees collected by the director under subsection 12, paragraphs "a" and "c", from the issuance and annual validation of letter-number designated and personalized armed forces retired plates shall be paid monthly to the treasurer of state and deposited in the road use tax fund. The treasurer of state shall transfer monthly from the statutory allocations fund created under section 321.145, subsection 2, to the veterans license fee fund created in section 35A.11 the amount of the special fees collected under subsection 12, paragraph "a", in the previous month for armed forces retired plates. The surviving spouse of a person who was issued special plates under this subsection may continue to use or apply for and use the special plates subject to registration of the special plates in the surviving spouse's name and upon payment of the annual five-dollar special plate fee and the regular annual registration fee for the vehicle. If the surviving spouse remarries, the surviving spouse shall return the special plates to the department and the department shall issue regular registration plates to the surviving spouse. 20. Silver or bronze star plates. An owner referred to in subsection 12 who was awarded a silver or a bronze star by the United States government, may, upon written application to the department and presentation of satisfactory proof of the award of the silver or bronze star, order special registration plates with a silver or bronze star processed emblem. The emblem shall be designed by the department in consultation with the adjutant general. The special plate fees collected by the director under subsection 12, paragraphs "a" and "c", from the issuance and annual validation of letter-number designated and personalized silver star and bronze star plates shall be paid monthly to the treasurer of state and deposited in the road use tax fund. The treasurer of state shall transfer monthly from the statutory allocations fund created under section 321.145, subsection 2, to the veterans license fee fund created in section 35A.11 the amount of the special fees collected under subsection 12, paragraph "a", in the previous month for silver star and bronze star plates. The surviving spouse of a person who was issued special plates under this subsection may continue to use or apply for and use the special plates subject to registration of the special plates in the surviving spouse's name and upon payment of the annual five-dollar special plate fee and the regular annual registration fee for the vehicle. If the surviving spouse remarries, the surviving spouse shall return the special plates to the department and the department shall issue regular registration plates to the surviving spouse. 20A. Distinguished service, navy, or air force cross plates. An owner referred to in subsection 12 who was awarded a distinguished service cross, a navy cross, or an air force cross by the United States government may, upon written application to the department and presentation of satisfactory proof of the award, order special registration plates with a distinguished service cross, navy cross, or air force cross processed emblem. The emblem shall be designed by the department in consultation with the adjutant general. The special plate fees collected by the director under subsection 12, paragraphs "a" and "c", from the issuance and annual validation of letter-number designated and personalized distinguished service cross, navy cross, and air force cross plates shall be paid monthly to the treasurer of state and deposited in the road use tax fund. The treasurer of state shall transfer monthly from the statutory allocations fund created under section 321.145, subsection 2, to the veterans license fee fund created in section 35A.11 the amount of the special fees collected under subsection 12, paragraph "a", in the previous month for distinguished service cross, navy cross, and air force cross plates. The surviving spouse of a person who was issued special plates under this subsection may continue to use or apply for and use the special plates subject to registration of the special plates in the surviving spouse's name and upon payment of the annual five-dollar special plate fee and the regular annual registration fee for the vehicle. If the surviving spouse remarries, the surviving spouse shall return the special plates to the department and the department shall issue regular registration plates to the surviving spouse. 20B. Soldier's, navy and marine corps, or airman's medal plates. An owner referred to in subsection 12 who was awarded a soldier's medal, a navy and marine corps medal, or an airman's medal by the United States government may, upon written application to the department and presentation of satisfactory proof of the award, order special registration plates with a soldier's medal, navy and marine corps medal, or airman's medal processed emblem. The emblem shall be designed by the department in consultation with the adjutant general. The special plate fees collected by the director under subsection 12, paragraphs "a" and "c", from the issuance and annual validation of letter-number designated and personalized soldier's medal, navy and marine corps medal, and airman's medal plates shall be paid monthly to the treasurer of state and deposited in the road use tax fund. The treasurer of state shall transfer monthly from the statutory allocations fund created under section 321.145, subsection 2, to the veterans license fee fund created in section 35A.11 the amount of the special fees collected under subsection 12, paragraph "a", in the previous month for soldier's medal, navy and marine corps medal, and airman's medal plates. The surviving spouse of a person who was issued special plates under this subsection may continue to use or apply for and use the special plates subject to registration of the special plates in the surviving spouse's name and upon payment of the annual five-dollar special plate fee and the regular annual registration fee for the vehicle. If the surviving spouse remarries, the surviving spouse shall return the special plates to the department and the department shall issue regular registration plates to the surviving spouse. 21. Iowa heritage special plates. a. An owner referred to in subsection 12 may, upon written application to the department, order special registration plates with an Iowa heritage emblem. The emblem shall contain a picture of the American gothic house and the words "Iowa Heritage" and shall be designed by the department in consultation with the state historical society of Iowa. b. The special Iowa heritage fee for letter-number designated plates is thirty-five dollars. The special fee for personalized Iowa heritage plates is twenty-five dollars which shall be paid in addition to the special fee of thirty-five dollars. The annual special Iowa heritage fee is ten dollars for letter-number designated registration plates and is fifteen dollars for personalized registration plates which shall be paid in addition to the regular annual registration fee. c. The special fees collected by the director under this subsection shall be paid monthly to the treasurer of state and deposited in the road use tax fund. The treasurer of state shall credit monthly from the statutory allocations fund created under section 321.145, subsection 2, to the Iowa heritage fund created under section 303.9A the amount of the special fees collected in the previous month for the Iowa heritage plates. 22. Education plates. a. An owner referred to in subsection 12, upon written application to the department, may order special registration plates with an education emblem. The education emblem shall be designed by the department in cooperation with the department of education. b. The special school transportation fee for letter-number designated education plates is thirty-five dollars. The fee for personalized education plates is twenty-five dollars, which shall be paid in addition to the special school transportation fee of thirty-five dollars. The annual special school transportation fee is ten dollars for letter-number designated registration plates and is fifteen dollars for personalized registration plates which shall be paid in addition to the regular annual registration fee. The fees collected by the director under this subsection shall be paid monthly to the treasurer of state and deposited in the road use tax fund. The treasurer of state shall transfer monthly from the statutory allocations fund created under section 321.145, subsection 2, to the school budget review committee in accordance with section 257.31, subsection 17, the amount of the special school transportation fees collected in the previous month for the education plates. 23. Breast cancer awareness plates. a. Upon application and payment of the proper fees, the director may issue breast cancer awareness plates to an owner of a motor vehicle referred to in subsection 12. b. Breast cancer awareness plates shall contain an image of a pink ribbon and shall be designed by the department in consultation with the Susan G. Komen foundation. c. The special fee for letter-number designated breast cancer awareness plates is thirty-five dollars. The fee for personalized breast cancer awareness plates is twenty-five dollars, which shall be paid in addition to the special breast cancer awareness fee of thirty-five dollars. The fees collected by the director under this subsection shall be paid monthly to the treasurer of state and deposited in the road use tax fund. The treasurer of state shall transfer monthly from the statutory allocations fund created under section 321.145, subsection 2, to the Iowa department of public health the amount of the special fees collected in the previous month for the breast cancer awareness plates and such funds are appropriated to the Iowa department of public health. The Iowa department of public health shall distribute one hundred percent of the funds received monthly in the form of grants to support breast cancer screenings for both men and women who meet eligibility requirements like those established by the Susan G. Komen foundation. In the awarding of grants, the Iowa department of public health shall give first consideration to affiliates of the Susan G. Komen foundation and similar nonprofit organizations providing for breast cancer screenings at no cost in Iowa. Notwithstanding section 8.33, moneys transferred under this subsection shall not revert to the general fund of the state. d. Upon receipt of the special registration plates, the applicant shall surrender the current registration plates to the county treasurer. The county treasurer shall validate the special registration plates in the same manner as regular registration plates are validated under this section. The annual special breast cancer awareness fee for letter-number designated plates is ten dollars, which shall be paid in addition to the regular annual registration fee. The annual special fee for personalized breast cancer awareness plates is five dollars, which shall be paid in addition to the annual special breast cancer awareness fee and the regular annual registration fee. The annual special breast cancer awareness fee shall be credited and transferred as provided under paragraph "c". 24. Gold star plates. An owner referred to in subsection 12 who is the surviving spouse, parent, child, or sibling of a deceased member of the United States armed forces who died while serving on active duty during a time of military conflict or who died as a result of such service may order special registration plates bearing a gold star emblem upon written application to the department accompanied by satisfactory supporting documentation as determined by the department. The gold star emblem shall be designed by the department in cooperation with the commission of veterans affairs. The special plate fees collected by the director under subsection 12, paragraphs "a" and "c", from the issuance and annual validation of letter-number designated and personalized gold star plates shall be paid monthly to the treasurer of state and deposited in the road use tax fund. The treasurer of state shall transfer monthly from the statutory allocations fund created under section 321.145, subsection 2, to the veterans license fee fund created in section 35A.11 the amount of the special fees collected under subsection 12, paragraph "a", in the previous month for gold star plates.

         Section History: Early Form

         [SS15, § 1571-m5; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4874; C39, § 5001.18;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.34] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1032, § 2, 4; 82 Acts, ch 1062, § 4, 38; 84 Acts, ch
      1027, § 1; 84 Acts, ch 1250, § 1; 84 Acts, ch 1305, § 49; 85 Acts, ch
      67, § 35; 85 Acts, ch 87, § 1; 86 Acts, ch 1182, § 1; 86 Acts, ch
      1225, § 1; 87 Acts, ch 77, § 1; 88 Acts, ch 1215, § 1--4; 88 Acts, ch
      1222, § 1; 89 Acts, ch 17, § 1; 89 Acts, ch 27, § 1; 89 Acts, ch 247,
      § 4; 89 Acts, ch 296, § 27; 89 Acts, ch 317, § 31; 90 Acts, ch 1128,
      § 1; 90 Acts, ch 1151, § 1; 91 Acts, ch 49, § 1, 2; 91 Acts, ch 58, §
      1; 91 Acts, ch 259, § 3; 92 Acts, ch 1175, § 29; 92 Acts, 2nd Ex, ch
      1001, § 204, 205; 93 Acts, ch 2, § 1; 94 Acts, ch 1104, §1; 95 Acts,
      ch 118, § 7--9, 40; 96 Acts, ch 1065, § 1; 96 Acts, ch 1088, § 3, 4,
      8; 96 Acts, ch 1171, § 2; 96 Acts, ch 1219, § 21--24; 97 Acts, ch 2,
      § 1, 2; 97 Acts, ch 70, § 3, 15; 97 Acts, ch 104, § 8--10; 97 Acts,
      ch 108, § 5; 97 Acts, ch 123, § 1; 97 Acts, ch 212, § 33; 98 Acts, ch
      1079, §1--3; 99 Acts, ch 7, §1--9; 99 Acts, ch 114, §20; 99 Acts, ch
      141, §38; 99 Acts, ch 180, §15; 2000 Acts, ch 1154, §21; 2000 Acts,
      ch 1157, §1; 2000 Acts, ch 1206, §1; 2001 Acts, ch 24, §73, 74; 2001
      Acts, ch 32, §17; 2001 Acts, ch 144, § 2, 3; 2002 Acts, ch 1119, §42;
      2003 Acts, ch 3, §1; 2003 Acts, ch 7, §1--9; 2003 Acts, ch 105, §2;
      2003 Acts, 1st Ex, ch 2, §165--171, 205; 2004 Acts, ch 1013, §7--10,
      35; 2004 Acts, ch 1175, §333, 347; 2005 Acts, ch 8, §9; 2007 Acts, ch
      143, §9; 2007 Acts, ch 178, §2, 3; 2007 Acts, ch 184, §2--5, 7; 2007
      Acts, ch 215, §106, 107, 130; 2008 Acts, ch 1018, §9--16; 2008 Acts,
      ch 1088, §118; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §58--77; 2008 Acts, ch 1124, §4,
      5; 2008 Acts, ch 1130, §8, 10
         Referred to in § 35A.11, 100B.12, 257.31, 303.9A, 321.105,
      321.145, 321.166, 321L.1, 321L.2, 321L.2A, 331.557, 805.8A(2a)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see § 805.8A, subsection 2,
      paragraph a
        

321.35 PLATES -- REFLECTIVE MATERIAL -- BIDDING PROCEDURES. All motor vehicle registration plates shall be treated with a reflective material according to specifications proposed by the director and approved by the commission. The department shall not enter into any contract requiring an expenditure of at least five hundred thousand dollars for the manufacture of motor vehicle registration plates to be reissued to owners under this chapter unless competitive bidding procedures as provided in chapter 8A, subchapter III, are followed.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.35] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         95 Acts, ch 118, §10; 2003 Acts, ch 145, §247
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.36 Repealed by 77 Acts, ch 103, § 64.

321.37 DISPLAY OF PLATES. 1. Registration plates issued for a motor vehicle other than a motorcycle, motorized bicycle or a truck tractor shall be attached to the motor vehicle, one in the front and the other in the rear. The registration plate issued for a motorcycle or other vehicle required to be registered hereunder shall be attached to the rear of the vehicle. The registration plate issued for a truck tractor shall be attached to the front of the truck tractor. The special plate issued to a dealer shall be attached on the rear of the vehicle when operated on the highways of this state. 2. Registration plates issued for a motor vehicle which is model year 1948 or older, and reconstructed or specially constructed vehicles built to resemble a model year 1948 vehicle or older, other than a truck registered for more than five tons, motorcycle, or truck tractor, may display one registration plate on the rear of the vehicle if the other registration plate issued to the vehicle is carried in the vehicle at all times when the vehicle is operated on a public highway. 3. It is unlawful for the owner of a vehicle to place any frame around or over the registration plate which does not permit full view of all numerals and letters printed on the registration plate.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m11; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4877; C39, § 5001.21;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.37] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1305, § 50; 90 Acts, ch 1233, § 16; 97 Acts, ch 104,
      §11
         Referred to in § 321.57, 331.557, 805.8A(2a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 2,
      paragraph a
        

321.38 PLATES, METHOD OF ATTACHING -- IMITATIONS PROHIBITED. Every registration plate shall at all times be securely fastened in a horizontal position to the vehicle for which it is issued so as to prevent the plate from swinging and at a height of not less than twelve inches from the ground, measuring from the bottom of the plate, in a place and position to be clearly visible and shall be maintained free from foreign materials and in a condition to be clearly legible. An imitation plate or plates imitating or purporting to imitate the official registration plate of any other state or territory of the United States or of any foreign government shall not be fastened to the vehicle.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m11; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4877; C39, § 5001.22;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.38] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 195, §32
         Referred to in § 321.57, 331.557, 805.8A(2a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 2,
      paragraph a
        

321.39 EXPIRATION OF REGISTRATION. Except as provided in this chapter every vehicle registration, registration card, and registration plate shall expire as follows: 1. For vehicles registered under chapter 326 and any motor truck, truck tractor, or road tractor registered for a combined gross weight exceeding five tons, at midnight on the last day of December of each year. 2. For vehicles registered by the county treasurer, at midnight on the last day of the registration year. A person shall not be considered to be driving a motor vehicle with an expired registration for a period of one month following the expiration date of the vehicle registration. The one-month period shall be the same as the period defined in section 321.134, subsection 1. 3. For vehicles on which the first installment of an annual registration fee has been paid, at midnight on the last day of June or the first business day of July when June 30 falls on Saturday, Sunday, or a holiday; for vehicles on which the second installment of an annual registration fee has been paid, at midnight on the last day of December or the first business day of January when December 31 falls on Saturday, Sunday, or a holiday. 4. For vehicles registered without payment of annual registration fees as provided in section 321.19, when designated by the department. 5. Registration for every vehicle registered by the county treasurer shall expire upon transfer of ownership.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m16; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4868; C39, § 5001.23;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.39] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 5, 38; 89 Acts, ch 83, § 42; 2003 Acts, ch 24,
      §3; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §78
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.40 APPLICATION FOR RENEWAL -- NOTIFICATION -- REASONS FOR REFUSAL. 1. Application for renewal of a vehicle registration shall be made on or after the first day of the month prior to the month of expiration of registration and up to and including the last day of the month following the month of expiration of registration. The registration shall be renewed upon payment of the appropriate annual registration fee. Application for renewal for a vehicle registered under chapter 326 shall be made on or after the first day of the month of expiration of registration and up to and including the last day of the month following the month of expiration of registration. 2. On or before the fifteenth day of the eleventh month of a vehicle's registration year, the department shall create an electronic file and the county treasurer shall send a statement of fees due to the appropriate owner of record. After the department has generated the electronic file used to produce statements for a registration month, and before the fifteenth day of the month following expiration of a vehicle's registration year, the department shall create a subsequent electronic file and the county treasurer shall send a statement of fees due to the appropriate owner of record for any vehicle subsequently registered for that registration month. The statement shall be mailed or electronically transmitted to the most current address of record, showing information sufficient to identify the vehicle and a listing of the various fees as appropriate. Failure to receive a statement shall have no effect upon the accrual of penalty at the appropriate date. 3. Registration receipts issued for renewals shall have the word "renewal" imprinted thereon and, if the owner making a renewal application has been issued a certificate of title, the title number shall appear on the registration receipt. All registration receipts for renewals shall be typewritten or printed by other mechanical means. The applicant shall receive a registration receipt. 4. The county treasurer shall refuse to renew the registration of a vehicle registered to a person when notified by the department through the distributed teleprocessing network that the person has not paid restitution as defined under section 910.1, subsection 4, to a clerk of the court located within the state. Each clerk of court shall, on a daily basis, notify the department through the Iowa court information system of the full name and social security number of all persons who owe delinquent restitution and whose restitution obligation has been satisfied or canceled. This subsection does not apply to the transfer of a registration or the issuance of a new registration. 5. The county treasurer shall refuse to renew the registration of a vehicle registered to the applicant for renewal of registration if the applicant has failed to pay any local vehicle taxes due in that county on that vehicle or any other vehicle owned or previously owned by the applicant until such local vehicle taxes are paid. 6. The department or the county treasurer shall refuse to renew the registration of a vehicle registered to the applicant if the department or the county treasurer knows that the applicant has a delinquent account, charge, fee, loan, taxes, or other indebtedness owed to or being collected by the state, from information provided pursuant to sections 8A.504 and 421.17. An applicant may contest this action by requesting a contested case proceeding from the agency that referred the debt for collection pursuant to section 8A.504. 7. The county treasurer shall refuse to renew the registration of a vehicle registered to an applicant if the county treasurer knows that the applicant has one or more uncontested, delinquent parking tickets issued pursuant to section 321.236, subsection 1, paragraph "b", owing to the county, or owing to a city with which the county has an agreement authorized under section 331.553. However, a county treasurer may renew the registration if the treasurer determines that an error was made by the county or city in identifying the vehicle involved in the parking violation or if the citation has been dismissed as against the owner of the vehicle pursuant to section 321.484. This subsection does not apply to the transfer of a registration or the issuance of a new registration. Notwithstanding section 28E.10, a county treasurer may utilize the department's vehicle registration and titling system to facilitate the purposes of this subsection. 8. When application is made for the renewal of a motor vehicle registration on or after December 1, 1982, the person in whose name the registration is recorded shall notify the county treasurer of the type of fuel used by the vehicle if the type of fuel used is different from that which is shown on the registration receipt. If a motor vehicle registration indicates that the vehicle uses or may use a special fuel as defined in chapter 452A the county treasurer shall issue a special fuel user identification sticker. The person who owns or controls the vehicle shall affix the sticker in a prominent place on the vehicle adjacent to the place where the special fuel is delivered into the motor vehicle fuel supply tank. 9. a. The clerk of the district court shall notify the county treasurer of any delinquent court debt, as defined in section 602.8107, which is being collected by the county attorney pursuant to section 602.8107, subsection 4. The county treasurer shall refuse to renew the vehicle registration of the applicant upon such notification from the clerk of the district court in regard to such applicant. b. If the applicant enters into or renews a payment plan that is satisfactory to the county attorney or the county attorney's designee, the county attorney shall provide the county treasurer with written or electronic notice of the payment plan within five days of entering into such a plan. The county treasurer shall temporarily lift the registration hold on an applicant for a period of ten days if the treasurer receives such notice in order to allow the applicant to register a vehicle for the year. If the applicant remains current with the payment plan entered into with the county attorney or the county attorney's designee, subsequent lifts of registration holds shall be granted without additional restrictions.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m6; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4875; C39, § 5001.24; C46,
      50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.40; 82 Acts, ch
      1218, § 1] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 6, 7, 38; 85 Acts, ch 32, §78; 85 Acts, ch 77,
      §1; 85 Acts, ch 87, §2; 95 Acts, ch 57, §1; 95 Acts, ch 169, §1, 10;
      95 Acts, ch 194, §4, 12; 97 Acts, ch 104, §12, 61; 2000 Acts, ch
      1028, §2, 4; 2002 Acts, ch 1043, §1; 2003 Acts, ch 145, §248; 2005
      Acts, ch 54, §1, 12; 2007 Acts, ch 126, §54; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §79;
      2008 Acts, ch 1172, §18; 2009 Acts, ch 41, §250
         Referred to in § 321.34, 321.236, 331.553, 331.557, 364.2, 423B.2
        

321.41 CHANGE OF ADDRESS OR NAME OR FUEL TYPE. 1. Whenever any person after making application for or obtaining the registration of a vehicle shall move from the address named in the application or shown upon a registration card such person shall within ten days thereafter notify the county treasurer of the county in which the registration of said vehicle is of record, in writing of the person's old and new addresses. 2. Whenever the name of any person who has made application for or obtained the registration of a vehicle is thereafter legally changed such person shall within ten days notify the county treasurer of the county in which the title of said vehicle is of record, of such former and new name. 3. A person who has registered a vehicle in a county, other than the county designated on the vehicle registration plate, may apply to the county treasurer where the vehicle is registered for new registration plates upon payment of a fee of five dollars and the return of the former county registration plates. 4. When a motor vehicle is modified to use a different fuel type or to use more than one fuel type the person in whose name the vehicle is registered shall within thirty days notify the county treasurer of the county in which the registration of the vehicle is of record of the new fuel type or alternative fuel types. The county treasurer shall make the record of such changes available to the department of revenue. If the vehicle uses or may use a special fuel the county treasurer shall issue a special fuel identification sticker.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5001.25; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.41; 82 Acts, ch 1218, § 2] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2003 Acts, ch 145, §286
         Referred to in § 331.557, 805.8A(2a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 2,
      paragraph a
        

321.42 LOST OR DAMAGED CERTIFICATES, CARDS, AND PLATES -- REPLACEMENTS. 1. If a registration card, plate, or pair of plates is lost or becomes illegible, the owner shall immediately apply for replacement. The fee for a replacement registration card is three dollars. The fee for a replacement plate or pair of plates other than a replacement of a special plate issued pursuant to section 321.60 is five dollars. The fee for replacement of a special plate issued pursuant to section 321.60 is forty dollars. When the owner has furnished information required by the department and paid the proper fee, a duplicate, substitute, or new registration card, plate, or pair of plates may be issued. The county treasurer or the department may waive the fee for a replacement plate if the plate is lost during a documented accident. 2. a. If a certificate of title is lost or destroyed, the owner or lienholder shall apply for a replacement copy of the original certificate of title. The owner or lienholder of a motor vehicle may also apply for a replacement copy of the original certificate of title upon surrender of the original certificate of title with the application. The application shall be made to the department or county treasurer who issued the original certificate of title. The application shall be signed by the owner or lienholder and accompanied by a fee of twenty dollars. b. After five days, the department or county treasurer shall issue a replacement copy using the applicant's most recent bona fide address; however, the five-day waiting period does not apply to an applicant who is a lienholder or to an applicant who has surrendered the original certificate of title to the department or county treasurer. The replacement copy shall be clearly marked "replacement" and shall include security interests and liens. When a replacement copy has been issued, the previous certificate is void. The department or county treasurer is not authorized to refund fees collected for a replacement title under this section or section 321.52A. c. If a security interest noted on the face of an original certificate of title was released by the lienholder on a separate form pursuant to section 321.50, subsection 5, and the signature of the lienholder, or the person executing the release on behalf of the lienholder, is notarized, but the lienholder has not delivered the original certificate to the appropriate party as provided in section 321.50, subsection 5, the owner may apply for and receive a replacement certificate of title without the released security interest noted thereon. The lienholder shall return the original certificate of title to the department or to the treasurer of the county where the title was issued. d. A new purchaser or transferee is entitled to receive an original title upon presenting the assigned replacement copy to the treasurer of the county where the new purchaser or transferee resides. At the time of purchase, a purchaser may require the seller to indemnify the purchaser and all future purchasers of the vehicle against any loss which may be suffered due to claims on the original certificate. A person recovering an original certificate of title for which a replacement has been issued shall surrender the original certificate to the county treasurer or the department. 3. If a county treasurer mails vehicle registration documents which become lost or are damaged in transit through the United States postal service, the person to whom the documents were being sent may apply for reissuance without cost. The application shall be made with the county treasurer who originally issued the documents not less than twenty days from the date the documents were placed with the United States postal service. If the original documents are received after reissuance of duplicates, the original documents shall be surrendered to the county treasurer within five days of the time they are received.

         Section History: Early Form

         [SS15, § 1571-m5; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4886; C39, § 5001.26;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, S81, § 321.42; 81
      Acts, ch 102, § 1] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1305, § 51; 85 Acts, ch 209, §1; 99 Acts, ch 13, §6;
      2000 Acts, ch 1016, §43, 47; 2004 Acts, ch 1013, §11, 35; 2005 Acts,
      ch 34, §4, 26; 2006 Acts, ch 1068, §11; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, § 16, 21;
      2008 Acts, ch 1124, §6
         Referred to in § 312.2, 321.52A, 331.557, 648.22A
         Surcharge imposed; § 321.52A
        

321.43 NEW IDENTIFYING NUMBERS. The department may assign a distinguishing number to a vehicle when the vehicle identification number on the vehicle is destroyed or obliterated and issue to the owner a special plate bearing the distinguishing number which shall be affixed to the vehicle in a position to be determined by the director. The vehicle shall be registered and titled under the distinguishing number in lieu of the former vehicle identification number within thirty days of issuance of the distinguishing number.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C27, 31, 35, § 5083-b4; C39, § 5001.27; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.43] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1067, § 31; 2005 Acts, ch 8, §10; 2005 Acts, ch 179,
      §126
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.44 RULES GOVERNING CHANGE OF ENGINES, DRIVETRAIN ASSEMBLIES AND RELATED PARTS. The director shall adopt and enforce rules governing registration and titling of motor vehicles as deemed necessary by the director and compatible with the public interest with respect to the change or substitution of engines, drivetrain assemblies or related parts in any motor vehicle.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5001.28; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.44] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         88 Acts, ch 1278, §32
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.44A VOLUNTARY CONTRIBUTION -- ANATOMICAL GIFT PUBLIC AWARENESS AND TRANSPLANTATION FUND -- AMOUNT RETAINED BY COUNTY TREASURER. For each application for registration or renewal, the county treasurer or the department shall request through use of a written form, and, if the application is made in person, through verbal communication, that an applicant make a voluntary contribution of one dollar or more to the anatomical gift public awareness and transplantation fund established pursuant to section 142C.15. One hundred percent of the moneys collected by the county and one hundred percent of the moneys collected by the department in the form of contributions shall be remitted to the treasurer of state for deposit in the fund to be used for the purposes specified for the fund. However, up to five percent of the moneys collected by the county may be retained by the county treasurer for deposit in the general fund of the county. The director shall adopt rules to administer this section.

         Section History: Recent Form

         96 Acts, ch 1076, §3; 97 Acts, ch 121, §1; 98 Acts, ch 1107, §8
         Referred to in § 142C.15, 331.557
        

321.45 TITLE MUST BE TRANSFERRED WITH VEHICLE. 1. No manufacturer, importer, dealer or other person shall sell or otherwise dispose of a new vehicle subject to registration under the provisions of this chapter to a dealer to be used by such dealer for purposes of display and lease or resale without delivering to such dealer a manufacturer's or importer's certificate duly executed and with such assignments thereon as may be necessary to show title in the purchaser thereof; nor shall such dealer purchase or acquire a new vehicle that is subject to registration without obtaining from the seller thereof such manufacturer's or importer's certificate. In addition to the assignments stated herein, such manufacturer's or importer's certificate shall contain thereon the identification and description of the vehicle delivered and the name and address of the dealer to whom said vehicle was originally sold over the signature of an authorized official of the manufacturer or importer who made the original delivery. For each new mobile home, manufactured home, travel trailer and camping trailer said manufacturer's or importer's certificate shall also contain thereon the exterior length and exterior width of said vehicle not including any area occupied by any hitching device, and the manufacturer's shipping weight. Completed motor vehicles, other than class "B" motor homes, which are converted, modified or altered shall retain the identity and model year of the original manufacturer of the vehicle. Motor homes and all other motor vehicles manufactured from chassis or incomplete motor vehicles manufactured by another may have the identity and model year assigned by the final manufacturer. 2. No person shall acquire any right, title, claim or interest in or to any vehicle subject to registration under this chapter from the owner thereof except by virtue of a certificate of title issued or assigned to the person for such vehicle or by virtue of a manufacturer's or importer's certificate delivered to the person for such vehicle; nor shall any waiver or estoppel operate in favor of any person claiming title to or interest in any vehicle against a person having possession of the certificate of title or manufacturer's or importer's certificate for such vehicle for a valuable consideration except in case of: a. The perfection of a lien or security interest as provided in section 321.50, or b. The perfection of a security interest in new or used vehicles held as inventory for sale as provided in uniform commercial code, chapter 554, article 9, or c. A dispute between a buyer and the selling dealer who has failed to deliver or procure the certificate of title as promised, or d. Except for the purposes of section 321.493. Except in the above enumerated cases, no court in any case at law or equity shall recognize the right, title, claim or interest of any person in or to any vehicle subject to registration sold or disposed of, or mortgaged or encumbered, unless evidenced by a certificate of title or manufacturer's or importer's certificate duly issued or assigned in accordance with the provisions of this chapter. 3. Upon the transfer of any registered vehicle, the owner, except as otherwise provided in this chapter, shall endorse an assignment and warranty of title upon the certificate of title for such vehicle with a statement of all liens and encumbrances thereon, and the owner shall deliver the certificate of title to the purchaser or transferee at the time of delivering the vehicle except as otherwise provided in this chapter. The owner shall indicate to the transferee the name of the county in which the vehicle was last registered and the registration expiration date. 4. After acquiring a used mobile home or manufactured home to be titled in Iowa, a manufactured or mobile home retailer, as defined in section 103A.51, shall within thirty days apply for and obtain from the county treasurer of the retailer's county of residence a new certificate of title for the mobile home or manufactured home. In the event that there is a prior lien or encumbrance to be released, as required by section 321.50, subsection 5, the thirty-day time period in this subsection does not begin to run until the lien or encumbrance is released.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m9; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4961; C39, § 5002.01; C46,
      50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.45; 82 Acts, ch
      1251, § 10] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 130, §2; 88 Acts, ch 1215, §5; 95 Acts, ch 57, §2; 99
      Acts, ch 188, §6, 7; 2000 Acts, ch 1085, §1; 2001 Acts, ch 153, §17;
      2002 Acts, ch 1119, §43; 2004 Acts, ch 1013, §12, 35; 2006 Acts, ch
      1090, §17, 26
         Referred to in § 103A.55, 321.20, 321.46, 321.49, 321.67, 321.104,
      321.493, 331.557, 805.8A(2c)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 2,
      paragraph c
        

321.46 NEW TITLE AND REGISTRATION UPON TRANSFER OF OWNERSHIP -- CREDIT. 1. The transferee shall, within thirty calendar days after purchase or transfer, apply for and obtain from the county treasurer of the person's residence, or if a nonresident, the county treasurer of the county where the primary users of the vehicle are located or the county where all other vehicles owned by the nonresident are registered, or in the case of a mobile home or manufactured home, the county treasurer of the county where the mobile home or manufactured home is located, or if a firm, association, or corporation with vehicles in multiple counties, the transferee may apply for and obtain from the county treasurer of the county where the primary user of the vehicle is located, a new registration and a new certificate of title for the vehicle except as provided in section 321.25, 321.48, or 322G.12. The transferee shall present with the application the certificate of title endorsed and assigned by the previous owner and shall indicate the name of the county in which the vehicle was last registered and the registration expiration date. 2. Upon filing the application for a new registration and a new title, the applicant shall pay a title fee of twenty dollars, an annual registration fee prorated for the remaining unexpired months of the registration year, and a fee for new registration if applicable. A manufacturer applying for a certificate of title pursuant to section 322G.12 shall pay a title fee of ten dollars. However, a title fee shall not be charged to a manufactured or mobile home retailer applying for a certificate of title for a used mobile home or manufactured home, titled in Iowa, as required under section 321.45, subsection 4. The county treasurer, if satisfied of the genuineness and regularity of the application, and in the case of a mobile home or manufactured home, that taxes are not owing under chapter 435, and that applicant has complied with all the requirements of this chapter, shall issue a new certificate of title and, except for a mobile home, manufactured home, or a vehicle returned to and accepted by a manufacturer as described in section 322G.12, a registration card to the purchaser or transferee, shall cancel the prior registration for the vehicle, and shall forward the necessary copies to the department on the date of issuance, as prescribed in section 321.24. Mobile homes or manufactured homes titled under chapter 448 that have been subject under section 446.18 to a public bidder sale in a county shall be titled in the county's name, with no fee, and the county treasurer shall issue the title. 3. The applicant shall be entitled to a credit for that portion of the annual registration fee of the vehicle sold, traded, or junked which had not expired prior to the transfer of ownership of the vehicle. The annual registration fee for the new registration for the vehicle acquired shall be reduced by the amount of the credit. The credit shall be computed on the basis of the number of months remaining in the registration year, rounded to the nearest whole dollar. The credit shall be subject to the following limitations: a. The credit shall be claimed within thirty days from the date the vehicle for which credit is granted was sold, transferred, or junked. After thirty days, all credits shall be disallowed. b. Any credit granted to the owner of a vehicle which has been sold, traded, or junked may only be claimed by that person toward the annual registration fee for another vehicle purchased and the credit may not be sold, transferred, or assigned to any other person. c. When the amount of the credit is computed to be an amount of less than ten dollars, a credit shall be disallowed. d. To claim a credit for the unexpired annual registration fee on a junked vehicle, the county treasurer shall disallow any claim for credit unless the owner presents a junking certificate or other evidence as required by the department to the county treasurer. e. A credit shall not be allowed to any person who has made claim to receive a refund under section 321.126. f. If the credit allowed exceeds the amount of the annual registration fee for the vehicle acquired, the owner may claim a refund under section 321.126, subsection 6, for the balance of the credit. g. The credit shall be computed on the unexpired number of months computed from the date of purchase of the vehicle acquired. 4. If the annual registration fee upon application is delinquent, the applicant shall be required to pay the delinquent fee from the first day the annual registration fee was due prorated to the month of application for new title. 5. The seller or transferor may file an affidavit on forms prescribed and provided by the department with the county treasurer of the county where the vehicle is registered certifying the sale or transfer of ownership of the vehicle and the assignment and delivery of the certificate of title for the vehicle. Upon receipt of the affidavit, the county treasurer shall file the affidavit with the copy of the registration receipt for the vehicle on file in the treasurer's office and on that day the treasurer shall note receipt of the affidavit in the vehicle registration and titling system. Upon filing the affidavit, it shall be presumed that the seller or transferor has assigned and delivered the certificate of title for the vehicle. For a leased vehicle, the lessor licensed pursuant to chapter 321F or the lessee may file an affidavit as provided in this subsection certifying that the lease has expired or been terminated and the date that the leased vehicle was surrendered to the lessor. 6. An applicant for a new registration for a vehicle transferred to the applicant by a spouse, parent, or child of the applicant, or by operation of law upon inheritance, devise or bequest, from the applicant's spouse, parent, or child, or by a former spouse pursuant to a decree of dissolution of marriage, is entitled to a credit to be applied to the annual registration fee for the transferred vehicle. A credit shall not be allowed unless the vehicle to which the credit applies is registered within the time specified under subsection 1. The credit shall be computed on the basis of the number of unexpired months remaining in the registration year of the former owner computed from the date the vehicle was transferred, computed to the nearest whole dollar. The credit may exceed the amount of the annual registration fee for the transferred vehicle. When the amount of the credit is computed to be an amount of less than ten dollars, the credit shall be disallowed. The credit shall not be sold, transferred, or assigned to any other person. 7. If a motor vehicle is leased and the lessee purchases the vehicle upon termination of the lease, the lessor shall, upon claim by the lessee with the lessor within thirty days of the purchase, assign the annual registration fee credit and registration plates for the leased motor vehicle to the lessee. Credit shall be applied as provided in subsection 3.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m9; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4962; C39, § 5002.02; C46,
      50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.46; 82 Acts, ch
      1251, § 11] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 8, 38; 83 Acts, ch 24, § 2--4, 12; 83 Acts, ch
      82, § 2; 84 Acts, ch 1305, § 52; 85 Acts, ch 87, §3; 87 Acts, ch 130,
      §3; 88 Acts, ch 1215, §6; 90 Acts, ch 1154, § 1--5; 91 Acts, ch 191,
      §6; 93 Acts, ch 87, § 3; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9; 99 Acts, ch 188, §8;
      2000 Acts, ch 1016, §6; 2000 Acts, ch 1047, §2, 4; 2001 Acts, ch 153,
      §17, 18; 2002 Acts, ch 1119, §44; 2004 Acts, ch 1013, §13, 14, 35;
      2005 Acts, ch 34, §5, 26; 2006 Acts, ch 1068, §12, 13; 2006 Acts, ch
      1070, §6; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §17, 21, 80
         Referred to in § 312.2, 321.34, 321.48, 321.52, 321.52A, 321.105,
      321.109, 321.126, 322G.12, 331.557, 805.8A(2c)
         Surcharge imposed; § 321.52A
         For applicable scheduled fines, see § 805.8A, subsection 2,
      paragraph c
        

321.46A CHANGE FROM PROPORTIONAL REGISTRATION -- CREDIT. An owner changing a vehicle's registration from proportional registration under chapter 326 to registration under this chapter shall be entitled to a credit on the vehicle's annual registration fees under this chapter. The credit shall be allowed when the owner surrenders to the county treasurer proof of proportional registration provided by the department. The amount of the credit shall be calculated based on the unexpired complete calendar months remaining in the registration year from the date the application is filed with the county treasurer.

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 108, §6; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §81
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.47 TRANSFERS BY OPERATION OF LAW. 1. If ownership of a vehicle is transferred by operation of law upon inheritance, devise or bequest, dissolution decree, order in bankruptcy, insolvency, replevin, foreclosure or execution sale, abandoned vehicle sale, or when the engine of a motor vehicle is replaced by another engine, or a vehicle is sold or transferred to satisfy an artisan's lien as provided in chapter 577, a landlord's lien as provided in chapter 570, a storage lien as provided in chapter 579, a judgment in an action for abandonment of a manufactured or mobile home as provided in chapter 555B, upon presentation of an affidavit relating to the disposition of a valueless mobile, modular, or manufactured home as provided in chapter 555C, or repossession is had upon default in performance of the terms of a security agreement, the county treasurer in the transferee's county of residence or, in the case of a mobile home or manufactured home, the county treasurer of the county where the mobile home or manufactured home is located, upon the surrender of the prior certificate of title or the manufacturer's or importer's certificate, or when that is not possible, upon presentation of satisfactory proof to the county treasurer of ownership and right of possession to the vehicle and upon payment of a fee of twenty dollars and the presentation of an application for registration and certificate of title, may issue to the applicant a registration card for the vehicle and a certificate of title to the vehicle. A person entitled to ownership of a vehicle under a decree of dissolution shall surrender a reproduction of a certified copy of the dissolution and upon fulfilling the other requirements of this chapter is entitled to a certificate of title and registration receipt issued in the person's name. 2. The persons entitled under the laws of descent and distribution of an intestate's property to the possession and ownership of a vehicle owned in whole or in part by a decedent, upon filing an affidavit stating the name and date of death of the decedent, the right to possession and ownership of the persons filing the affidavit, and that there has been no administration of the decedent's estate, which instrument shall also contain an agreement to indemnify creditors of the decedent who would be entitled to levy execution upon the motor vehicle to the extent of the value of the motor vehicle, are entitled upon fulfilling the other requirements of this chapter, to the issuance of a registration card for the interest of the decedent in the vehicle and a certificate of title to it. If a decedent dies testate, and either the will is not probated or is admitted to probate without administration, the persons entitled to the possession and ownership of a vehicle owned in whole or in part by the decedent may file an affidavit and, upon fulfilling the other requirements of this chapter, are entitled to the issuance of a registration card for the interest of the decedent in the vehicle and a certificate of title to the vehicle. The affidavit shall contain the same information and indemnity agreement as is required in cases of intestacy pursuant to this section. A requirement of chapter 450 shall not be considered satisfied by the filing of the affidavit provided for in this section. If, from the records in the office of the county treasurer, there appear to be any liens on the vehicle, the certificate of title shall contain a statement of the liens unless the application is accompanied by proper evidence of their satisfaction or extinction. Evidence of extinction may consist of, but is not limited to, an affidavit of the applicant stating that a security interest was foreclosed as provided in chapter 554, article 9, part 6. 3. Whenever ownership of a vehicle is transferred under the provisions of this section the registration plates shall be removed and forwarded to the county treasurer of the county where the vehicle is registered or to the department if the vehicle is owned by a nonresident. Upon transfer the vehicle shall not be operated upon the highways of this state until the person entitled to possession of the vehicle applies for and obtains registration for the vehicle. 4. A person convicted of a violation of this section is guilty of a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection 2, paragraph "b".

         Sectionstory: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m9; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4963; C39, § 5002.03; C46,
      50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.47] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1243, § 1; 84 Acts, ch 1305, § 53; 91 Acts, ch 119,
      §1; 93 Acts, ch 154, §2; 95 Acts, ch 118, §11; 99 Acts, ch 83, §2;
      2000 Acts, ch 1149, §165, 187; 2000 Acts, ch 1203, §2; 2001 Acts, ch
      137, §5; 2001 Acts, ch 153, §15; 2001 Acts, ch 176, §80; 2004 Acts,
      ch 1092, §2; 2005 Acts, ch 34, §6, 26; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, § 18, 21;
      2008 Acts, ch 1119, § 5
         Referred to in § 312.2, 321.52A, 321.69, 321.104, 321.105A,
      331.557, 555C.3, 578A.4, 805.8A(2b)
         Surcharge imposed; § 321.52A
        

321.48 VEHICLES ACQUIRED FOR RESALE. 1. When the transferee of a vehicle is a dealer who holds the vehicle for resale and operates the vehicle only for purposes incident to a resale and displays a dealer plate on the vehicle or does not drive such vehicle or permit it to be driven upon the highways, such transferee shall not be required to obtain a new registration or a new certificate of title but upon transferring title or interest to another person shall execute and acknowledge an assignment and warranty of title upon the certificate of title assigned to the person and deliver the same to the person to whom such transfer is made. A dealer licensed pursuant to chapter 322 or chapter 322C who has acquired a vehicle for resale which is subject to a security interest as provided in section 321.50 and who has forwarded to the secured party the sum necessary to discharge the security interest may offer the vehicle for sale prior to the receipt from the county treasurer of the certificate of title for the vehicle with the lien discharged for a period of not more than thirty days from the date the vehicle was acquired and the provisions of section 321.104, subsection 2, shall not apply. 2. A foreign registered vehicle purchased or otherwise acquired by a dealer for the purpose of resale shall be issued a certificate of title for the vehicle by the county treasurer of the dealer's residence upon proper application as provided in this chapter and upon payment of a fee of five dollars and the dealer is exempt from the payment of any and all registration fees for the vehicle. The application for certificate of title shall be made within thirty days after the vehicle comes within the border of the state. However, a dealer acquiring a vehicle registered in another state which permits Iowa dealers to reassign that state's certificates of title shall not be required to obtain a new registration or a new certificate of title and upon transferring title or interest to another person shall execute an assignment upon the certificate of title for the vehicle to the person to whom the transfer is made and deliver the assigned certificate of title to the person. 3. In a transaction in which a vehicle is traded to a dealer as defined in chapter 322 or chapter 322C toward the purchase price of another vehicle and each vehicle is owned in whole or in part by the same person, the person acquiring the vehicle from the dealer shall be entitled to a credit under section 321.46. 4. Nothing in this section shall be construed to prohibit a dealer from obtaining a new certificate of title or new registration in the same manner as other purchasers.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4965; C39, § 5002.04; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.48] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 9, 38; 83 Acts, ch 82, § 3; 84 Acts, ch 1169,
      § 1; 84 Acts, ch 1305, § 54; 88 Acts, ch 1215, §7; 90 Acts, ch 1116,
      § 2; 99 Acts, ch 13, §7; 2003 Acts, ch 8, §11
         Referred to in § 321.23, 321.25, 321.30, 321.46, 321.49, 321.52A,
      321.71, 321.104, 331.557, 805.8A(2c)
         Surcharge imposed; § 321.52A
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 2,
      paragraph c
        

321.49 TIME LIMIT -- PENALTY -- POWER OF ATTORNEY. 1. Except as provided in section 321.52, if an application for transfer of registration and certificate of title is not submitted to the county treasurer of the residence of the transferee within thirty days of the date of assignment or transfer of title, or within thirty days of the date of delivery to the purchaser if the vehicle is subject to a security interest and was offered for sale pursuant to section 321.48, subsection 1, a penalty of ten dollars shall accrue against the applicant, and no registration card or certificate of title shall be issued to the applicant for the vehicle until the penalty is paid. 2. Certificates of title to vehicles may be assigned by an attorney in fact of the owner under a power of attorney appointed and so empowered on forms provided by the department. Such power of attorney shall be filed by the transferee with the application for title. 3. A manufactured or mobile home retailer who acquires a used mobile home or manufactured home, titled in Iowa, and who does not apply for and obtain a certificate of title from the county treasurer of the manufactured or mobile home retailer's county of residence within thirty days of the date of acquisition, as required under section 321.45, subsection 4, is subject to a penalty of ten dollars. A certificate of title shall not be issued to the manufactured or mobile home retailer until the penalty is paid.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4966; C39, § 5002.05; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.49] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 209, §2; 87 Acts, ch 130, §4; 93 Acts, ch 47, § 2; 99
      Acts, ch 13, §8; 99 Acts, ch 188, §9; 2000 Acts, ch 1154, §22; 2001
      Acts, ch 153, §17, 18; 2002 Acts, ch 1119, §45
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.50 SECURITY INTEREST PROVISIONS. 1. A security interest in a vehicle subject to registration under the laws of this state or a mobile home or manufactured home, except trailers whose empty weight is two thousand pounds or less, and except new or used vehicles held by a dealer or manufacturer as inventory for sale, is perfected by the delivery to the county treasurer of the county where the certificate of title was issued or, in the case of a new certificate, to the county treasurer where the certificate will be issued, of an application for certificate of title which lists the security interest, or an application for notation of security interest signed by the owner or by one owner of a vehicle owned jointly by more than one person, or signed through electronic means as determined by the department, or a certificate of title from another jurisdiction which shows the security interest, and payment of a fee of ten dollars for each security interest shown. The department shall require the federal employer identification number of a secured party who is a firm, association, or corporation or, if a natural person, the social security number. Upon delivery of the application and payment of the fee, the county treasurer shall note the date of delivery on the application. If the delivery is by electronic means and the time is electronically recorded on the application along with the date, the time shall be included with the date on all subsequent documents and records where the date of perfection is required under this chapter. The date of delivery shall be the date of perfection of the security interest in the vehicle, regardless of the date the security interest is noted on the certificate of title. Up to three security interests may be perfected against a vehicle and shown on an Iowa certificate of title. If the owner or secured party is in possession of the certificate of title, it must also be delivered at this time. If a vehicle is subject to a security interest when brought into this state, the validity of the security interest and the date of perfection is determined by section 554.9303. Delivery as provided in this subsection constitutes perfection of a security interest on a certificate of title for purposes of this chapter and chapter 554. 2. Upon receipt of the application and the required fee, if the certificate of title was not delivered to the county treasurer along with the application, the county treasurer shall notify the holder of the certificate of title to deliver to the county treasurer, within five days from the receipt of notice, the certificate of title to permit notation of the security interest. If the holder of the certificate of title fails to deliver it within five days, the holder shall be liable to anyone harmed by the holder's failure. 3. Upon receipt of the application, the certificate of title, if any, and the required fee, the county treasurer shall note the security interest and the date of perfection of the security interest on the certificate of title. The county treasurer shall also note the security interest and the date of perfection of the security interest in the county records system. Upon receipt of a certificate of title issued by a foreign jurisdiction, on which a security interest has been noted, the county treasurer shall note the security interest and the date the security interest was noted on the foreign certificate of title, if available, or if not, the date of issuance of the foreign certificate of title, on the face of the new certificate of title. The county treasurer shall also note the security interest and the date that was noted on the certificate of title in the county records system. The county treasurer shall then deliver the certificate of title to the first secured party as shown thereon. 4. Notwithstanding any provision of this section to the contrary, if a security interest has been delivered by electronic means, the county treasurer or department shall not print a certificate of title until all security interests have been released, but shall provide the first security interest holder with an electronic record of the certificate of title. When a vehicle is subject to an electronic lien, the certificate of title for the vehicle shall be considered to be physically held by the lienholder for purposes of compliance with odometer disclosure requirements under section 321.71. 5. a. When a security interest is discharged, the holder shall note a cancellation of the security interest on the face of the certificate of title over the holder's signature and deliver the certificate of title to the county treasurer where the title was issued. In the case of a security interest that has been delivered by electronic means, the holder shall notify the department or the county treasurer, in a manner prescribed by the department, of the release of the security interest. The county treasurer shall immediately note the cancellation of the security interest on the face of the certificate of title, if applicable, and in the county records system. The county treasurer shall on the same day deliver the certificate of title, if applicable, to the then first secured party or, if there is no such person, to the person as directed by the owner, in writing, on a form prescribed by the department or, if there is no person designated, then to the owner. The cancellation of the security interest shall be noted on the certificate of title by the county treasurer without charge. The holder of a security interest discharged by payment who fails to release the security interest within fifteen days after being requested in writing to do so shall forfeit to the person making the payment the sum of twenty-five dollars. b. If a lien has been released by the lienholder but has not been sent to the county of record for clearance of the lien, any county may note the release on the face of the title and shall notify the county of record that the lien has been released as of the specified date and make entry upon the computer system. Notification to the county of record shall be made by an automated statewide system or by sending a photocopy of the released title to the county of record. c. When a security interest is discharged, the lienholder shall note the cancellation of the security interest on the face of the title and, if applicable, may note the cancellation of the security interest on a form prescribed by the department and deliver a copy of the form in lieu of the title to the department or to the treasurer of the county in which the title was issued. The form may be delivered by electronic means. The department or county treasurer shall note the release of the security interest upon the statewide computer system and the county's records. A copy of the form, if used, shall be attached to the title by the lienholder, if the title is held by the lienholder, and shall be evidence of the release of the security interest. If the title is held by the lienholder, the lienholder shall deliver the title to the first lienholder, or if there is no such person, to the person as designated by the owner, or if there is no such person designated, to the owner. If a certificate of title has not been issued, upon release of a security interest, the lienholder shall notify the department or the county treasurer, in a manner prescribed by the department, of the release of the security interest. 6. The uniform commercial code, chapter 554, article 9, shall apply to all transactions intended to create a security interest in vehicles except as provided in this chapter. 7. Upon request of any person, the county treasurer shall certify whether there are, on the date and hour stated therein, any security interests or liens against a vehicle and the name and address of each secured party. The uniform fee for a certification shall be two dollars if the request for the certification is on a form conforming to standards prescribed by the secretary of state; otherwise, three dollars. Upon request and payment of the appropriate fee, the county treasurer shall furnish a certified copy of any security interests for a uniform fee of one dollar per page.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4967; C39, § 5002.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.50] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 5, § 3, 5; 84 Acts, ch 1305, § 55; 89 Acts, ch 260, §
      3; 92 Acts, ch 1175, § 30; 97 Acts, ch 108, §6; 99 Acts, ch 13, § 9;
      99 Acts, ch 188, §10; 2000 Acts, ch 1016, §7, 44, 47; 2000 Acts, ch
      1149, §166, 187; 2001 Acts, ch 153, §17; 2003 Acts, ch 8, §13; 2003
      Acts, ch 145, §286; 2004 Acts, ch 1013, §15--17, 35; 2004 Acts, ch
      1092, §3
         Referred to in § 321.24, 321.42, 321.45, 321.48, 321.131, 331.557
         Surcharge imposed; § 321.52A
        

321.51 TERMINAL RENTAL ADJUSTMENT CLAUSE -- VEHICLE LEASES THAT ARE NOT SALES OR SECURITY INTERESTS. An agreement involving the leasing of a motor vehicle or trailer does not create a sale or security interest solely because the agreement provides for an increase or decrease adjustment in the rental price of the motor vehicle or trailer based upon the amount realized upon sale or other disposition of the motor vehicle or trailer following the termination of the lease.

         Section History: Recent Form

         94 Acts, ch 1052, §1
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.52 OUT-OF-STATE SALES -- JUNKED, DISMANTLED, WRECKED, OR SALVAGE VEHICLES. 1. When a vehicle is sold outside the state for purposes other than for junk, the owner, dealer or otherwise, shall detach the registration plates and registration card and shall indicate on the registration card the name and address of the foreign purchaser or transferee over the person's signature. Unless the registration plates are legally attached to another vehicle, the owner shall surrender the registration plates and registration card to the county treasurer, who shall cancel the records, destroy the registration plates, and forward the registration card to the department. The department shall make a notation on the records of the out-of-state sale and, after a reasonable period, may destroy the files for that particular vehicle. The department is not authorized to make a refund of annual registration fees on a vehicle sold out of state unless it receives the registration card completed as provided in this section. 2. The purchaser or transferee of a motor vehicle for which a certificate of title is issued which is sold for scrap or junk shall surrender the certificate of title, properly endorsed and signed by the previous owner, to the county treasurer of the county of residence of the transferee, and shall apply for a junking certificate from the county treasurer, within thirty days after assignment of the certificate of title. The county treasurer shall issue to such person without fee a junking certificate. A junking certificate shall authorize the holder to possess, transport, or transfer by endorsement the ownership of the junked vehicle. A certificate of title shall not again be issued for the vehicle subsequent to the issuance of a junking certificate except as provided in subsection 3. The county treasurer shall cancel the record of the vehicle. The junking certificate shall be printed on the registration receipt form and shall be imprinted with the words "junking certificate", as prescribed by the department. A space for transfer by endorsement shall be on the junking certificate. A separate form for the notation of the transfer of component parts shall be attached to the junking certificate when the certificate is issued. 3. a. When a vehicle for which a certificate of title is issued is junked or dismantled by the owner, the owner shall detach the registration plates and surrender the plates to the county treasurer, unless the plates are properly assigned to another vehicle. The owner shall also surrender the certificate of title to the county treasurer. b. Upon the surrender of the certificate of title and application for junking certificate, the county treasurer shall issue to the person, without fee, a junking certificate, which shall authorize the holder to possess, transport, or transfer ownership of the junked vehicle by endorsement of the junking certificate. The county treasurer shall hold the surrendered certificate of title, registration receipt, application for junking certificate, and, if applicable, the registration plates for a period of fourteen days following the issuance of a junking certificate under this subsection. c. Within the fourteen-day period, the person who was issued the junking certificate and to whom the vehicle was titled or assigned may surrender to the county treasurer the junking certificate, and upon the person's payment of appropriate fees and taxes and payment of any credit for annual registration fees received by the person for the vehicle under section 321.46, subsection 3, the county treasurer shall issue to the person a certificate of title for the vehicle. After the expiration of the fourteen-day period, a county treasurer shall not issue a certificate of title for a junked vehicle for which a junking certificate is issued. The county treasurer shall cancel the record of the vehicle and forward the certificate of title to the department. d. However, upon application and a showing of good cause, the department may issue a certificate of title to a person after the fourteen-day period for a junked vehicle for which a junking certificate has been issued. For purposes of this subsection, "good cause" means that the junking certificate was obtained by mistake or inadvertence. If a person's application to the department is denied, the person may make application for a certificate of title under the bonding procedure as provided in section 321.24, if the vehicle qualifies as an antique vehicle under section 321.115, subsection 1, or the person may seek judicial review as provided under sections 17A.19 and 17A.20. 4. a. A vehicle rebuilder or a person engaged in the business of buying, selling, or exchanging vehicles of a type required to be registered in this state, upon acquisition of a wrecked or salvage vehicle, shall surrender the certificate of title or manufacturer's or importer's statement of origin properly assigned, together with an application for a salvage certificate of title, to the county treasurer of the county of residence of the purchaser or transferee within thirty days after the date of assignment of the certificate of title for the wrecked or salvage motor vehicle. This subsection applies only to vehicles with a fair market value of five hundred dollars or more, based on the value before the vehicle became wrecked or salvage. Upon payment of a fee of ten dollars, the county treasurer shall issue a salvage certificate of title which shall bear the word "SALVAGE" stamped or printed on the face of the title in a manner prescribed by the department. A salvage certificate of title may be assigned to an educational institution, a new motor vehicle dealer licensed under chapter 322, a person engaged in the business of purchasing bodies, parts of bodies, frames or component parts of vehicles for sale as scrap metal, a salvage pool, or an authorized vehicle recycler licensed under chapter 321H. An authorized vehicle recycler licensed under chapter 321H or a new motor vehicle dealer licensed under chapter 322 may assign or reassign an Iowa salvage certificate of title or a salvage certificate of title from another state to any person, and the provisions of section 321.24, subsection 5, requiring issuance of an Iowa salvage certificate of title shall not apply. A vehicle on which ownership has transferred to an insurer of the vehicle as a result of a settlement with the owner of the vehicle arising out of damage to, or unrecovered theft of, the vehicle shall be deemed to be a wrecked or salvage vehicle and the insurer shall comply with this subsection to obtain a salvage certificate of title within thirty days after the date of assignment of the certificate of title of the vehicle. b. When a wrecked or salvage vehicle has been repaired, the owner may apply for a regular certificate of title by paying the appropriate fees and surrendering the salvage certificate of title and a properly executed salvage theft examination certificate. A motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of thirty thousand pounds or more is not subject to the salvage theft examination otherwise required under paragraph "c", and the owner of such vehicle is not required to submit a salvage theft examination certificate. The county treasurer shall issue a regular certificate of title which shall bear a designation printed on the face of the title and printed on the registration receipt indicating that the vehicle was previously titled on a salvage certificate of title in a form approved by the department. This designation shall be included on every Iowa certificate of title and registration receipt issued thereafter for the vehicle. However, if ownership of a stolen vehicle has been transferred to an insurer organized under the laws of this state or admitted to do business in this state, or if the transfer was the result of a settlement with the owner of the vehicle arising from damage to or the unrecovered theft of the vehicle, and if the insurer certifies to the county treasurer on a form approved by the department that the insurance company has received one or more written estimates which state that the retail cost of repairs including labor, parts, and other materials of all damage to the vehicle is less than three thousand dollars, the county treasurer shall issue to the insurance company the regular certificate of title and registration receipt without this designation. c. A salvage theft examination shall be made by a peace officer who has been specially certified and recertified when required by the Iowa law enforcement academy to do salvage theft examinations. The Iowa law enforcement academy shall determine standards for training and certification, conduct training, and may approve alternative training programs which satisfy the academy's standards for training and certification. The owner of the salvage vehicle shall make the vehicle available for examination at a time and location designated by the peace officer doing the examination. The owner may obtain a permit to drive the vehicle to and from the examination location by submitting a repair affidavit to the agency performing the examination stating that the vehicle is reasonably safe for operation and listing the repairs which have been made to the vehicle. The owner must be present for the examination and have available for inspection the salvage title, bills of sale for all essential parts changed, if applicable, and the repair affidavit. The examination shall be for the purposes of determining whether the vehicle or repair components have been stolen. The examination is not a safety inspection and a signed salvage theft examination certificate shall not be construed by any court of law to be a certification that the vehicle is safe to be operated. There shall be no cause of action against the peace officer or the agency conducting the examination or the county treasurer for failure to discover or note safety defects. If the vehicle passes the theft examination, the peace officer shall indicate that the vehicle passed examination on the salvage theft examination certificate. The permit and salvage theft examination certificate shall be on controlled forms prescribed and furnished by the department. The owner shall pay a fee of thirty dollars upon completion of the examination. The agency performing the examinations shall retain twenty dollars of the fee and shall pay five dollars of the fee to the department and five dollars of the fee to the treasurer of state for deposit in the general fund of the state. Moneys deposited to the general fund under this paragraph are subject to the requirements of section 8.60 and shall be used by the Iowa law enforcement academy to provide for the special training, certification, and recertification of officers as required by this subsection. d. For purposes of this subsection, "wrecked or salvage vehicle" means a damaged motor vehicle subject to registration for which the cost of repair exceeds fifty percent of the fair market value of the vehicle, as determined in accordance with rules adopted by the department, before it became damaged. 5. The department shall adopt rules in accordance with chapter 17A to carry out this section.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4887; C39, § 5002.08; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.52; 81 Acts, ch 102, § 3] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1169, § 2; 84 Acts, ch 1305, § 56; 85 Acts, ch 67, §
      36; 85 Acts, ch 209, § 3; 88 Acts, ch 1089, § 4--6; 88 Acts, ch 1215,
      § 8--10; 89 Acts, ch 185, § 3; 89 Acts, ch 296, § 28; 91 Acts, ch
      142, § 2, 3; 91 Acts, ch 260, § 1225, 1226; 92 Acts, ch 1104, § 3; 93
      Acts, ch 131, § 12; 94 Acts, ch 1107, §51; 95 Acts, ch 45, §2, 3; 97
      Acts, ch 108, § 7; 97 Acts, ch 121, § 2; 2000 Acts, ch 1016, §8, 9;
      2005 Acts, ch 8, §11; 2006 Acts, ch 1068, §14; 2006 Acts, ch 1070,
      §7; 2006 Acts, ch 1120, §12; 2007 Acts, ch 143, §10; 2008 Acts, ch
      1018, § 17, 18; 2008 Acts, ch 1032, § 47, 48; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §
      19, 21, 82; 2009 Acts, ch 41, §114
         Referred to in § 312.2, 321.1, 321.24, 321.49, 321.52A, 321.69,
      321.100, 321.126, 322C.6, 331.557, 805.8A(2c)
         Surcharge imposed; § 321.52A
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 2,
      paragraph c
        

321.52A CERTIFICATE OF TITLE SURCHARGE -- ALLOCATION OF MONEYS. In addition to the fee required for the issuance of a certificate of title under section 321.20, 321.20A, 321.23, 321.42, 321.46, 321.47, 321.48, or 321.52, a surcharge of five dollars shall be required. Of each surcharge collected under those sections, the county treasurer shall remit five dollars to the office of treasurer of state for deposit as set forth in section 321.145, subsection 2.

         Section History: Recent Form

         91 Acts, ch 267, §607; 95 Acts, ch 118, §12; 96 Acts, ch 1117, §
      1; 2001 Acts, ch 188, §25; 2002 Acts, ch 1121, §1; 2008 Acts, ch
      1113, § 35; 2009 Acts, ch 133, §116
         Referred to in § 321.42, 321.145, 455D.11C
        

321.53 NONRESIDENT OWNERS OF PASSENGER VEHICLES AND TRUCKS. A nonresident owner, except as provided in sections 321.54 and 321.55, of a private passenger motor vehicle, not operated for hire, may operate or permit the operation of such vehicle within this state without registering such vehicle in, or paying any fees to, this state subject to the condition that such vehicle at all times when operated in this state is duly registered in, and displays upon it a valid registration plate or plates issued for such vehicle in the place of residence of such owner. A nonresident who leases a vehicle from a resident owner shall not be considered a nonresident owner of such vehicle for the purpose of exemption under this section. This section shall be operative to the extent that under the laws of the foreign country, state, territory, or federal district of such nonresident owner's residence like exemptions and privileges are granted to vehicles registered under the laws, and owned by residents, of this state. A truck, truck tractor, trailer or semitrailer owned by a nonresident and operated on Iowa highways must have displayed upon it a valid registration plate or plates and a valid registration certificate, card, or other official evidence of its allowable weight in the state, district or county in which it is registered.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m16; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4865; C39, § 5003.01;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.53]
         Referred to in § 321.18
        

321.54 REGISTRATION AND FINANCIAL LIABILITY COVERAGE REQUIRED OF CERTAIN NONRESIDENT CARRIERS. 1. Nonresident owners of foreign vehicles operated within this state for the intrastate transportation of persons or property for compensation or for the intrastate transportation of merchandise shall register and maintain financial liability coverage as required under section 321.20B for each vehicle and pay the same fees required for like vehicles owned by residents of this state. 2. The term "intrastate transportation" as used herein shall mean the transportation for compensation of persons or property originating at any point or place in the state of Iowa and destined to any other point or place in said state irrespective of the route or highway or highways traversed, including the crossing of any state line of the state of Iowa, or the ticket or bill of lading issued and used for such transportation.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5003.02; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.54] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         97 Acts, ch 139, § 3, 17, 18; 98 Acts, ch 1121, §8
         Referred to in § 321.53, 805.8A(13a)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see § 805.8A, subsection 13,
      paragraph a
        

321.55 REGISTRATION AND FINANCIAL LIABILITY COVERAGE REQUIRED FOR CERTAIN VEHICLES OWNED OR OPERATED BY NONRESIDENTS. 1. A nonresident owner or operator engaged in remunerative employment within the state or carrying on business within the state and owning or operating a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer within the state shall register and maintain financial liability coverage as required under section 321.20B for each vehicle and pay the same fees for registration as are paid for like vehicles owned by residents of this state. However, this paragraph does not apply to a person commuting from the person's residence in another state or whose employment is seasonal or temporary, not exceeding ninety days. 2. A nonresident owner of a motor vehicle operated within the state by a resident of the state shall register the vehicle and shall maintain financial liability coverage as required under section 321.20B for the vehicle. The nonresident owner shall pay the same fees for registration as are paid for like vehicles owned by residents of this state. However, registration under this paragraph is not required for vehicles being operated by residents temporarily, not exceeding ninety days. It is unlawful for a resident to operate within the state an unregistered motor vehicle required to be registered under this paragraph.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5003.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.55] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 58, § 1; 97 Acts, ch 139, §4, 17, 18; 98 Acts, ch
      1121, §8
         Referred to in § 321.1A, 321.53, 805.8A(2b)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see § 805.8A, subsection 2,
      paragraph b
        

321.56 REPAIR OF OUT-OF-STATE COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES -- PERMITS. 1. The operator of a commercial motor vehicle which is not registered within the state as required pursuant to this chapter or chapter 326 or which does not have an interstate fuel permit, as required under chapter 452A, may enter the state and travel to a commercial vehicle dealer or repair facility and exit the state if all of the following circumstances apply: a. If the commercial motor vehicle is entering the state solely for the purposes of maintenance and repair to the commercial motor vehicle and is exiting the state after having completed vehicle maintenance or repair. b. If the operator has obtained a temporary entry or exit permit from the department. c. If the commercial motor vehicle is unladen. 2. The department shall provide a temporary entry and exit permit to a commercial motor vehicle operator which authorizes the operator to enter and exit the state as allowed under this section. Any operator of a commercial motor vehicle who has in the operator's possession the permit allowing entry into the state and exit from the state shall not be charged with a registration violation under this chapter or chapter 326 or with a motor fuel tax violation under chapter 452A, except for violations of section 452A.74A. 3. For purposes of this section, "commercial motor vehicle" means as defined in section 321.1, subsection 11, paragraph "e", subparagraph (2).

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 132, §3; 2002 Acts, ch 1119, §46; 2006 Acts, ch
      1142, §83
        

321.57 OPERATION UNDER SPECIAL PLATES. 1. A dealer owning any vehicle of a type otherwise required to be registered under this chapter may operate or move the vehicle upon the highways solely for purposes of transporting, testing, demonstrating, or selling the vehicle without registering the vehicle, upon condition that the vehicle display in the manner prescribed in sections 321.37 and 321.38 a special plate issued to the owner as provided in sections 321.58 through 321.62. A dealer may operate or move upon the highways a vehicle owned by the dealer for either private or business purposes without registering it if the vehicle is in the dealer's inventory and is continuously offered for sale at retail, and there is displayed on it a special plate issued to the dealer as provided in sections 321.58 through 321.62. A dealer may operate or move upon the highways an unregistered vehicle owned by a lessor licensed pursuant to chapter 321F solely for the purpose of delivering the vehicle to the owner or transporting the vehicle to or from an auction if there is displayed on the vehicle a special plate issued to the dealer as provided in sections 321.58 through 321.62. 2. In addition, while a service customer is having the customer's own vehicle serviced or repaired by the dealer, the service customer of the dealer may operate upon the highways a motor vehicle owned by the dealer, except a motor truck or truck tractor, upon which there is displayed a special plate issued to the dealer, provided all of the requirements of this section are complied with. 3. Also a transporter may operate or move any vehicle of like type upon the highways solely for the purpose of delivery upon likewise displaying thereon like plates issued to the transporter as provided in these sections. 4. The provisions of this section and sections 321.58 to 321.62 shall not apply to any vehicles offered for hire, work or service vehicles owned by a transporter or dealer. 5. A dealer licensed as a wholesaler for a new motor vehicle model under chapter 322 may operate a new motor vehicle of that model, owned by the wholesaler, upon the highway when there is displayed on the vehicle a special plate issued to the wholesaler as provided in sections 321.58 through 321.62 and when operated solely for the purposes of demonstration, show, or exhibition. 6. A manufacturer licensed under chapter 322 that manufactures ambulances, rescue vehicles, or fire vehicles may operate or move a new ambulance, rescue vehicle, or fire vehicle manufactured and owned by the manufacturer solely for purposes of transporting, demonstrating, showing, or exhibiting the vehicle when there is displayed on the vehicle a special plate issued to the manufacturer as provided in sections 321.58 through 321.62.

         Section History: Early Form

         [SS15, § 1571-m14; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4888, 4894, 4895; C39, §
      5004.01; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.57; 82 Acts, ch 1251, § 12] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         92 Acts, ch 1175, § 1; 97 Acts, ch 139, §5, 17; 98 Acts, ch 1121,
      §5, 9; 99 Acts, ch 188, §11; 2001 Acts, ch 153, §17, 18; 2002 Acts,
      ch 1063, §19; 2002 Acts, ch 1119, §47; 2006 Acts, ch 1068, §15; 2006
      Acts, ch 1090, §18, 26; 2007 Acts, ch 102, §1
         Referred to in § 321.309, 321E.10, 805.8A(2c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 2,
      paragraph c
        

321.58 APPLICATION. All dealers, transporters, and new motor vehicle wholesalers licensed under chapter 322, upon payment of a fee of seventy dollars for a two-year period or part thereof, may make application to the department upon the appropriate form for a certificate containing a general distinguishing number and for one or more special plates as appropriate to various types of vehicles subject to registration. The applicant shall also submit proof of the applicant's status as a bona fide transporter, new motor vehicle wholesaler licensed under chapter 322, or dealer, as reasonably required by the department. Dealers in new vehicles shall furnish satisfactory evidence of a valid franchise with the manufacturer of the vehicles authorizing the dealership.

         Section History: Early Form

         [SS15, § 1571-m14; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4888; C39, § 5004.02;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.58; 82 Acts,
      ch 1251, § 13] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         92 Acts, ch 1175, § 2; 2000 Acts, ch 1016, §10; 2001 Acts, ch 153,
      §18; 2002 Acts, ch 1063, §20; 2002 Acts, ch 1119, §48; 2006 Acts, ch
      1068, §42, 57; 2006 Acts, ch 1090, §19, 26
         Referred to in § 321.57, 321.115, 321.309
        

321.59 ISSUANCE OF CERTIFICATE. The department, upon granting any such application, shall issue to the applicant a certificate containing the applicant's name and address and the general distinguishing number assigned to the applicant.

         Section History: Early Form

         [SS15, § 1571-m14; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4890, 4891; C39, §
      5004.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.59]
         Referred to in § 321.57, 321.115
        

321.60 ISSUANCE OF SPECIAL PLATES. The department shall also issue special plates as applied for, which shall display the general distinguishing number assigned to the applicant. Each plate so issued shall also contain a number or symbol identifying the plate and distinguishing it from every other plate bearing the same general distinguishing number. The fee for each special plate is forty dollars for a two-year period or part thereof.

         Section History: Early Form

         [SS15, § 1571-m14; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4892; C39, § 5004.04;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.60] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1305, § 57; 92 Acts, ch 1175, § 3; 2006 Acts, ch 1068,
      §43, 57
         Referred to in § 321.42, 321.57, 321.115
        

321.61 EXPIRATION OF SPECIAL PLATES. A special plate shall expire at midnight on December 31 of even-numbered years. A person shall not be considered to be driving a vehicle with an expired registration for one month following the expiration date of the special plate.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m16; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4868; C39, § 5004.05;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.61] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         92 Acts, ch 1175, § 4; 2006 Acts, ch 1068, §44, 57
         Referred to in § 321.57, 321.115
        

321.62 RECORDS REQUIRED. Every transporter or dealer shall keep a written record of the vehicles upon which such special plates are used, which record shall be open to inspection by any police officer or any officer or employee of the department.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5004.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.62]
         Referred to in § 321.57, 321.115, 805.8A(2c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 2,
      paragraph c
        

321.63 DIFFERENT PLACES OF BUSINESS. If a transporter or dealer has an established place of business in more than one city, the transporter or dealer shall secure a separate and distinct certificate of registration and number plates for each such place of business.

         Section History: Early Form

         [SS15, § 1571-m14; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4889; C39, § 5004.07;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.63]
        

321.64 Repealed by 98 Acts, ch 1075, § 32.

321.65 GARAGE RECORD. Every person or corporation operating a public garage shall keep for public inspection a record of the registration number and engine serial number or manufacturer's vehicle identification number of every motor vehicle offered for sale or taken in for repairs in said garage.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, § 4988--4990; C31, 35, § 4990-c1; C39, § 5004.09;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.65] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2005 Acts, ch 179, §127
        

321.66 DUTY TO HOLD VEHICLES. The proprietor of a garage and the proprietor's employees upon discovering that the engine number of a motor vehicle has been altered or obliterated shall immediately notify some member of the department or peace officer of the county in which the garage is located, and hold said vehicle for a period of twenty-four hours or until investigation shall have been made by such peace officer.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4991; C39, § 5004.10; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.66]
        

321.67 CERTIFICATE OF TITLE MUST BE EXECUTED. 1. No person, except as provided in sections 321.23 and 321.45 shall sell or otherwise dispose of a registered vehicle or a vehicle subject to registration without delivering to the purchaser or transferee thereof a certificate of title with such assignment thereon as may be necessary to show title in the purchaser. 2. No person shall purchase or otherwise acquire or bring into this state a registered vehicle or a vehicle subject to registration without obtaining a certificate of title thereto except for temporary use or as provided in sections 321.23 and 321.45.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4898; C39, § 5005.01; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.67]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(2c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 2,
      paragraph c
        

321.68 SALE IN BULK. It shall be unlawful for any dealer in this state to sell and transfer the dealer's stock of used motor vehicles in bulk unless the dealer complies with the following requirements: 1. The vendor shall file with the county treasurer and the department, duplicate inventories of all used motor vehicles proposed to be transferred, giving the factory number, last registration number, if any, and description of each such used motor vehicle and the name and address of proposed vendee, with a certification signed by both the vendee and the vendor that the certificates of title pertaining to all the used motor vehicles listed on the inventory have been duly assigned to the vendee as prescribed in this chapter. 2. The vendee shall, if the vendee has not already secured a dealer's registration, immediately secure such registration from the department. Upon the completion of such requirements the department shall certify to the county treasurer that such used motor vehicles are, from and after a date to be set by the department, the property of the vendee.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4899; C39, § 5005.02; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.68]
        

321.69 DAMAGE DISCLOSURE STATEMENT. 1. A certificate of title shall not be issued for a motor vehicle unless a damage disclosure statement has been made by the transferor of the vehicle and is furnished with the application for certificate of title. A damage disclosure statement shall be provided by the transferor to the transferee in a transfer of ownership of a motor vehicle. The new certificate of title and registration receipt shall state on the face whether a prior owner had disclosed that the vehicle was damaged to the extent that it was a wrecked or salvage vehicle as defined in section 321.52, subsection 4, paragraph "d". 2. The damage disclosure statement required by this section shall, at a minimum, state whether the transferor knows if the vehicle was titled as a salvage, rebuilt, or flood vehicle in this or any other state prior to the transferor's ownership of the vehicle and, if not, whether the transferor knows if the vehicle was damaged to the extent that it was a wrecked or salvage vehicle as defined in section 321.52, subsection 4, paragraph "d", during or prior to the transferor's ownership of the vehicle. 3. The damage disclosure statement shall be provided by the transferor to the transferee at or before the time of sale. If the transferor is not a resident of this state or if the transferee acquired the vehicle by operation of law as provided in section 321.47, the transferee shall not be required to submit a damage disclosure statement from the transferor with the transferee's application for title unless the state of the transferor's residence requires a damage disclosure statement. However, the transferee shall submit a damage disclosure statement with the transferee's application for title indicating whether a salvage, rebuilt, or flood title had ever existed for the vehicle, and if not, whether the vehicle was damaged to the extent that it was a wrecked or salvage vehicle as defined in section 321.52, subsection 4, paragraph "d", during or prior to the transferor's ownership of the vehicle, and the year, make, and vehicle identification number of the motor vehicle. The transferee shall not be required to indicate whether the vehicle was damaged to the extent that it was a wrecked or salvage vehicle as defined in section 321.52, subsection 4, paragraph "d", under this subsection if the transferor's certificate of title is from another state and if it indicates that the vehicle is salvaged and not rebuilt or is another state's salvage certificate of title. 4. A lessee who has executed a lease as defined in section 321F.1 shall provide a damage disclosure statement to the lessor at the termination of the lease. The damage disclosure statement shall be made on a separate disclosure document and shall state whether the vehicle was damaged during the term of the lease to the extent that it was a wrecked or salvage vehicle as defined in section 321.52, subsection 4, paragraph "d". The lessee's damage disclosure statement shall not be submitted with the application for title, but the lessor shall retain the lessee's damage disclosure statement for five years following the date of the statement. 5. The department shall retain each damage disclosure statement received and copies shall be available to the public and the attorney general upon request. 6. Authorized vehicle recyclers licensed under chapter 321H and motor vehicle dealers licensed under chapter 322 shall maintain copies of all damage disclosure statements where the recycler or dealer is either the transferor or the transferee for five years following the date of the statement. The copies shall be made available to the department or the attorney general upon request. 7. The damage disclosure statements shall be made on the back of the certificate of title if the title is available to the transferor at the time of sale. If the title is not available at the time of sale or if the face of the transferor's Iowa title contains no indication that the vehicle was previously salvaged or titled as a salvage, rebuilt, or flood vehicle and the transferor knows or reasonably should know that the vehicle was previously salvaged or titled as a salvage, rebuilt, or flood vehicle in another state, the transferor shall make the disclosure on a separate disclosure document. The damage disclosure statement forms shall be as approved by the department. The treasurer shall not accept a damage disclosure statement and issue a title unless the back of the title or separate disclosure document has been fully completed and signed and dated by the transferee and the transferor, if applicable. If a separate damage disclosure document from a prior owner is required to be furnished with the application for title, the transferor shall provide a copy of the separate damage disclosure document to the transferee at or before the time of sale. In addition to the information required in subsection 2, a separate disclosure document shall state whether the vehicle's certificate of title indicates the existence of damage prior to the period of the transferor's ownership of the vehicle and whether the vehicle was titled as a salvage, rebuilt, or flood vehicle during the period of the transferor's ownership of the vehicle. 8. A person, authorized vehicle recycler licensed under chapter 321H, or motor vehicle dealer licensed under chapter 322 shall not be liable to a subsequent owner, driver, or passenger of a vehicle because a prior owner or lessee gave a false or inaccurate damage disclosure statement or failed to disclose that the vehicle had previously been damaged and repaired or had been titled on a salvage, rebuilt, or flood certificate of title unless the person, recycler, or dealer knew or reasonably should have known that the prior owner or lessee gave a false or inaccurate damage disclosure statement or failed to disclose that the vehicle had been damaged and repaired or had been titled on a salvage, rebuilt, or flood certificate of title. 9. Except for subsections 10 and 11, this section does not apply to motor trucks and truck tractors with a gross vehicle weight rating of sixteen thousand pounds or more, vehicles more than seven model years old, motorcycles, motorized bicycles, and special mobile equipment. This section does apply to motor homes. The requirement in subsection 1 that the new certificate of title and registration receipt shall state on the face whether a prior owner had disclosed that the vehicle was damaged to the extent that it was a wrecked or salvage vehicle as defined in section 321.52, subsection 4, paragraph "d", does not apply to a vehicle with a certificate of title bearing a designation that the vehicle was previously titled on a salvage certificate of title pursuant to section 321.52, subsection 4, paragraph "b", or to a vehicle with a certificate of title bearing a "REBUILT" or "SALVAGE" designation pursuant to section 321.24, subsection 4 or 5. Except for subsections 10 and 11, this section does not apply to new motor vehicles with a true mileage, as defined in section 321.71, of one thousand miles or less, unless such vehicle has incurred damage as described in subsection 2. 10. A person shall not sell, lease, or trade a motor vehicle if the person knows or reasonably should know that the motor vehicle contains a nonoperative airbag that is part of an inflatable restraint system, or that the motor vehicle has had an airbag removed and not replaced, unless the person clearly discloses, in writing, to the person to whom the person is selling, leasing, or trading the vehicle, prior to the sale, lease, or trade, that the airbag is missing or nonoperative. In addition, a lessee who has executed a lease as defined in section 321F.1 shall provide the disclosure statement required in this subsection to the lessor upon termination of the lease. The written disclosure required by this subsection shall be deemed to be a damage disclosure statement for the purposes of subsections 6, 8, and 11. 11. A person who knowingly makes a false damage disclosure statement or fails to make a damage disclosure statement required by this section commits a fraudulent practice. Failure of a person, authorized vehicle recycler licensed under chapter 321H, or motor vehicle dealer licensed under chapter 322 to comply with any duty imposed by this section constitutes a violation of section 714.16, subsection 2, paragraph "a". 12. The department shall adopt rules as necessary to implement this section.

         Section History: Recent Form

         92 Acts, ch 1104, § 4; 95 Acts, ch 45, §4, 5; 96 Acts, ch 1152, §
      3; 97 Acts, ch 108, §8; 98 Acts, ch 1034, §1; 2002 Acts, ch 1063,
      §21; 2003 Acts, ch 56, §1--5; 2003 Acts, ch 179, §71; 2004 Acts, ch
      1007, §1; 2005 Acts, ch 19, §40, 41; 2006 Acts, ch 1010, §88
         Referred to in § 714H.3
        

321.70 DEALER VEHICLES. A dealer registered under this chapter shall not be required to register any vehicle owned by the dealer which is being held for sale or trade, provided the annual registration fee was not delinquent at the time the vehicle was acquired by the dealer. When a dealer ceases to hold any vehicle for sale or trade or the vehicle otherwise becomes subject to registration under this chapter the annual registration fee and delinquent annual registration fee, if any, shall be due for the registration year.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4901; C39, § 5005.04; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.70] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 11, 38; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §83
        

321.71 ODOMETER REQUIREMENTS. 1. For the purposes of this section the following words and phrases shall have the meanings respectively ascribed to them: a. "Intent and purpose of this section" is and shall mean to achieve the end that odometers of motor vehicles shall at all times correctly show the true mileage that the motor vehicle has been driven. b. "True mileage" is the actual mileage the motor vehicle has been driven. 2. No person shall knowingly tamper with, adjust, alter, change, set back, disconnect or fail to connect the odometer of any motor vehicle, or cause any of the foregoing to occur to an odometer of a motor vehicle, so as to reflect a lower mileage than the true mileage driven by the motor vehicle. 3. No person shall conspire with any other person to evade the intent and purpose of this section. 4. No person shall with the intent to defraud operate a motor vehicle on any street or highway knowing that the odometer of the motor vehicle is disconnected or nonfunctional. 5. No person shall advertise for sale, sell, use or install on any part of a motor vehicle or on any odometer in a motor vehicle any device which causes the odometer to register any mileage other than the true mileage. 6. In the event any odometer is repaired or replaced, the reading of the repaired or replaced odometer shall be set at the reading of the odometer repaired or replaced immediately prior to repair or replacement, but where the odometer is incapable of registering the same mileage the odometer shall be adjusted to read zero and any adjustment made in accordance with the provisions of this subsection shall not be deemed a violation of any provision of this section. 7. A certificate of title shall not be issued for a motor vehicle less than ten model years old which is equipped with an odometer by the manufacturer, unless an odometer statement which is in compliance with federal law and regulations has been made by the transferor of the vehicle and is furnished with the application for certificate of title. The new certificate of title shall record on its face the odometer reading and the word "actual" if the true mileage is known. If the odometer reading is not the true mileage or the true mileage is unknown, the words "not actual" shall be recorded. If the odometer reading is greater than the odometer can mechanically count, the words "exceeds the mechanical limits" shall be recorded. However, a certificate of title may be issued for a motor vehicle to a person who moves into this state if the person acquired ownership of the motor vehicle prior to moving to this state. This subsection does not apply to motor vehicles having a gross vehicle weight rating of more than sixteen thousand pounds. 8. Any person who knowingly makes or delivers a false odometer statement as required by subsection 7 shall be guilty of a violation of this section. 9. An Iowa licensed motor vehicle dealer shall not have in possession as inventory for sale a used motor vehicle acquired by the dealer after the tenth model year prior to the current registration year, for which the dealer does not possess an odometer statement by the transferor which is in compliance with federal law and regulations unless a certificate of title has been issued for the vehicle in the name of the dealer. Transfer of a new motor vehicle with an ownership document which is a manufacturer's statement of origin requires an odometer statement only when transferred at retail. 10. A transferee of a motor vehicle reassigning the certificate of title to such motor vehicle pursuant to the provisions of section 321.48, subsection 1, shall not be guilty of a violation of this section if such transferee has in the transferee's possession an odometer statement by the transferor which is in compliance with federal law and regulations and if the transferee has no knowledge that the statement is false and that the transferee has no knowledge that the odometer does not reflect the true mileage of such motor vehicle. 11. The department may adopt rules which shall be in compliance with the federal Truth in Mileage Act of 1986, Pub. L. No. 99-579. 12. Any person who violates this section commits a fraudulent practice.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.71] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1243, § 2, 3; 84 Acts, ch 1305, § 58; 90 Acts, ch
      1131, § 1, 2; 98 Acts, ch 1100, §43
         Referred to in § 307.37, 321.50, 321.69, 322.4
        

321.71A NONOPERATIVE AIR BAGS. A person shall not install or reinstall for compensation, distribute, or sell a nonoperative air bag that is part of an inflatable restraint system for a motor vehicle if the person knows that the air bag is nonoperative. A violation of this section is an aggravated misdemeanor punishable by confinement for up to one year and a fine of at least five hundred dollars but not more than five thousand dollars. For purposes of this section, "nonoperative air bag" includes an air bag that has been previously deployed, is nonfunctional, or is otherwise defective. "Nonoperative air bag" also includes anything that is inserted, or is intended to be inserted, in place of an air bag, which would prohibit an inflatable restraint system from functioning properly.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 94, §1
        

321.72 REPORT OF STOLEN AND RECOVERED MOTOR VEHICLES. Every peace officer upon receiving reliable information that any vehicle registered under this chapter has been stolen shall immediately report the theft to the department unless prior thereto information has been received of the recovery of the vehicle. Any officer upon receiving information that any vehicle, which the officer has previously reported as stolen, has been recovered, shall immediately report the fact of the recovery to the law enforcement agency which originated the theft report and to the department.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C27, 31, 35, § 13417-a1; C39, § 5006.01; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.72; 81 Acts, ch 103, § 1]
         Referred to in § 321.74, 331.653
        

321.73 REPORTS BY OWNERS. The owner, or person having a lien or encumbrance upon a registered vehicle which has been stolen or embezzled, may notify the department of such theft or embezzlement, but in the event of an embezzlement may make such report only after having procured the issuance of a warrant for the arrest of the person charged with such embezzlement. Every owner or other person who has given any such notice must notify the department of a recovery of such vehicle.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5006.02; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.73]
         Referred to in § 321.74
        

321.74 ACTION BY DEPARTMENT. The department, upon receiving a report of a stolen or embezzled vehicle as provided in section 321.72 or 321.73 or through the national motor vehicle title information system, shall file and appropriately index the same and shall immediately suspend the registration of the vehicle so reported and shall not transfer the certificate of title or registration of the vehicle until such time as the department is notified that the vehicle has been recovered.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5006.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.74] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2004 Acts, ch 1013, §18, 35
        

321.75 Repealed by 77 Acts, ch 103, § 63.

321.76 AND 321.77 Repealed by 76 Acts, ch 1245(4), § 525.

321.78 INJURING OR TAMPERING WITH VEHICLE. Any person who either individually or in association with one or more other persons willfully injures or tampers with any vehicle or breaks or removes any part or parts of or from a vehicle without the consent of the owner is guilty of a simple misdemeanor.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5006.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.78]
         Referred to in § 322.6, 322C.6
        

321.79 INTENT TO INJURE. Any person who with intent to commit any malicious mischief, injury, or other crime climbs into or upon a vehicle whether it is in motion or at rest or with like intent attempts to manipulate any of the levers, starting mechanism, brakes, or other mechanism or device of a vehicle while the same is at rest and unattended or with like intent sets in motion any vehicle while the same is at rest and unattended is guilty of a simple misdemeanor.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5006.08; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.79]
        

321.80 Repealed by 76 Acts, ch 1245(4), § 525.

321.81 PRESUMPTIVE EVIDENCE. Whoever shall conceal, barter, sell, possess or dispose of any vehicle or component part which has been stolen, or shall disguise, alter, or change such vehicle or component part or the vehicle identification number or component part number thereof, or remove or change the registration plate thereon, or do any act designed to prevent identification of such vehicle or component part, shall be presumed to have knowledge that such vehicle or component part had been stolen.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5093; C39, § 5006.10; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.81]
         Referred to in § 322.6
        

321.82 AND 321.83 Repealed by 76 Acts, ch 1245(4), § 525.

321.84 SEIZURE OF VEHICLES. It shall be the duty of any peace officer who finds a vehicle or component part, the vehicle identification number or component part number of which has been altered, defaced, or tampered with, and who has reasonable cause to believe that the possessor of the vehicle or component part wrongfully holds it, to forthwith seize it, either with or without warrant, and deliver it to the sheriff of the county in which it is seized.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C27, 31, 35, § 5083-b1; C39, § 5006.13; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.84]
         Referred to in § 321.85
        

321.85 STOLEN VEHICLES OR COMPONENT PARTS. When a vehicle or component part is seized under section 321.84 or is stolen or embezzled, and is not claimed by the owner before the date on which the person charged with its stealing or embezzling is convicted, the officer having the vehicle or component part in the officer's custody shall, on that date by certified mail, notify the department that the officer has the vehicle or component part in the officer's possession, giving a full and complete description of it, including all vehicle identification numbers and component part numbers. If there is a dispute regarding a claim for the vehicle or component part, the agency holding the vehicle or component part shall conduct an evidentiary hearing to adjudicate the claim.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, § 12222; C27, 31, 35, § 5083-b2, 12222; C39, § 5006.14;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.85] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 64, §1
         Referred to in § 8A.323
        

321.86 NOTICE BY DIRECTOR. The director shall, if the owner appears of record in the director's office, notify the owner of the fact that the vehicle or component part is in the custody of the officer, and if not of record in the director's office, the director shall mail the description to the county treasurer of each county.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 12223; C39, § 5006.15; C46, 50, 54, 58,
      62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.86]
         Referred to in § 8A.323
        

321.87 DELIVERY TO OWNER. If, within forty days thereafter, the owner of the vehicle or component part appears and properly identifies it, the officer having the vehicle or component part in custody shall deliver it to such owner upon payment by the owner of the costs incurred incident to the apprehension of the vehicle or component part and the location of the owner.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, § 12224; C27, 31, 35, § 5083-b3, 12224; C39, § 5006.16;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.87]
         Referred to in § 8A.323
        

321.88 FAILURE OF OWNER TO CLAIM. If the owner does not appear within forty days, the motor vehicle shall be deemed abandoned and the officer having possession of the motor vehicle shall proceed as provided in section 321.89, subsections 3 and 4.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, § 12225; C27, 31, 35, § 5083-b3, 12225; C39, § 5006.17;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.88]
         Referred to in § 8A.323
        

321.89 ABANDONED VEHICLES. 1. Definitions. As used in this section and sections 321.90 and 321.91 unless the context otherwise requires: a. "Abandoned vehicle" means any of the following: (1) A vehicle that has been left unattended on public property for more than twenty-four hours and lacks current registration plates or two or more wheels or other parts which renders the vehicle totally inoperable. (2) A vehicle that has remained illegally on public property for more than twenty-four hours. (3) A vehicle that has been unlawfully parked on private property or has been placed on private property without the consent of the owner or person in control of the property for more than twenty-four hours. (4) A vehicle that has been legally impounded by order of a police authority and has not been reclaimed for a period of ten days. However, a police authority may declare the vehicle abandoned within the ten-day period by commencing the notification process in subsection 3. (5) Any vehicle parked on the highway determined by a police authority to create a hazard to other vehicle traffic. (6) A vehicle that has been impounded pursuant to section 321J.4B by order of the court and whose owner has not paid the impoundment fees after notification by the person or agency responsible for carrying out the impoundment order. b. "Demolisher" means a person licensed under chapter 321H whose business it is to convert a vehicle to junk, processed scrap, or scrap metal, or otherwise to wreck or dismantle vehicles. c. "Police authority" means the state patrol, any law enforcement agency of a county or city, or any special security officer employed by the state board of regents under section 262.13. 2. Authority to take possession of abandoned vehicles. A police authority, upon the authority's own initiative or upon the request of any other authority having the duties of control of highways or traffic, shall take into custody an abandoned vehicle on public property and may take into custody an abandoned vehicle on private property. The police authority may employ its own personnel, equipment, and facilities or hire a private entity, equipment, and facilities for the purpose of removing, preserving, storing, or disposing of abandoned vehicles. A property owner or other person in control of private property may employ a private entity who is a garagekeeper, as defined in section 321.90, to dispose of an abandoned vehicle, and the private entity may take into custody the abandoned vehicle without a police authority's initiative. If a police authority employs a private entity to dispose of abandoned vehicles, the police authority shall provide the private entity with the names and addresses of the registered owners, all lienholders of record, and any other known claimant to the vehicle or the personal property found in the vehicle. The owners, lienholders, or other claimants of the abandoned vehicle shall not have a cause of action against a private entity for action taken under this section if the private entity provides notice as required by subsection 3, paragraph "a". 3. Notification of owner, lienholders, and other claimants. a. A police authority or private entity that takes into custody an abandoned vehicle shall notify, within twenty days, by certified mail, the last known registered owner of the vehicle, all lienholders of record, and any other known claimant to the vehicle or to personal property found in the vehicle, addressed to the parties' last known addresses of record, that the abandoned vehicle has been taken into custody. Notice shall be deemed given when mailed. The notice shall describe the year, make, model, and vehicle identification number of the vehicle, describe the personal property found in the vehicle, set forth the location of the facility where the vehicle is being held, and inform the persons receiving the notice of their right to reclaim the vehicle and personal property within ten days after the effective date of the notice upon payment of all towing, preservation, and storage charges resulting from placing the vehicle in custody and upon payment of the costs of notice required pursuant to this subsection. The notice shall also state that the failure of the owner, lienholders, or claimants to exercise their right to reclaim the vehicle or personal property within the time provided shall be deemed a waiver by the owner, lienholders, and claimants of all right, title, claim, and interest in the vehicle or personal property and that failure to reclaim the vehicle or personal property is deemed consent to the sale of the vehicle at a public auction or disposal of the vehicle to a demolisher and to disposal of the personal property by sale or destruction. If the abandoned vehicle was taken into custody by a private entity without a police authority's initiative, the notice shall state that the private entity may claim a garagekeeper's lien as described in section 321.90, subsection 1, and may proceed to sell or dispose of the vehicle. If the abandoned vehicle was taken into custody by a police authority or by a private entity hired by a police authority, the notice shall state that any person claiming rightful possession of the vehicle or personal property who disputes the planned disposition of the vehicle or property by the police authority or private entity or of the assessment of fees and charges provided by this section may ask for an evidentiary hearing before the police authority to contest those matters. If the persons receiving notice do not ask for a hearing or exercise their right to reclaim the vehicle or personal property within the ten-day reclaiming period, the owner, lienholders, or claimants shall no longer have any right, title, claim, or interest in or to the vehicle or the personal property. A court in any case in law or equity shall not recognize any right, title, claim, or interest of the owner, lienholders, or claimants after the expiration of the ten-day reclaiming period. b. If it is impossible to determine with reasonable certainty the identity and addresses of the last registered owner and all lienholders, notice by one publication in one newspaper of general circulation in the area where the vehicle was abandoned shall be sufficient to meet all requirements of notice under this section. The published notice may contain multiple listings of abandoned vehicles and personal property but shall be published within the same time requirements and contain the same information as prescribed for mailed notice in paragraph "a". 4. Auction of abandoned vehicles. a. If an abandoned vehicle has not been reclaimed as provided for in subsection 3, the police authority or private entity shall make a determination as to whether or not the vehicle shall be sold for use upon the highways. If the vehicle is not sold for use upon the highways, it shall be sold for junk, or demolished and sold as scrap. The police authority or private entity shall sell the vehicle at public auction. Notwithstanding any other provision of this section, a police authority or private entity may dispose of the vehicle to a demolisher for junk without public auction after complying with the notification procedures in subsection 3. The purchaser of the vehicle takes title free and clear of all liens and claims of ownership, shall receive a sales receipt from the police authority or private entity, and is entitled to register the vehicle and receive a certificate of title if sold for use upon the highways. If the vehicle is sold or disposed of to a demolisher for junk, the demolisher shall make application for a junking certificate to the county treasurer within thirty days of purchase and shall surrender the sales receipt in lieu of the certificate of title. b. From the proceeds of the sale of an abandoned vehicle the police authority, if the police authority did not hire a private entity, shall reimburse itself for the expenses of the auction, the costs of towing, preserving, and storing which resulted from placing the abandoned vehicle in custody, all notice and publication costs incurred pursuant to subsection 3, the cost of inspection, and any other costs incurred except costs of bookkeeping and other administrative costs. Any remainder from the proceeds of a sale shall be held for the owner of the vehicle or entitled lienholder for ninety days, and shall then be deposited in the road use tax fund. The costs to police authorities of auction, towing, preserving, storage, and all notice and publication costs, and all other costs which result from placing abandoned vehicles in custody, whenever the proceeds from a sale of the abandoned vehicles are insufficient to meet these expenses and costs, shall be paid from the road use tax fund and are the obligation of the last owner or owners, jointly and severally. c. The director of transportation shall establish by rule a claims procedure to be followed by police authorities in obtaining expenses and costs from the fund and procedures for reimbursement of expenses and costs to a private entity hired by a police authority to take custody of an abandoned vehicle. If a private entity has been hired by a police authority, the police authority shall file a claim with the department for reimbursement of towing fees which shall be paid from the road use tax fund.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.89] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1305, § 59; 85 Acts, ch 64, § 2; 87 Acts, ch 123, § 1;
      88 Acts, ch 1158, § 66; 92 Acts, ch 1238, § 31; 95 Acts, ch 48, §3;
      95 Acts, ch 118, §13; 96 Acts, ch 1126, § 4; 98 Acts, ch 1074, §22;
      2000 Acts, ch 1016, §11; 2005 Acts, ch 35, §31; 2005 Acts, ch 64, §1;
      2009 Acts, ch 130, §23, 24
         Referred to in § 8A.323, 80.39, 321.20B, 321.88, 321.90, 321.91,
      321J.4B, 555B.1
        

321.90 DISPOSAL OF ABANDONED MOTOR VEHICLES. 1. Garagekeepers and abandoned motor vehicles. Any motor vehicle left in a garage operated for commercial purposes after the period for which the vehicle was to remain on the premises shall, after notice by certified mail to the last known registered owner of the vehicle addressed to the owner's last known address of record to reclaim the vehicle within ten days of the date of the notice, be deemed an abandoned motor vehicle unless reclaimed by the owner within such ten-day period or the owner notifies the garagekeeper in writing within such period of time that such vehicle is not an abandoned motor vehicle and shall be reported by the garagekeeper to the police authority. If the identity or address of the last registered owner of the motor vehicle cannot be determined, the vehicle shall be deemed an abandoned motor vehicle on the eleventh day after the period for which the vehicle was to remain on the premises unless reclaimed by the owner within the ten-day period or the owner notifies the garagekeeper in writing within such period of time that such vehicle is not an abandoned motor vehicle and shall be reported by the garagekeeper to the police authority. All abandoned motor vehicles left in garages may be taken into custody by a police authority upon the request of the garagekeeper and sold in accordance with the procedures set forth in section 321.89, subsection 4, unless the motor vehicle is reclaimed. The proceeds of the sale shall be first applied to the garagekeeper's charges for towing and storage, and any surplus proceeds shall be distributed in accordance with section 321.89, subsection 4. Nothing in this section shall be construed to impair any lien of a garagekeeper under the laws of this state, or the right of a garagekeeper to foreclose the garagekeeper's lien, provided that a garagekeeper shall be deemed to have abandoned the garagekeeper's artisan lien when such vehicle is taken into custody by the police authority. For the purposes of this section "garagekeeper" means any operator of a parking place or establishment, motor vehicle storage facility, or establishment for the servicing, repair, or maintenance of motor vehicles. 2. Disposal to demolisher. a. Any person, firm, corporation, or unit of government upon whose property or in whose possession is found any abandoned motor vehicle, or any person being the owner of a motor vehicle whose title certificate is faulty, lost, or destroyed and is thereby unable to transfer title to the motor vehicle, may apply to the police authority of the jurisdiction in which the motor vehicle is situated for authority to sell, give away, or otherwise dispose of the motor vehicle to a demolisher. b. The application shall set out the name and address of the applicant, and the year, make, model, and vehicle identification number of the motor vehicle, if ascertainable, together with any other identifying features, and shall contain a concise statement of the facts surrounding the abandonment, or a statement that the title of the motor vehicle is lost or destroyed, or the reasons for the defect of title in the owner. The applicant shall execute an affidavit stating that the facts alleged are true and that no material fact has been withheld. An order for disposal obtained pursuant to section 555B.8, subsection 3, satisfies the application requirements of this paragraph. c. If the police authority finds that the application is executed in proper form, and shows that the motor vehicle has been abandoned upon the property of the applicant, or if it shows that the motor vehicle is not abandoned but that the applicant appears to be the rightful owner, the police authority shall follow appropriate notification procedures as set forth in section 321.89, subsection 3, except that in the case of an order for disposal obtained pursuant to section 555B.8, subsection 3, no notification is required. d. If the abandoned motor vehicle is not reclaimed in accordance with section 321.89, subsection 3, or no lienholder objects to the disposal in the case of an owner-applicant, the police authority shall give the applicant a certificate of authority allowing the applicant to obtain a junking certificate for the motor vehicle. The applicant shall make application for a junking certificate to the county treasurer within thirty days of receipt of the certificate of authority and surrender the certificate of authority in lieu of the certificate of title. The demolisher shall accept the junking certificate in lieu of the certificate of title to the motor vehicle. e. Notwithstanding any other provisions of this section and sections 321.89 and 321.91, any person, firm, corporation, or unit of government upon whose property or in whose possession is found any abandoned motor vehicle, or any person being the owner of a motor vehicle whose title certificate is faulty, lost, or destroyed, may dispose of such motor vehicle to a demolisher for junk without a title and without the notification procedures of section 321.89, subsection 3, if the motor vehicle lacks an engine or two or more wheels or other structural part which renders the vehicle totally inoperable. The police authority shall give the applicant a certificate of authority. The owner shall apply to the county treasurer for a junking certificate within thirty days of receipt of the certificate of authority and shall surrender the certificate of authority in lieu of the certificate of title. f. The owner of an abandoned motor vehicle and all lienholders shall no longer have any right, title, claim, or interest in or to the motor vehicle; and no court in any case in law or equity shall recognize any right, title, claim, or interest of any owner or lienholders after the disposal of the motor vehicle to a demolisher. g. Any proceeds from the sale of an abandoned motor vehicle to a demolisher under this section, by one other than the owner of the vehicle, except the sale of a vehicle pursuant to an order for disposal obtained pursuant to section 555B.8, subsection 3, shall first be applied to that person's expenses in effecting the sale, including storage, towing, and disposal charges, and any surplus shall be distributed in accordance with section 321.89, subsection 4. The proceeds from the sale of a vehicle disposed of pursuant to section 555B.8, subsection 3, shall be distributed in accordance with section 555B.9. 3. Duties of demolishers. a. Any demolisher who purchases or otherwise acquires an abandoned motor vehicle for junk under the provisions of this section shall junk, scrap, wreck, dismantle, or demolish such motor vehicle. A demolisher shall not junk, scrap, wreck, dismantle, or demolish a vehicle until the demolisher has obtained the junking certificate issued for the vehicle. b. A demolisher shall keep an accurate and complete record of all motor vehicles purchased or received by the demolisher in the course of the demolisher's business. These records shall contain the name and address of the person from whom each motor vehicle was purchased or received and the date when the purchases or receipts occurred. The records shall be open for inspection by any police authority at any time during normal business hours. Any record required by this section shall be kept by the demolisher for at least one year after the transaction to which it applies.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.90] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         88 Acts, ch 1138, §12--14; 95 Acts, ch 118, §14, 15; 2005 Acts, ch
      179, §128; 2008 Acts, ch 1018, §19
         Referred to in § 8A.323, 321.89, 321.91, 555B.9
        

321.91 LIMITATION ON LIABILITY -- PENALTY FOR ABANDONMENT. 1. No person, firm, corporation, unit of government, garagekeeper or police authority upon whose property an abandoned vehicle is found or who disposes of such abandoned vehicle in accordance with sections 321.89 and 321.90 shall be liable for damages by reason of the removal, sale, or disposal of such vehicle. 2. A person who abandons a vehicle is guilty of a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection 14, paragraph "b".

         Section History: Earlyrm

         [C73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.91] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2000 Acts, ch 1203, §3; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5; 2004 Acts, ch 1101,
      §35
         Referred to in § 8A.323, 321.89, 321.90, 805.8A(14b)
        

321.92 ALTERING OR CHANGING NUMBERS. 1. Fraudulent intent. a. No person shall with fraudulent intent, deface, destroy, or alter the vehicle identification number or component part number or other distinguishing number or identification mark of a vehicle or component part, including a rebuilt identification, nor shall a person place or stamp a serial, engine, or other number or mark upon a vehicle or component part, except one assigned thereto by the department. b. The year of manufacture of a fence-line feeder, grain cart, or tank wagon manufactured on or after July 1, 2001, shall be permanently made a part of the identification plate on the vehicle. A person shall not fraudulently alter, deface, or attempt to fraudulently alter or deface the year of manufacture or other product identification number on a fence-line feeder, grain cart, or tank wagon. c. A violation of this subsection is a felony punishable as provided in section 321.483. d. This subsection does not prohibit the restoration of an original vehicle identification number, component part number, or other number or mark when the restoration is made by the department, nor prevent a manufacturer from placing, in the ordinary course of business, numbers or marks upon vehicles or component parts. 2. Vehicles without identification numbers. A person who knowingly buys, receives, disposes of, sells, offers for sale, or has in the person's possession a vehicle, or a component part of a vehicle, from which the vehicle identification number, rebuilt identification, or component part number has been removed, defaced, covered, altered, or destroyed for the purpose of concealing or misrepresenting the identity of the vehicle or component part is guilty of a simple misdemeanor.

         Section History: Early Form

         [SS15, § 1571-m12a; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5080; C39, § 5006.09,
      5006.21; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, § 321.80, 321.92;
      C79, 81, § 321.92] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         88 Acts, ch 1089, §7; 2009 Acts, ch 133, §117
         Referred to in § 322.6, 322C.6
         Similar provisions, § 714.8(5)
        

321.93 DEFENSE. Under a charge of possessing a vehicle or component part, the vehicle identification number or component part number of which is defaced, altered, or tampered with, it shall be a complete defense that the accused at the time of such possession had in the accused's possession a certificate of title from the officer whose duty it is to register vehicles and component parts in the state in which the vehicle or component part is registered, showing good and sufficient reason why numbers are defaced, changed, or tampered with, the original vehicle identification number or component part number, and the ownership of the vehicle or component part.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5083; C39, § 5006.22; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.93]
        

321.94 TEST TO DETERMINE TRUE NUMBER. Where it appears that a vehicle identification number or component part number has been altered, defaced or tampered with, any peace officer, or any other person acting under a peace officer's direction, may apply any recognized process or test to the part containing the number for the purpose of determining the true number.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C27, 31, 35, § 5083-b5; C39, § 5006.23; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.94; 81 Acts, ch 103, § 2]
        

321.95 RIGHT OF INSPECTION. 1. Peace officers shall have the authority to inspect any vehicle or component part in possession of a vehicle rebuilder, vehicle salvager, used vehicle parts dealer, or any person licensed under chapter 322, or found upon the public highway or in any public garage, enclosure, or property in which vehicles or component parts are kept for sale, storage, hire, or repair and for that purpose may enter any such public garage, enclosure, or property. Every vehicle rebuilder, vehicle salvager, used vehicle parts dealer, or any person licensed under chapter 322, or a person having used engines or transmissions which are component parts for sale shall keep an accurate and complete record of all vehicles demolished and of such component parts purchased or received for resale as component parts in the course of business. These records shall contain the name and address of the person from whom each such vehicle or component part was purchased or received and the date when the purchase or receipt occurred or the junking certificate if required for the vehicle. These records shall be open for inspection by any peace officer at any time during normal business hours. Records required by this section shall be kept for at least three years after the transaction which they record. 2. A person convicted of a violation of this section is guilty of a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection 14, paragraph "j".

         Sectioistory: Early Form

         [C27, 31, 35, § 5083-b6; C39, § 5006.24; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.95] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2009 Acts, ch 130, §39
         Referred to in § 805.8A(14j)
        

321.96 PROHIBITED PLATES -- CERTIFICATES. A person shall not display or cause or permit to be displayed, or have in the person's possession, a vehicle identification number or component part number except as provided in this chapter, or a canceled, revoked, altered, or fictitious registration number plates, registration receipt, or certificate of title, as the same are respectively provided for in this chapter.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5084; C39, § 5006.25; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.96] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, § 17
        

321.97 FRAUDULENT APPLICATIONS. Any person who fraudulently uses a false or fictitious name in any application for the registration of, or certificate of title to, a vehicle or knowingly makes a false statement or knowingly conceals a material fact or otherwise commits a fraud in any such application is guilty of a fraudulent practice.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m26; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5088; C39, § 5007.01;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.97]
         Referred to in § 322.6, 322C.6
        

321.98 OPERATION WITHOUT REGISTRATION. A person shall not operate, and an owner shall not knowingly permit to be operated upon any highway any vehicle required to be registered and titled hereunder unless there shall be attached thereto and displayed thereon when and as required by this chapter a valid registration card and registration plate or plates issued therefor for the current registration year and unless a certificate of title has been issued for such vehicle except as otherwise expressly permitted in this chapter. Any violation of this section is a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection 2, paragraph "b".

         Sectionstory: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5085; C39, § 5007.02; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.98] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 176, §50, 59
         Referred to in § 322.6, 322C.6, 805.8A(2b)
        

321.99 FRAUDULENT USE OF REGISTRATION. A person shall not knowingly lend to another a registration card, registration plate, special plate, or permit issued to the person if the other person desiring to borrow the card, plate, or permit would not be entitled to the use of it. A person shall not knowingly permit the use of a registration card, registration plate, special plate, or permit issued to the person by one not entitled to it, nor shall a person knowingly display upon a vehicle a registration card, registration plate, special plate, or permit not issued for that vehicle under this chapter. A person convicted of a violation of this section is guilty of a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection 2, paragraph "d".

         Section History: Early Form

         [SS15, § 1571-m12a; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4878, 5080; C39, §
      5007.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.99] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 125, § 2; 86 Acts, ch 1055, § 1; 2000 Acts, ch 1203,
      §4; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5
         Referred to in § 322.6, 322C.6, 805.8A(2d)
        

321.100 FALSE EVIDENCES OF REGISTRATION. It is a fraudulent practice for any person to commit any of the following acts: 1. To alter with a fraudulent intent any certificate of title, manufacturer's or importer's certificate, registration card, registration plate, manufacturer's vehicle identification plate, or permit issued by the department or county treasurer. 2. To forge or counterfeit any such document or plate. 3. To hold or use any such document or plate knowing the same to have been so altered, forged, or falsified. 4. To hold or use any certificate of title, manufacturer's or importer's certificate, registration card, registration plate, manufacturer's vehicle identification plate, or permit issued by the department or county treasurer, for any vehicle to which such document or plate is not legally assigned. 5. To transfer in any manner or to offer to transfer in any manner a certificate of title, manufacturer's or importer's certificate to any vehicle on which a salvage certificate of title or junking certificate is required under section 321.52, with knowledge or reason to believe that the certificate will be used for a vehicle other than the vehicle for which the certificate is issued. "Transfer" for the purposes of this subsection means to sell, exchange, change possession or ownership or convey in any manner.

         Section History: Early Form


         [SS15, § 1571-m12a; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5080; C39, § 5007.04;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.100] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         91 Acts, ch 97, §44
         Referred to in § 322.6, 322C.6
        

321.101 SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION OF REGISTRATION OR CANCELLATION OF CERTIFICATE OF TITLE BY DEPARTMENT. 1. The department is hereby authorized to suspend or revoke the registration of a vehicle, registration card, registration plate, or any nonresident or other permit in any of the following events: a. When the department is satisfied that such registration card, plate, or permit was fraudulently or erroneously issued. b. When the department determines that a registered vehicle is mechanically unfit or unsafe to be operated or moved upon the highways. c. When a registered vehicle has been dismantled or wrecked. d. When the department determines that the required annual registration fee has not been paid and the fee is not paid upon reasonable notice and demand. e. When a registration card, registration plate, or permit is knowingly displayed upon a vehicle other than the one for which issued. f. When the department determines that the owner has committed any offense under this chapter involving the registration card, plate, or permit to be suspended or revoked. g. When the department is so authorized under any other provision of law. h. If a commercial motor vehicle has been assigned to be operated by a commercial motor carrier whose ability to operate has been terminated or denied by a federal agency. 2. The department shall cancel a certificate of title that appears to have been improperly issued or fraudulently obtained or, in the case of a mobile home or manufactured home, if taxes were owing under chapter 435 at the time the certificate was issued and have not been paid. However, before the certificate to a mobile home or manufactured home for which taxes were owing can be canceled, notice and opportunity to pay the taxes must be given to the person to whom the certificate was issued. Upon cancellation of a certificate of title, the department shall notify the county treasurer who issued it, who shall enter the cancellation upon the records. The department shall also notify the person to whom the certificate of title was issued, as well as each lienholder who has a perfected lien, of the cancellation and shall demand the surrender of the certificate of title, but the cancellation shall not affect the validity of any perfected lien. 3. Notice of suspension or revocation of the registration of a vehicle, registration card, registration plate, or any nonresident or other permit under the terms of this section shall be by personal delivery of the notice to the person to be so notified or by certified mail addressed to the person at the person's address as shown on the registration record. A return acknowledgment is not necessary to prove such latter service. 4. If a vehicle, for which the registration has been suspended or revoked pursuant to subsection 1, paragraph "d", or section 321.101A, is transferred to a bona fide purchaser for value without actual knowledge of such suspension or revocation, then the vehicle shall be deemed to be registered and the provisions of sections 321.28 and 321.30, subsection 1, paragraphs "d" and "e", shall not be applicable to such vehicle for the failure of the previous owner to pay the required fees.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5090; C39, § 5007.05; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.101; 82 Acts, ch 1251, § 14] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         95 Acts, ch 55, §5; 99 Acts, ch 188, §12; 2000 Acts, ch 1016, §12;
      2001 Acts, ch 153, §17; 2004 Acts, ch 1013, §19, 35; 2007 Acts, ch
      126, §55; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §84
         Referred to in § 321.30
        

321.101A REVOCATION OF REGISTRATION BY COUNTY TREASURER. The county treasurer may revoke the registration and registration plates of a vehicle if the annual registration fee or the fee for new registration is paid by check, electronic payment, or credit card and the check, electronic payment, or credit card is not honored by the payer's financial institution or credit card company, upon reasonable notice and demand. The owner of the vehicle or person in possession of the registration and registration plates for the vehicle shall immediately return the revoked registration and registration plates to the appropriate county treasurer's office.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2000 Acts, ch 1016, §13; 2006 Acts, ch 1070, §8, 31; 2008 Acts, ch
      1113, §85
         Referred to in § 321.30, 321.101
        

321.102 SUSPENDING OR REVOKING SPECIAL REGISTRATION. The department is also authorized to suspend or revoke a certificate or the special plates issued to a manufacturer, transporter, or dealer upon determining that any said person is not lawfully entitled thereto or has made or knowingly permitted any illegal use of such plates or has committed fraud in the registration of vehicles or failed to give notices of transfer when and as required by this chapter.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5007.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.102]
        

321.103 OWNER TO RETURN EVIDENCES OF REGISTRATION AND TITLE. Whenever the department as authorized hereunder cancels, suspends, or revokes the registration of a vehicle, or certificate of title, or registration card, or registration plate or plates, or any nonresident or other permit or the registration of any dealer, the owner or person in possession of the same shall immediately return the evidences of registration, certificate of title, or plates so canceled, suspended, or revoked to the department.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5007.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.103]
        

321.104 PENAL OFFENSES AGAINST TITLE LAW. It is a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection 2, paragraph "c", for any person to commit any of the following acts: 1. To operate any motor vehicle upon the highways upon which the certificate of title has been canceled, or while a certificate of registration of a motor vehicle is suspended or revoked. 2. For a dealer, or a person acting on behalf of a dealer to acquire, purchase, hold or display for sale a motor vehicle without having obtained a manufacturer's or importer's certificate or a certificate of title, or assignments thereof, unless otherwise provided in this chapter. 3. To fail to surrender a certificate of title, registration card, or registration plates upon cancellation, suspension, or revocation of the certificate or registration by the department and notice as prescribed in this chapter. 4. To sell, offer for sale, or transfer a motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer, except as provided in section 321.47 or 321.48, without obtaining a certificate of title in the name of the seller or transferor or without delivering to the purchaser or transferee a certificate of title or a manufacturer's or importer's certificate duly assigned to the purchaser or transferee as provided in this chapter. 5. To violate any of the other provisions of this chapter or any lawful rules adopted pursuant to this chapter. 6. For a manufactured or mobile home retailer to sell or transfer a mobile home or manufactured home without delivering to the purchaser or transferee a certificate of title or a manufacturer's or importer's certificate properly assigned to the purchaser, or to transfer a mobile home or manufactured home without disclosing to the purchaser the owner of the mobile home or manufactured home in a manner prescribed by the department pursuant to rules, or to fail to apply for and obtain a certificate of title for a used mobile home or manufactured home, titled in Iowa, acquired by the manufactured or mobile home retailer within thirty days from the date of acquisition as required under section 321.45, subsection 4.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m24; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5086; C39, § 5007.08;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.104; 82 Acts,
      ch 1251, § 15] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 195, § 33; 86 Acts, ch 1237, § 20; 87 Acts, ch 130,
      §5; 97 Acts, ch 108, §9; 99 Acts, ch 188, §13; 2000 Acts, ch 1154,
      §23; 2000 Acts, ch 1203, §5; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5; 2001 Acts, ch
      153, §17; 2002 Acts, ch 1119, § 49
         Referred to in § 321.48, 805.8A(2c)
        

321.105 ANNUAL REGISTRATION FEE REQUIRED. 1. An annual registration fee shall be paid for each vehicle operated upon the public highways of this state unless the vehicle is specifically exempted under this chapter. If a vehicle, which has been registered for the current registration year, is transferred during the registration year, the transferee shall reregister the vehicle as provided in section 321.46. 2. The annual registration fee shall be paid to the county treasurer at the same time the application is made for the registration or reregistration of the motor vehicle or trailer. An owner may, when applying for registration or reregistration of a motor vehicle or trailer, request that the plates be mailed to the owner's post office address. The owner's request shall be accompanied by a mailing fee as determined annually by the director in consultation with the Iowa county treasurers association. 3. Upon application by a financial institution, as defined in section 422.61, and approval of the application by the county treasurer, the county treasurer in any county may authorize the financial institution to receive applications for renewal of vehicle registrations and payment of the annual registration fees. The annual registration fees shall be delivered to the county treasurer at the time the county treasurer has processed the vehicle registration application. Annual registration fees received with vehicle registration applications shall be designated as public funds only upon receipt of such funds by the county treasurer from the financial institution. 4. In addition to the payment of an annual registration fee for each trailer and semitrailer to be issued an annual registration plate, an additional registration fee may be paid for a period of two or four subsequent registration years. 5. Seriously disabled veterans who have been provided with an automobile or other vehicle by the United States government under the provisions of § 1901--1903, Title 38 of the United States Code, 38 U.S.C. § 1901 et seq. (1970), shall be exempt from payment of the registration fee provided in this chapter for that vehicle, and shall be provided, without fee, with one set of regular registration plates or one set of any type of special registration plates associated with service in the United States armed forces for which the disabled veteran qualifies under section 321.34. The disabled veteran, to be able to claim the benefit, must be a resident of the state of Iowa. In lieu of the set of regular or special military registration plates available without fee, the disabled veteran may obtain a set of nonmilitary special registration plates or personalized plates issued under section 321.34 by paying the additional fees associated with those plates.

         Section History: Early Form

         [SS15, § 1571-m7; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4904; C39, § 5008.01;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.105] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 12, 38; 83 Acts, ch 123, § 125, 209; 86 Acts,
      ch 1182, § 2; 95 Acts, ch 118, §16; 97 Acts, ch 108, §10; 97 Acts, ch
      121, §3; 2000 Acts, ch 1216, §4; 2008 Acts, ch 1018, §20; 2008 Acts,
      ch 1113, §86
         Referred to in § 25.1, 321.34, 321.105A, 321.145, 321.166, 321L.2,
      326.2, 331.427, 331.557
         Collection of mobile home tax, § 435.24
        

321.105A FEE FOR NEW REGISTRATION. 1. Definitions. The following terms, when used in this section, shall have the following meanings, except in those instances where the context clearly indicates otherwise: a. "Department" means the department of revenue. b. "Director" means the director of revenue. c. "Owner" means as defined in section 321.1. For purposes of the fee for new registration imposed on leased vehicles under subsection 3, "owner" means the "lessor". d. "Purchase" means any transfer, exchange, or barter, conditional or otherwise, in any manner or by any means whatsoever, for consideration. 2. Fee imposed -- exemptions. In addition to the annual registration fee required under section 321.105, a "fee for new registration" is imposed in the amount of five percent of the purchase price for each vehicle subject to registration. The fee for new registration shall be paid by the owner of the vehicle to the county treasurer at the time application is made for a new registration and certificate of title, if applicable. A new registration receipt shall not be issued until the fee has been paid. The county treasurer or the department of transportation shall require every applicant for a new registration receipt for a vehicle subject to registration to supply information as the county treasurer or the director deems necessary as to the time of purchase, the purchase price, and other information relative to the purchase of the vehicle. On or before the tenth day of each month, the county treasurer or the department of transportation shall remit to the department of revenue the amount of the fees for new registration collected during the preceding month. a. For purposes of this subsection, "purchase price" applies to the measure subject to the fee for new registration. "Purchase price" shall be determined in the same manner as "sales price" is determined for purposes of computing the tax imposed upon the sales price of tangible personal property under chapter 423, pursuant to the definition in section 423.1, subsection 47, subject to the following exemptions: (1) Exempted from the purchase price of any vehicle subject to registration is the amount of any cash rebate which is provided by a motor vehicle manufacturer to the purchaser of the vehicle subject to registration so long as the rebate is applied to the purchase price of the vehicle. (2) (a) In transactions, except those subject to subparagraph division (b), in which a vehicle subject to registration is traded toward the purchase price of another vehicle subject to registration, the purchase price is only that portion of the purchase price which is valued in money, whether received in money or not, if the following conditions are met: (i) The vehicle traded to the retailer is the type of vehicle normally sold in the regular course of the retailer's business. (ii) The vehicle traded to the retailer is intended by the retailer to be ultimately sold at retail or is intended to be used by the retailer or another in the remanufacturing of a like vehicle. (b) In a transaction between persons, neither of which is a retailer of vehicles subject to registration, in which a vehicle subject to registration is traded toward the purchase price of another vehicle subject to registration, the amount of the trade-in value allowed on the vehicle subject to registration traded is exempted from the purchase price. (c) In order for the trade-in value to be excluded from the purchase price, the name or names on the title and registration of the vehicle being purchased must be the same name or names on the title and registration of the vehicle being traded. The following trades qualify under this subparagraph division (c): (i) A trade involving spouses, if the traded vehicle and the acquired vehicle are titled in the name of one or both of the spouses, with no outside party named on the title. (ii) A trade involving a grandparent, parent, or child, including adopted and step relationships, if the name of one of the family members from the title of the traded vehicle is also on the title of the newly acquired vehicle. (iii) A trade involving a business, if one of the owners listed on the title of the traded vehicle is a business, and the names on the title are separated by "or". (iv) A trade in which the vehicle being purchased is titled in the name of an individual other than the owner of the traded vehicle due to the cosigning requirements of a financial institution. (3) Exempted from the purchase price of a replacement motor vehicle owned by a motor vehicle dealer licensed under chapter 322 which is being registered by that dealer and is not otherwise exempt from the fee for new registration is the fair market value of a replaced motor vehicle if all of the following conditions are met: (a) The motor vehicle being registered is being placed in service as a replacement motor vehicle for a motor vehicle registered by the motor vehicle dealer. (b) The motor vehicle being registered is taken from the motor vehicle dealer's inventory. (c) Use tax or the fee for new registration on the motor vehicle being replaced was paid by the motor vehicle dealer when that motor vehicle was registered. (d) The replaced motor vehicle is returned to the motor vehicle dealer's inventory for sale. (e) The application for registration and title of the motor vehicle being registered is filed with the county treasurer within two weeks of the date the replaced motor vehicle is returned to the motor vehicle dealer's inventory. (f) The motor vehicle being registered is placed in the same or substantially similar service as the replaced motor vehicle. b. For purposes of this subsection, the fee for new registration on a vehicle registered in this state by the manufacturer of that vehicle from a manufacturer's statement of origin is calculated on the base value of fifty percent of the retail list price of the vehicle. c. The following are exempt from the fee for new registration imposed under this subsection, as long as a valid affidavit is filed with the county treasurer at the time of application for registration: (1) Entities listed in section 423.3, subsections 17, 18, 19, 20, 21, 22, 26, 27, 28, 31, and 79, to the extent that those entities are exempt from the tax imposed on the sale of tangible personal property, consisting of goods, wares, or merchandise, sold at retail in the state to consumers or users. (2) Vehicles as defined in section 321.1, subsections 41, 64A, 71, 85, and 88, except such vehicles subject to registration which are designed primarily for carrying persons, when purchased for lease and actually leased to a lessee for use outside the state of Iowa and the subsequent sole use in Iowa is in interstate commerce or interstate transportation. (3) (a) Vehicles subject to registration which are transferred from a business or individual conducting a business within this state as a sole proprietorship, partnership, or limited liability company to a corporation formed by the sole proprietorship, partnership, or limited liability company for the purpose of continuing the business when all of the stock of the corporation so formed is owned by the sole proprietor and the sole proprietor's spouse, by all the partners in the case of a partnership, or by all the members in the case of a limited liability company. This exemption is equally available where the vehicles subject to registration are transferred from a corporation to a sole proprietorship, partnership, or limited liability company formed by that corporation for the purpose of continuing the business when all of the incidents of ownership are owned by the same person or persons who were stockholders of the corporation. (b) This exemption also applies where the vehicles subject to registration are transferred from a corporation as part of the liquidation of the corporation to its stockholders if within three months of such transfer the stockholders retransfer those vehicles subject to registration to a sole proprietorship, partnership, or limited liability company for the purpose of continuing the business of the corporation when all of the incidents of ownership are owned by the same person or persons who were stockholders of the corporation. (c) This exemption applies to corporations that have been in existence for not longer than twenty-four months. (4) Vehicles subject to registration which are transferred from a corporation that is primarily engaged in the business of leasing vehicles subject to registration to a corporation that is primarily engaged in the business of leasing vehicles subject to registration when the transferor and transferee corporations are part of the same controlled group for federal income tax purposes. (5) (a) Vehicles registered or operated under chapter 326 and used substantially in interstate commerce. For purposes of this subparagraph (5), "substantially in interstate commerce" means that a minimum of twenty-five percent of the miles operated by the vehicle accrues in states other than Iowa. This subparagraph (5) applies only to vehicles which are registered for a gross weight of thirteen tons or more. (b) For purposes of this subparagraph (5), trailers and semitrailers registered or operated under chapter 326 are deemed to be used substantially in interstate commerce and to be registered for a gross weight of thirteen tons or more. (c) For the purposes of this subparagraph (5), if a vehicle meets the requirement that twenty-five percent of the miles operated accrues in states other than Iowa in each year of the first four-year period of operation, the exemption from the fee for new registration shall continue until the vehicle is sold or transferred. If the vehicle is found to have not met the exemption requirements or the exemption was revoked, the value of the vehicle upon which the fee for new registration shall be imposed is based on the original purchase price if revocation or nonqualification for this exemption occurs during the first year following registration. If revocation or nonqualification for this exemption occurs after the first year following registration, the value of the vehicle upon which the fee shall be imposed is the book or market value, whichever is less, at the time the exemption requirements were not met or the exemption was revoked. (6) Vehicles subject to registration in any state when purchased for rental or registered and titled by a motor vehicle dealer licensed pursuant to chapter 322 for rental use, and held for rental for a period of one hundred twenty days or more and actually rented for periods of sixty days or less by a person regularly engaged in the business of renting vehicles including but not limited to motor vehicle dealers licensed pursuant to chapter 322 who rent automobiles to users, if the rental of the vehicles is subject to taxation under chapter 423C. (7) Vehicles subject to registration in this state for which the applicant for registration has paid to another state a state sales, use, or occupational tax. However, if the tax paid to another state is less than the fee for new registration calculated for the vehicle, the difference shall be the amount to be collected as the fee for new registration. (8) A vehicle subject to registration in this state which is owned by a person who has moved from another state with the intention of changing residency to Iowa, provided that the vehicle was purchased for use in the state from which the applicant moved and was not, at or near the time of purchase, purchased for use in Iowa. (9) A vehicle that was previously registered in this state and was subsequently registered in another state is not subject to the fee for new registration when it is again registered in this state, provided that the applicant for registration has maintained ownership of the vehicle since its initial registration in this state and has previously paid the use tax or fee for new registration for the vehicle in this state. (10) Vehicles transferred by operation of law as provided in section 321.47. (11) Vehicles for which ownership is transferred to or from a revocable or irrevocable trust, if no consideration is present. (12) Vehicles transferred to the surviving corporation for no consideration as a result of a corporate merger according to the laws of this state in which the merging corporation is immediately extinguished and dissolved. (13) Vehicles purchased in this state by a nonresident for removal to the nonresident's state of residence if the purchaser applies to the county treasurer for a transit plate under section 321.109. (14) Vehicles purchased by a licensed motor vehicle dealer for resale. (15) Vehicles purchased by a licensed wholesaler of new motor vehicles for resale. (16) Homemade vehicles built from parts purchased at retail, upon which the consumer paid a tax to the seller, but only on such vehicles never before registered. This exemption does not apply for vehicles subject to registration which are made by a manufacturer engaged in the business for the purpose of sales or rental. (17) Vehicles titled under a salvage certificate of title. However, when such a vehicle has been repaired and a regular certificate of title is applied for, the fee for new registration is due as follows: (a) If the owner of the vehicle is a licensed recycler, unless the applicant is licensed as a vehicle dealer, the fee for new registration applies based on the fair market value of the vehicle, with deduction allowed for the cost of parts, supplies, and equipment for which sales tax was paid and which were used to rebuild the vehicle. (b) If the owner is a person who is not licensed as a recycler or vehicle dealer, the fee for new registration applies based on the fair market value of the vehicle, with deduction allowed for the cost of parts, frames, chassis, auto bodies, or supplies that were purchased to rebuild the vehicle and for which sales tax was paid. (18) A vehicle delivered to a resident Native American Indian on the reservation. (19) A vehicle transferred from one individual to another as a gift in a transaction in which no consideration is present. (20) A vehicle given by a corporation as a gift to a retiring employee. (21) A vehicle sold by an entity where the profits from the sale are used by or donated to a nonprofit entity which is exempt from federal income taxation pursuant to section 501(c)(3) of the Internal Revenue Code, a government entity, or a nonprofit private educational institution, and where the entire proceeds from the sale of the vehicle are expended for any of the following purposes: (a) Educational. (b) Religious. (c) Charitable. A charitable act is an act done out of goodwill, benevolence, and a desire to add to or to improve the good of humankind in general or any class or portion of humankind, with no pecuniary profit inuring to the person performing the service or giving the gift. (22) A vehicle given or sold to be subsequently awarded as a raffle prize under chapter 99B. (23) A vehicle won as a raffle prize under chapter 99B. (24) A vehicle that is directly and primarily used in the recycling or reprocessing of waste products. (25) Vehicles subject to registration under this chapter with a gross vehicle weight rating of less than sixteen thousand pounds when purchased for lease and titled by the lessor licensed pursuant to chapter 321F and actually leased for a period of twelve months or more if the lease of the vehicle is subject to the fee for new registration under subsection 3. (a) A lessor may maintain the exemption under this subparagraph (25) for a qualifying lease that terminates at the conclusion or prior to the contracted expiration date if the lessor does not use the vehicle for any purpose other than for lease. (b) Once the vehicle is used by the lessor for a purpose other than for lease, the exemption under this subparagraph (25) no longer applies and, unless there is another exemption from the fee for new registration, the fee for new registration is due on the fair market value of the vehicle determined at the time the lessor uses the vehicle for a purpose other than for lease, payable to the department. (c) If the lessor holds the vehicle exclusively for sale, the fee for new registration is due and payable on the purchase price of the vehicle at the time of purchase pursuant to this subsection. (26) A vehicle repossessed by a licensed vehicle dealer pursuant to the uniform commercial code, chapter 554, provided there is a valid lien on the title and the dealer anticipates reselling the vehicle. (27) A vehicle repossessed by a financial institution or an individual by means of a foreclosure affidavit pursuant to the uniform commercial code, chapter 554, provided there is a valid lien on the vehicle and the foreclosure affidavit is used for the sole purpose of retaining possession of the vehicle until a new buyer is found. However, if the financial institution or individual uses the foreclosure affidavit to take title to the vehicle and register the vehicle, the fee for new registration shall be due based on the outstanding loan amount on the vehicle. (28) A damaged vehicle acquired by an insurance company from a client or financial institution, provided the insurance company has a vehicle dealers license. (29) A vehicle returned to a manufacturer and titled in the manufacturer's name under section 322G.12. (30) A vehicle purchased directly by a federal, state, or local governmental agency and titled in an individual's name pursuant to a governmental program authorized by law. 3. Leased vehicles. a. A fee for new registration is imposed in an amount equal to five percent of the leased price for each vehicle subject to registration with a gross vehicle weight rating of less than sixteen thousand pounds which is leased by a lessor licensed pursuant to chapter 321F for a period of twelve months or more. The fee for new registration shall be paid by the owner of the vehicle to the county treasurer from whom the registration receipt or certificate of title is obtained. A registration receipt for a vehicle subject to registration or issuance of a certificate of title shall not be issued until the fee for new registration is paid in the initial instance. b. The amount of the lease price subject to the fee for new registration shall be computed on each separate lease transaction by taking the total of the lease payments, plus the down payment, and excluding the following charges, if included as part of the lease payment: (1) Title fee. (2) Annual registration fees. (3) Fee for new registration. (4) Federal excise taxes attributable to the sale of the vehicle to the owner or to the lease of the vehicle by the owner. (5) Optional service or warranty contracts subject to tax pursuant to section 423.2, subsection 1. (6) Insurance. (7) Manufacturer's rebate. (8) Refundable deposit. (9) Finance charges, if any, on items listed in subparagraphs (1) through (8). c. If any or all of the items in paragraph "b", subparagraphs (1) through (8), are excluded from the lease price subject to the fee for new registration, the owner shall maintain adequate records of the amounts of those items. If the parties to a lease enter into an agreement providing that the fee for new registration is to be paid by the lessee or included in the monthly lease payments to be paid by the lessee, the total cost of the fee for new registration shall not be included in the computation of the lease price for the purpose of the fee for new registration under this section. The county treasurer or the department of transportation shall require every applicant for a registration receipt for a vehicle subject to a fee for new registration to supply information as the county treasurer or the director deems necessary as to the date of the lease transaction, the lease price, and other information relative to the lease of the vehicle. d. On or before the tenth day of each month, the county treasurer or the department of transportation shall remit to the department of revenue the amount of the fees for new registration collected during the preceding month. e. If the lease is terminated prior to the termination date contained in the lease agreement, no refund shall be allowed for a fee for new registration previously paid under this section, except as provided in section 322G.4. 4. Administration and enforcement -- director of revenue. a. The director of revenue in consultation with the department of transportation shall administer and enforce the fee for new registration as nearly as possible in conjunction with the administration and enforcement of the state use tax law, except that portion of the law which implements the streamlined sales and use tax agreement. b. Section 422.25, subsection 4, sections 422.30, 422.67, and 422.68, section 422.69, subsection 1, sections 422.70, 422.71, 422.72, 422.74, and 422.75, section 423.14, subsection 2, and sections 423.23, 423.24, 423.25, 423.32, 423.33, 423.35, 423.37 through 423.42, 423.45, and 423.47, consistent with the provisions of this section, apply with respect to the fees for new registration authorized under this section in the same manner and with the same effect as if the fees for new registration were retail use taxes within the meaning of those statutes. 5. Collections by dealers. a. If an amount of the fee for new registration represented by a dealer to the purchaser of a vehicle is computed upon a purchase price that is not subject to the fee for new registration or the amount represented is in excess of the actual amount subject to the fee and the amount represented is actually paid by the purchaser to the dealer, the excess amount of fee for new registration paid shall be returned to the purchaser upon notification to the dealer by the department that an excess payment exists. b. If an amount of the fee for new registration represented by a dealer to a purchaser is computed upon a purchase price that is not subject to the fee for new registration or the amount represented is in excess of the actual amount subject to the fee and the amount represented is actually paid by the purchaser to the dealer, the excess amount of fee for new registration paid shall be returned to the purchaser upon proper notification to the dealer by the purchaser that an excess payment exists. "Proper" notification is written notification which allows a dealer at least sixty days to respond and which contains enough information to allow a dealer to determine the validity of a purchaser's claim that an excess amount of fee for new registration has been paid. No cause of action shall accrue against a dealer for excess fee for new registration paid until sixty days after proper notice has been given the dealer by the purchaser. c. In the circumstances described in paragraphs "a" and "b", a dealer has the option to either return any excess amount of fee for new registration paid to a purchaser, or to remit the amount which a purchaser has paid to the dealer to the department. 6. Refunds. a. A fee for new registration is not refundable, except in the following circumstances: (1) If a vehicle is sold and later returned to the seller and the entire purchase price is refunded by the seller, the purchaser is entitled to a refund of the fee for new registration paid. To obtain a refund, the purchaser shall make application on forms provided by the department and show proof that the entire purchase price was returned and that the fee for new registration had been paid. (2) If a vehicle manufacturer reimburses a purchaser for the fee for new registration paid on a returned defective vehicle, the manufacturer may obtain a refund from the department by providing proof that the fee was paid and the purchaser reimbursed in accordance with the provisions of chapter 322G. (3) If the department determines that, as a result of a mistake, an amount of the fee for new registration has been paid which was not due, such amount shall be refunded to the vehicle owner by the department. b. A claim for refund under this subsection that has not been filed with the department within three years after the fee for new registration was paid shall not be allowed by the director. 7. Penalty for false statement. A person who willfully makes a false statement in regard to the purchase price of a vehicle subject to a fee for new registration is guilty of a fraudulent practice. A person who willfully makes a false statement in regard to the purchase price of such a vehicle with the intent to evade payment of the fee for new registration shall be assessed a penalty of seventy-five percent of the amount of the fee unpaid and required to be paid on the actual purchase price less trade-in allowance.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2008 Acts, ch 1113, §40; 2008 Acts, ch 1191, §128; 2009 Acts, ch
      41, §251, 263; 2009 Acts, ch 60, §2, 3; 2009 Acts, ch 179, §122--124
         Referred to in § 312.2, 321.2, 321.20, 321.24, 321.129, 321.145,
      321.152, 322G.12, 331.557
        

321.106 REGISTRATION FOR FRACTIONAL PART OF YEAR. 1. When a vehicle is registered under chapter 326 or a motor truck, truck tractor, or road tractor is registered for a combined gross weight exceeding five tons and there is no delinquency and the registration is made in February or succeeding months through November, the annual registration fee shall be prorated for the remaining unexpired months of the registration year. A fee shall not be required for the month of December for a vehicle registered on a calendar year basis on which there is no delinquency. However, except for a vehicle registered under chapter 326, when such a vehicle is registered in November, the vehicle may be registered for the remaining unexpired months of the registration year or for the remaining unexpired months of the registration year and for the next registration year, upon payment of the applicable registration fees. 2. When a vehicle is registered on a birth month basis and there is no delinquency and the registration is made in the month after the beginning of the registration year or succeeding months, the annual registration fee shall be prorated for the remaining unexpired months of the registration year. A fee shall not be required for the month of the owner's birthday for a vehicle on which there is no delinquency. However, when a vehicle registered on a birth month basis is registered during the eleventh month of the registration year, the vehicle may be registered for the remaining unexpired months of the registration year or for the remaining unexpired months of the registration year and for the next registration year, upon payment of the applicable registration fees. 3. If a fee computed under this section contains a fractional part of a dollar, the fee shall be computed to the nearest whole dollar. A fee computed under this section shall not be less than five dollars. The fee so computed shall be deemed to be the annual registration fee for the remainder of the registration year. 4. A reduction in the annual registration fee shall not be allowed by the department until the applicant files satisfactory evidence to prove that there is no delinquency in registration.

         Section History: Early Form

         [SS15, § 1571-m7; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4905; C39, § 5008.02;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.106] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 13, 38; 83 Acts, ch 24, § 5, 12; 2000 Acts, ch
      1028, §3, 4; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §87
         Referred to in § 321.466, 331.557
        

321.107 Repealed by 82 Acts, ch 1062, § 37, 38.

321.108 Repealed by 83 Acts, ch 24, § 11, 12. Referred to in § 321J.13

321.109 MOTOR VEHICLE FEE -- TRANSIT FEE. 1. a. The annual fee for all motor vehicles including vehicles designated by manufacturers as station wagons, 1993 and subsequent model year multipurpose vehicles, and 2010 and subsequent model year motor trucks with an unladen weight of ten thousand pounds or less, except motor trucks registered under section 321.122, business-trade trucks, special trucks, motor homes, ambulances, hearses, motorcycles, motorized bicycles, and 1992 and older model year multipurpose vehicles, shall be equal to one percent of the value as fixed by the department plus forty cents for each one hundred pounds or fraction thereof of weight of vehicle, as fixed by the department. The weight of a motor vehicle, fixed by the department for registration purposes, shall include the weight of a battery, heater, bumpers, spare tire, and wheel. Provided, however, that for any new vehicle purchased in this state by a nonresident for removal to the nonresident's state of residence the purchaser may make application to the county treasurer in the county of purchase for a transit plate for which a fee of ten dollars shall be paid. And provided, however, that for any used vehicle held by a registered dealer and not currently registered in this state, or for any vehicle held by an individual and currently registered in this state, when purchased in this state by a nonresident for removal to the nonresident's state of residence, the purchaser may make application to the county treasurer in the county of purchase for a transit plate for which a fee of three dollars shall be paid. The county treasurer shall issue a nontransferable certificate of registration for which no refund shall be allowed; and the transit plates shall be void thirty days after issuance. Such purchaser may apply for a certificate of title by surrendering the manufacturer's or importer's certificate or certificate of title, duly assigned as provided in this chapter. In this event, the treasurer in the county of purchase shall, when satisfied with the genuineness and regularity of the application, and upon payment of a fee of twenty dollars, issue a certificate of title in the name and address of the nonresident purchaser delivering the title to the owner. If there is a security interest noted on the title, the county treasurer shall mail to the secured party an acknowledgment of the notation of the security interest. The county treasurer shall not release a security interest that has been noted on a title issued to a nonresident purchaser as provided in this paragraph. The application requirements of section 321.20 apply to a title issued as provided in this subsection, except that a natural person who applies for a certificate of title shall provide either the person's social security number, passport number, or driver's license number, whether the license was issued by this state, another state, or another country. The provisions of this subsection relating to multipurpose vehicles are effective for all 1993 and subsequent model years. The annual registration fee for multipurpose vehicles that are 1992 model years and older shall be in accordance with section 321.124. b. The annual registration fee for a vehicle, otherwise subject to paragraph "a", with permanently installed equipment manufactured for and necessary to assist a person with a disability who is either the owner or a member of the owner's household in entry and exit of the vehicle or for such a vehicle if the vehicle's owner or a member of the vehicle owner's household uses a wheelchair as the only means of mobility shall be sixty dollars. For purposes of this paragraph, "uses a wheelchair" does not include use of a wheelchair due to a temporary injury or medical condition. 2. Dealers may, in addition to other provisions of this section, purchase from the department in-transit permits, for which a fee of two dollars per permit shall be paid at time of purchase. One such permit shall be displayed on each vehicle purchased from a dealer by a nonresident for removal to the state of the nonresident's residence, and one such permit shall also be displayed on each vehicle not currently registered in Iowa and purchased by an Iowa dealer for removal to the dealer's place of business in this state. The permits shall be void fifteen days after issuance by the selling dealer. Each permit shall contain the following information: a. The words "in-transit" in bold type. b. The dealer's license number. c. The date issued. d. The purchaser's name and address. e. The word "Iowa" in bold type. f. The words "good for fifteen days after the date of issuance". g. Other information the director requires. The sales invoice verifying the sale shall be in the possession of the driver of the vehicle in transit and shall be signed by the owner or an authorized individual of the issuing dealership. Motor vehicles brought into the state on a transit sticker for the purpose of installation of special equipment may also be subject to the provisions of this subsection. 3. The owner of an unregistered motor vehicle or motor vehicle for which the registration is delinquent may make application to the county treasurer of the county of residence or, if the unregistered or delinquent motor vehicle is purchased by a nonresident of the state, to the county treasurer in the county of purchase, for a temporary thirty-day permit for a fee of twenty-five dollars. The permit shall authorize the motor vehicle to be driven or towed upon the highway, but shall not authorize a motor truck or truck tractor to haul or tow a load. The permit fee shall not be considered a registration fee or exempt the owner from payment of all other fees, registration fees, and penalties due. If the annual registration fee for the motor vehicle is delinquent, the annual registration fee and penalty shall continue to accrue until paid. The permit fee shall not be prorated, refunded, or used as credit as provided under section 321.46. The permit shall be displayed in the upper left-hand corner of the rear window of all motor vehicles, except motorcycles. Permits issued for a motorcycle shall be attached to the rear of the motorcycle.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4908; C39, § 5008.05; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.109] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1305, § 60; 88 Acts, ch 1007, § 1; 92 Acts, ch 1019, §
      1, 8; 92 Acts, ch 1222, § 1; 92 Acts, ch 1232, § 401, 412; 93 Acts,
      ch 165, § 1; 96 Acts, ch 1129, § 113; 96 Acts, ch 1152, § 4; 2004
      Acts, ch 1013, §20, 35; 2005 Acts, ch 8, §12, 13; 2006 Acts, ch 1068,
      §16, 41; 2008 Acts, ch 1042, §1; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §3, 11, 20, 21,
      88
         Referred to in § 312.2, 321.17, 321.34, 321.105A, 321.110,
      321.113, 321.115A, 321.122, 321.124, 331.557
        

321.110 REJECTING FRACTIONAL DOLLARS. When the annual registration fee, computed according to section 321.109, subsection 1, totals a fraction over a certain number of dollars the fee shall be arrived at by computing to the nearest even dollar.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C27, 31, 35, § 4908-a1; C39, § 5008.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.110] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2008 Acts, ch 1113, §89
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.111 CONVERSION OF CAR -- EFFECT. Any motor vehicle originally registered as a passenger car and thereafter converted into a truck with a loading capacity of less than one thousand pounds, shall be registered as a passenger car.

         Section History: Early Form


         [C35, § 4908-g1; C39, § 5008.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71,
      73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.111]
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.112 MINIMUM MOTOR VEHICLE FEE. No motor vehicle, except as provided in section 321.117, shall be registered for a registration year for less than ten dollars.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4909; C39, § 5008.08; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.112] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 14, 38; 2007 Acts, ch 143, §11, 35; 2008 Acts,
      ch 1124, §37
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.113 AUTOMATIC REDUCTION. 1. The annual registration fee for a motor vehicle shall not be automatically reduced under this section unless the fee is based on the value and weight of the motor vehicle as provided in section 321.109, subsection 1. 2. If a motor vehicle is more than seven model years old, the part of the annual registration fee that is based on the value of the vehicle shall be seventy-five percent of the rate as fixed when the motor vehicle was new and the total fee shall not be less than fifty dollars; except that if the registration is a renewal for a vehicle registered to the same owner prior to January 1, 2009, the annual registration fee shall not be more than the fee paid for the previous registration year. 3. If a motor vehicle is more than nine model years old, the part of the annual registration fee that is based on the value of the vehicle shall be fifty percent of the rate as fixed when the motor vehicle was new and the total fee shall not be less than fifty dollars; except that if the registration is a renewal for a vehicle registered to the same owner prior to January 1, 2009, the annual registration fee shall not be more than the fee paid for the previous registration year. 4. a. Except as provided in paragraph "b", if a motor vehicle is twelve model years old or older, the annual registration fee is fifty dollars; except that if the registration is a renewal for a vehicle registered to the same owner prior to January 1, 2009, the annual registration fee shall not be more than the fee paid for the previous registration year. b. If the registration is a renewal for a motor vehicle registered as an antique vehicle by the same owner prior to January 1, 2009, the annual registration fee shall be twenty-three dollars for a motor vehicle that is model year 1970 through 1983 and sixteen dollars for a motor vehicle that is model year 1969 or older. c. For purposes of determining the portion of an annual registration fee under paragraph "a" or "b" that is based upon the value of the motor vehicle, sixty percent of the annual registration fee is attributable to the value of the vehicle.

         Section History: Early Form

         [SS15, § 1571-m7; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4910; C39, § 5008.09;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.113] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 15, 38; 2001 Acts, ch 132, §4, 24; 2001 Acts,
      ch 176, §65; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §4, 11, 90
         Referred to in § 321.115, 321.115A, 331.557
        

321.114 Repealed by 82 Acts, ch 1062, § 37, 38.

321.115 ANTIQUE VEHICLES -- MODEL YEAR PLATES PERMITTED. 1. a. A motor vehicle twenty-five years old or older may be registered as an antique vehicle. The annual registration fee is the fee provided in section 321.113, 321.122, or 321.124. b. The owner of a motor truck, truck tractor, road tractor, or motor home that is twenty-five years old or older who desires to use the vehicle exclusively for exhibition or educational purposes at state or county fairs, or at other places where the vehicle may be exhibited for entertainment or educational purposes, may register the vehicle as a "limited use" vehicle in accordance with sections 321.58 through 321.62. The "limited use" registration under this paragraph permits driving of the vehicle upon the public roads to and from state and county fairs or other places of entertainment or education for exhibition or educational purposes and to and from service stations for the purpose of receiving necessary maintenance, or for the purposes of transporting, testing, demonstrating, or selling the vehicle. c. The owner of a motor vehicle registered under this subsection may display authentic Iowa registration plates from the model year of the motor vehicle, furnished by the person and approved by the department, in lieu of the current and valid Iowa registration plates issued for the vehicle, provided that the current and valid Iowa registration plates and the registration card issued for the vehicle are simultaneously carried within the vehicle and are available for inspection to any peace officer upon the officer's request. 2. The sale of a motor vehicle twenty years old or older which is primarily of value as a collector's item and not as transportation is not subject to chapter 322, and any person may sell such a vehicle at retail without a license as required under chapter 322. 3. Truck tractors and semitrailers used in combination for exhibition and educational purposes may be registered and driven according to the provisions of subsection 1. Truck tractors and semitrailers registered under this section shall not be used to haul loads. 4. A person convicted of a violation of this section is guilty of a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection 2, paragraph "b".

         Sectionstory: Early Form

         [C35, § 4911-f1; C39, § 5008.11; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71,
      73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.115] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 101, § 1; 88 Acts, ch 1204, § 1; 92 Acts, ch 1175, §
      31; 97 Acts, ch 104, §13; 2000 Acts, ch 1203, §6; 2001 Acts, ch 137,
      §5; 2006 Acts, ch 1068, §17; 2007 Acts, ch 143, §12, 35; 2008 Acts,
      ch 1113, §120, 131; 2008 Acts, ch 1124, §35, 37; 2008 Acts, ch 1191,
      §136
         Referred to in § 321.24, 321.52, 321.438, 331.557, 805.8A(2b)
        

321.115A REPLICA VEHICLES AND STREET RODS -- MODEL YEAR PLATES PERMITTED -- PENALTY. 1. A motor vehicle may be registered as a replica vehicle or street rod upon payment of the fee provided for in section 321.109, 321.113, 321.122, or 321.124. The owner of a vehicle registered under this section may display registration plates from or representing the model year of the motor vehicle or the model year of the motor vehicle the registered vehicle is designed to resemble, furnished by the person and approved by the department, in lieu of the current and valid Iowa registration plates issued for the vehicle, provided that the current and valid Iowa registration plates and the registration card issued for the vehicle are simultaneously carried within the vehicle and are available for inspection to any peace officer upon the officer's request. 2. Truck tractors and semitrailers registered under this section shall not be used to haul loads. 3. A person convicted of a violation of this section is guilty of a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection 2, paragraph "b".

         Sectionstory: Recent Form

         2008 Acts, ch 1044, §6, 8
         Referred to in § 805.8A(2b)
        

321.116 ELECTRIC AUTOMOBILES. For an electric motor vehicle the annual fee is twenty-five dollars. However, if an electric motor vehicle is more than five model years old, the annual registration fee is fifteen dollars. This section does not apply to low-speed vehicles that are electric.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C27, 31, 35, § 4911-b1; C39, § 5008.12; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.116] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 16, 38; 84 Acts, ch 1067, § 32; 2000 Acts, ch
      1005, §3
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.117 MOTORCYCLE, AMBULANCE, AND HEARSE FEES. For all motorcycles the annual registration fee shall be twenty dollars. For all motorized bicycles the annual registration fee shall be seven dollars. When the motorcycle is more than five model years old, the annual registration fee shall be ten dollars. The annual registration fee for ambulances and hearses shall be fifty dollars. Passenger car plates shall be issued for ambulances and hearses.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4912; C39, § 5008.13; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.117] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 17, 38; 84 Acts, ch 1305, § 61; 2008 Acts, ch
      1113, §91
         Referred to in § 321.112, 331.557
        

321.118 Repealed by 91 Acts, ch 56, § 2.

321.119 CHURCH BUSES. For motor vehicles designed to carry nine passengers or more which are owned and used exclusively by a church or religious organization to transport passengers to and from activities of or sponsored by the church or religious organization and not operated for rent or hire for purposes unrelated to the activities of the church or religious organization, the annual registration fee shall be twenty-five dollars.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C81, § 321.119] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1305, § 62; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §92
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.120 BUSINESS-TRADE TRUCKS. 1. The annual registration fee for a business-trade truck shall be determined pursuant to section 321.122, subsection 1, paragraph "a". 2. Upon application for a new registration, an owner who registers a motor vehicle as a business-trade truck shall be required to provide proof or affirm that the vehicle meets the definition of a business-trade truck. The department may adopt rules as necessary to prescribe the documentation required of the applicant as proof or affirmation under this subsection but shall not require that such documentation be notarized. If requested by the department of transportation or a county treasurer, the department of revenue shall confirm or refute, according to the most recent records available, that an applicant for registration of a business-trade truck is either a corporation, limited liability company, or partnership or a person who files a schedule C or schedule F form for federal income tax purposes and that the corporation, limited liability company, partnership, or person is allowed a depreciation deduction with respect to the vehicle under section 167 of the Internal Revenue Code. 3. Upon approval of the application and payment of the proper fees, the county treasurer shall issue registration plates for the vehicle which distinguish the vehicle as a business-trade truck. 4. If the department determines by audit or other means that a person has registered a vehicle as a business-trade truck that is not qualified for such registration, the person shall be required to pay the difference between the regular annual registration fees owed for the vehicle for each year the vehicle was registered in violation of this section and the fees actually paid. 5. If the department determines by audit or other means that the person had knowingly registered a vehicle as a business-trade truck that is not qualified for such registration, the person shall be required to pay a penalty for improper registration in the amount of seven hundred fifty dollars for each registration year in which the vehicle was registered in violation of this section, not to exceed two thousand two hundred fifty dollars.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2008 Acts, ch 1113, §5, 11
         Referred to in § 321.152, 331.557, 422.20, 422.72
        

321.121 SPECIAL TRUCKS FOR FARM USE. 1. a. Except as provided in paragraph "b", the annual registration fee for a special truck with a gross weight of six tons shall be one hundred dollars, and the annual registration fee for a special truck with a gross weight exceeding six tons but not exceeding eighteen tons shall be as follows: For a gross And not The annual weight exceeding: registration exceeding: fee shall be: 6 Tons .................... 7 Tons .................... $125 7 Tons .................... 8 Tons .................... $155 8 Tons .................... 9 Tons .................... $170 9 Tons .................... 10 Tons .................... $190 10 Tons .................... 11 Tons .................... $205 11 Tons .................... 12 Tons .................... $225 12 Tons .................... 13 Tons .................... $245 13 Tons .................... 14 Tons .................... $265 14 Tons .................... 15 Tons .................... $280 15 Tons .................... 16 Tons .................... $295 16 Tons .................... 17 Tons .................... $305 17 Tons .................... 18 Tons .................... $315 b. If the registration is a renewal for a special truck registered to the same owner prior to January 1, 2009, the annual registration fee shall be eighty dollars for a gross weight of six tons, one hundred dollars for a gross weight of seven tons, one hundred twenty dollars for a gross weight of eight tons, and in addition, fifteen dollars for each ton over eight tons and not exceeding eighteen tons. c. The annual registration fee for a special truck with a gross weight registration exceeding eighteen tons but not exceeding nineteen tons shall be three hundred twenty-five dollars and for a gross weight registration exceeding nineteen tons but not exceeding twenty tons the annual registration fee shall be three hundred seventy-five dollars. d. The additional annual registration fee for a special truck for a gross weight registration in excess of twenty tons is twenty-five dollars for each ton over twenty tons and not exceeding thirty-two tons. 2. A person convicted of or found by audit to be using a motor vehicle registered as a special truck for any purpose other than permitted by section 321.1, subsection 76, shall, in addition to any other penalty imposed by law, be required to pay regular annual motor vehicle registration fees for such motor vehicle.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.121; 81 Acts 2d Ex, ch 2, § 6] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 18, 38; 86 Acts, ch 1210, § 3; 2008 Acts, ch
      1113, §6, 11, 93
         Referred to in § 321.134, 331.557
        

321.122 TRUCKS, TRUCK TRACTORS, AND ROAD TRACTORS -- FEES. 1. The annual registration fee for truck tractors, road tractors, and motor trucks, except 2010 and subsequent model year motor trucks required to be registered under section 321.109 and motor trucks registered as special trucks, shall be based on the combined gross weight of the vehicle or combination of vehicles. All such trucks, truck tractors, or road tractors registered under this section shall be registered for a gross weight equal to or in excess of the unladen weight of the vehicle or combination of vehicles. The annual registration fee for such vehicles or combination of vehicles, except special trucks, shall be the applicable fee under paragraph "a" or "b". a. (1) For a combined gross weight of three tons or less, the annual registration fee is one hundred fifty dollars; for such a vehicle more than seven model years old, one hundred twenty dollars; for such a vehicle more than nine model years old, one hundred dollars; and for such a vehicle twelve model years old or older, fifty dollars. (2) For a combined gross weight exceeding three tons, the annual registration fee shall be as set forth in the following schedule: For a combined And not The annual gross weight exceeding: registration exceeding: fee shall be: 3 Tons .................... 4 Tons .................... $ 165 4 Tons .................... 5 Tons .................... $ 180 5 Tons .................... 6 Tons .................... $ 195 6 Tons .................... 7 Tons .................... $ 215 7 Tons .................... 8 Tons .................... $ 220 8 Tons .................... 9 Tons .................... $ 225 9 Tons .................... 10 Tons .................... $ 235 10 Tons .................... 11 Tons .................... $ 270 11 Tons .................... 12 Tons .................... $ 305 12 Tons .................... 13 Tons .................... $ 340 13 Tons .................... 14 Tons .................... $ 375 14 Tons .................... 15 Tons .................... $ 445 15 Tons .................... 16 Tons .................... $ 485 16 Tons .................... 17 Tons .................... $ 525 17 Tons .................... 18 Tons .................... $ 565 18 Tons .................... 19 Tons .................... $ 610 19 Tons .................... 20 Tons .................... $ 675 20 Tons .................... 21 Tons .................... $ 715 21 Tons .................... 22 Tons .................... $ 755 22 Tons .................... 23 Tons .................... $ 795 23 Tons .................... 24 Tons .................... $ 835 24 Tons .................... 25 Tons .................... $ 965 25 Tons .................... 26 Tons .................... $1,010 26 Tons .................... 27 Tons .................... $1,060 27 Tons .................... 28 Tons .................... $1,105 28 Tons .................... 29 Tons .................... $1,150 29 Tons .................... 30 Tons .................... $1,200 30 Tons .................... 31 Tons .................... $1,245 31 Tons .................... 32 Tons .................... $1,295 32 Tons .................... 33 Tons .................... $1,340 33 Tons .................... 34 Tons .................... $1,415 34 Tons .................... 35 Tons .................... $1,465 35 Tons .................... 36 Tons .................... $1,510 36 Tons .................... 37 Tons .................... $1,555 37 Tons .................... 38 Tons .................... $1,605 38 Tons .................... 39 Tons .................... $1,650 39 Tons .................... 40 Tons .................... $1,695 b. If the registration is a renewal for a motor vehicle with a combined gross weight of nine tons or less registered to the same owner prior to January 1, 2009, the following applies: (1) For a combined gross weight of three tons or less, the annual registration fee is sixty-five dollars; for such a vehicle which is more than ten model years old, fifty-five dollars; for such a vehicle which is more than thirteen model years old, forty-five dollars; and for such a vehicle which is more than fifteen model years old, thirty-five dollars. (2) For a combined gross weight exceeding three tons but not exceeding nine tons, the annual registration fee shall be as set forth in the following schedule: For a combined And not The annual gross weight exceeding: registration exceeding: fee shall be: 3 Tons .................... 4 Tons .................... $ 80 4 Tons .................... 5 Tons .................... $ 90 5 Tons .................... 6 Tons .................... $105 6 Tons .................... 7 Tons .................... $130 7 Tons .................... 8 Tons .................... $165 8 Tons .................... 9 Tons .................... $200 c. For a combined gross weight exceeding forty tons, the annual registration fee shall be one thousand six hundred ninety-five dollars plus eighty dollars for each ton over forty tons. 2. For truck tractors or road tractors equipped with two or more solid rubber tires, the annual registration fee shall be the fee for truck tractors or road tractors with pneumatic tires and of the same combined gross weight, plus twenty-five percent thereof. 3. This section shall not apply to a rubber-tired farm tractor not operated for hire upon the public highways.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4919-d1; C39, § 5008.18; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.122] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 19, 38; 86 Acts, ch 1182, § 3; 86 Acts, ch
      1210, § 4; 88 Acts, ch 1019, § 11, 12; 90 Acts, ch 1233, § 17; 95
      Acts, ch 118, §17; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §7, 11, 23, 25
         Referred to in § 321.109, 321.115, 321.115A, 321.120, 321.134,
      321E.12, 331.557
        

321.123 TRAILERS. 1. a. All trailers except farm trailers, mobile homes, and manufactured homes, unless otherwise provided in this section, are subject to an annual registration fee as follows: (1) For trailers with an empty weight of two thousand pounds or less, the annual registration fee is twenty dollars. (2) For trailers with an empty weight in excess of two thousand pounds, the annual registration fee is thirty dollars. b. Trailers for which the empty weight is two thousand pounds or less are exempt from the certificate of title and lien provisions of this chapter. c. For trailers and semitrailers licensed under chapter 326, the annual registration fee for the permanent registration plate shall be the applicable fee under paragraph "a". The registration fees for a permanent registration plate, at the option of the registrant, shall be remitted to the department at five-year intervals or on an annual basis. Fees collected under this section shall not be reduced or prorated under chapter 326. 2. a. Travel trailers and fifth-wheel travel trailers, except those in manufacturer's or dealer's stock, shall be subject to an annual registration fee of thirty cents per square foot of floor space computed on the exterior overall measurements, but excluding three feet occupied by any trailer hitch as provided by and certified to by the owner, to the nearest whole dollar. When a travel trailer or fifth-wheel travel trailer is registered in Iowa for the first time or when title is transferred, the annual registration fee shall be prorated on a monthly basis. The annual registration fee shall be reduced to seventy-five percent of the full fee after the vehicle is more than six model years old. b. A travel trailer may be stored under section 321.134, provided the travel trailer is not used for human habitation for any period during storage and is not moved upon the highways of the state. A travel trailer stored under section 321.134 is not subject to a manufactured or mobile home tax assessed under chapter 435. 3. Motor trucks or truck tractors pulling trailers or semitrailers shall be registered for the combined gross weight of the motor truck or truck tractor and trailer or semitrailer, except that: a. Motor trucks registered for six tons or less not used for hire, pulling trailers or semitrailers used by a person engaged in farming to transport commodities produced by the owner, or to transport commodities or livestock purchased by the owner for use in the owner's own farming operation or used by any person to transport horses shall not be subject to registration for the gross weight of such trailer or semitrailer provided the combined gross weight does not exceed twelve tons, plus the tolerance provided for in section 321.466. b. Motor trucks registered for six tons or less not used for hire, pulling trailers or semitrailers used by a person in the person's own operations shall not be subject to registration for the gross weight of such trailer or semitrailer provided the combined gross weight does not exceed eight tons, plus the tolerance provided for in section 321.466.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4920; C39, § 5008.19; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.123; 82 Acts, ch 1251, § 16--18] 

         Section History: Recent Form


         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 20, 38; 84 Acts, ch 1305, § 63; 89 Acts, ch
      296, §29; 95 Acts, ch 118, §18; 96 Acts, ch 1152, § 5, 6; 99 Acts, ch
      188, §14; 2000 Acts, ch 1016, §14; 2001 Acts, ch 153, §15, 17; 2001
      Acts, ch 176, §80; 2006 Acts, ch 1070, §9, 31; 2008 Acts, ch 1113,
      §24, 25, 94, 95
         Referred to in § 312.2, 321.310, 331.557
        

321.124 MOTOR HOMES AND MULTIPURPOSE VEHICLES -- FEES. 1. Motor homes are classified as follows: a. Class A motor home means a truck chassis or special chassis upon which is built a driver's compartment and an entire body which provides temporary living quarters. A class A motor home shall also mean a passenger carrying bus which has been registered at least five times as a motor truck and which has been converted, modified, or altered to provide temporary living quarters. b. Class B motor home means a completed van-type vehicle which has been converted, modified, constructed, or altered to provide temporary living quarters. c. Class C motor home means an incomplete vehicle upon which is permanently attached a body designed to provide temporary living quarters. 2. Class A motor homes and class C motor homes are exempt from the provisions of section 322.5, subsection 2, except that a motor vehicle dealer showing class A motor homes and class C motor homes shall apply for a temporary permit upon forms and for such time as provided in section 322.5, subsection 2, and the department may issue the temporary permit upon payment of the fee provided therein. 3. The annual registration fee for motor homes and 1992 and older model years for multipurpose vehicles is as follows: a. For class A motor homes with a list price of eighty thousand dollars or more as certified to the department by the manufacturer, four hundred dollars for registration each year through five model years and three hundred dollars for each succeeding registration. b. For class A motor homes with a list price of forty thousand dollars or more but less than eighty thousand dollars as certified to the department by the manufacturer, two hundred dollars for registration each year through five model years and one hundred fifty dollars for each succeeding registration. c. For class A motor homes with a list price of twenty thousand dollars or more but less than forty thousand dollars as certified to the department by the manufacturer, one hundred forty dollars for the first five registrations and one hundred five dollars for each succeeding registration. d. For class A motor homes with a list price of less than twenty thousand dollars as certified to the department by the manufacturer, one hundred twenty dollars for registration each year through five model years and eighty-five dollars for each succeeding registration. e. For a class A motor home which is a passenger- carrying bus which has been registered at least five times as a motor truck and which has been converted, modified, or altered to provide temporary living quarters, ninety dollars for registration each year through ten model years and sixty- five dollars for each succeeding registration. In computing the number of registrations, the registrations shall be cumulative beginning with the registration of the class A motor home as a motor truck prior to its conversion, modification, or alteration to provide temporary living quarters. f. For class B motor homes, ninety dollars for registration each year through five model years and sixty-five dollars for each succeeding registration. g. For class C motor homes, one hundred ten dollars for registration each year through five model years and eighty dollars for each succeeding registration. h. For multipurpose vehicles in accordance with the following: (1) Two hundred dollars for registration for the first and second model years. (2) One hundred seventy-five dollars for registration for the third and fourth model years. (3) One hundred fifty dollars for registration for the fifth model year. (4) Seventy-five dollars for registration for the sixth model year. (5) Fifty-five dollars for registration for each succeeding model year. (6) The annual registration fee for a multipurpose vehicle with permanently installed equipment manufactured for and necessary to assist a person with a disability who is either the owner or a member of the owner's household in entry and exit of the vehicle or for a multipurpose vehicle if the vehicle's owner or a member of the vehicle owner's household uses a wheelchair as the only means of mobility shall be sixty dollars. For purposes of this subparagraph, "uses a wheelchair" does not include use of a wheelchair due to a temporary injury or medical condition. The registration fees required by this lettered paragraph are applicable to all 1992 and older model years for multipurpose vehicles beginning January 1, 1993. The registration fees for multipurpose vehicles that are 1993 and subsequent model years shall be in accordance with section 321.109. For purposes of determining that portion of the annual registration fee which is based upon the value of the multipurpose vehicle, sixty percent of the annual fee is attributable to the value of the vehicle.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C81, § 321.124] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 21, 38; 83 Acts, ch 75, § 1, 2; 92 Acts, ch
      1019, § 2, 8; 92 Acts, ch 1222, § 2; 92 Acts, ch 1232, § 402, 412; 93
      Acts, ch 165, § 2; 96 Acts, ch 1129, § 113
         Referred to in § 321.1, 321.109, 321.115, 321.115A, 322.2, 322E.1,
      331.557
        

321.125 EFFECT OF EXEMPTION. The exemption of a motor vehicle from an annual registration fee or a fee for new registration shall not exempt the operator of such vehicle from the performance of any other duty imposed on the operator by this chapter.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4923; C39, § 5008.21; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.125] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2008 Acts, ch 1113, §96
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.126 REFUNDS OF ANNUAL REGISTRATION FEES. Refunds of unexpired annual vehicle registration fees shall be allowed in accordance with this section, except that no refund shall be allowed and paid if the unused portion of the fee is less than ten dollars. Subsections 1 and 2 do not apply to vehicles registered by the county treasurer. The refunds shall be made as follows: 1. If the vehicle is destroyed by fire or accident, or junked and its identity as a vehicle entirely eliminated, the owner in whose name the vehicle was registered at the time of destruction or dismantling shall return the plates to the department and within thirty days thereafter make a statement of such destruction or dismantling and make claim for refund. With reference to the destruction or dismantling of a vehicle, no refund shall be allowed unless a junking certificate has been issued, as provided in section 321.52. 2. If the vehicle is stolen, the owner shall give notice of the theft to the department within five days. If the vehicle is not recovered by the owner thirty days prior to the end of the current registration year, the owner shall make a statement of the theft and make claim for refund. 3. If the vehicle is placed in storage by the owner upon the owner's entry into the military service of the United States, the owner shall return the plates to the county treasurer or the department and make a statement regarding the storage and military service and make claim for refund. Whenever the owner of a vehicle so placed in storage desires to again register the vehicle, the county treasurer or department shall compute and collect the fees for registration for the registration year commencing in the month the vehicle is removed from storage. 4. If the vehicle is registered by the county treasurer during the current registration year and the owner or lessee registers the vehicle for proportional registration under chapter 326, the owner of the registered vehicle shall surrender the registration plates to the county treasurer and may file a claim for refund. In lieu of a refund, a credit for the annual registration fees paid to the county treasurer may be applied by the department to the owner or lessee's proportional registration fees upon the surrender of the county plates and registration. 5. A refund for trailers and semitrailers issued a multiyear registration plate shall be paid by the department upon application. 6. If a vehicle is sold or junked, the owner in whose name the vehicle was registered may make claim to the county treasurer or department for a refund of the sold or junked vehicle's annual registration fee. Also if the owner of a vehicle receives a vehicle registration fee credit under section 321.46, subsection 3, and the credit allowed exceeds the amount of the annual registration fee for the vehicle acquired, the owner may claim a refund for the balance of the credit. The refund is subject to the following limitations: a. If a vehicle registration fee credit has not been received by the owner of the vehicle under section 321.46, subsection 3, the refund shall be computed on the basis of the number of unexpired months remaining in the registration year at the time the vehicle was sold or junked. The refund shall be rounded to the nearest whole dollar. Section 321.127, subsection 1, does not apply. b. The refund shall only be allowed if the owner makes claim for the refund within six months after the date of the vehicle's sale, trade, or junking. c. This subsection does not apply to vehicles registered under chapter 326. 7. If the vehicle was leased and an affidavit was filed by the lessor or the lessee as provided in section 321.46, the lessor or the lessee, as applicable, may make a claim for a refund with the county treasurer of the county where the vehicle was registered within six months of the vehicle's surrender to the lessor. The refund shall be paid to either the lessor or the lessee, as specified on the application for title and registration pursuant to section 321.20. 8. If the owner of the vehicle moves out of state, the owner may make a claim for a refund by returning the Iowa registration plates, along with evidence of the vehicle's registration in another jurisdiction, to the county treasurer of the county in which the vehicle was registered within six months of the out-of-state registration. For purposes of section 321.127, the unexpired months remaining in the registration year shall be calculated on the basis of the effective date of the out-of-state registration. However, for the purpose of timely issuance of the refund, the claim for a refund under this subsection is considered to be filed on the date the registration documents are received by the county treasurer. 9. Notwithstanding any provision of this section to the contrary, there shall be no refund of proportional registration fees unless the state which issued the base plate for the vehicle allows such refund. If an owner subject to proportional registration leases the vehicle for which the refund is sought, the claim shall be filed in the names of both the lessee and the lessor and the refund payment made payable to both the lessor and the lessee. The term "owner" for purposes of this section shall include a person in whom is vested right of possession or control of a vehicle which is subject to a lease, contract, or other legal arrangement vesting right of possession or control in addition to the term as defined in section 321.1, subsection 49.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4924; C39, § 5008.22; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.126] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 22, 23, 38; 85 Acts, ch 87, § 4, 5; 87 Acts,
      ch 108, § 7; 90 Acts, ch 1154, § 6--11; 92 Acts, ch 1073, § 3; 95
      Acts, ch 118, § 19, 40; 2004 Acts, ch 1013, §21, 35; 2005 Acts, ch
      133, §1; 2006 Acts, ch 1068, §18; 2006 Acts, ch 1070, §10, 11, 31;
      2008 Acts, ch 1113, §97
         Referred to in § 321.46, 321.128, 326.15, 331.557
        

321.127 PAYMENT OF REFUND. 1. The refund of the annual registration fee for vehicles shall be computed on the basis of the number of unexpired months remaining in the registration year from date of filing of the claim for refund with the county treasurer, computed to the nearest dollar. 2. The department, unless reasonable grounds exist for delay, shall make refund on or before the last day of the month following the month in which the claim is filed with the department. 3. For trailers or semitrailers issued a multiyear registration plate a refund shall be paid equal to the annual fee for twelve months times the remaining number of complete registration years. 4. Refunds for vehicles registered for proportional registration under chapter 326 shall be paid on the basis of unexpired complete calendar months remaining in the registration year from the date the claim for refund, license plate, and registration receipt are received by the department.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4924; C39, § 5008.23; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.127; 81 Acts, ch 104, § 1] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 24, 38; 85 Acts, ch 87, §6; 87 Acts, ch 108,
      §8; 2002 Acts, ch 1063, §22; 2006 Acts, ch 1070, §12, 31; 2008 Acts,
      ch 1113, §98
         Referred to in § 321.126, 321.128, 331.557
        

321.128 PAYMENT AUTHORIZED. The department may make the payments under sections 321.126 and 321.127, when sufficient proof of such destruction by accident, or the junking and entire elimination of identity as a motor vehicle, theft, or storage by an owner entering the military service of the United States in time of war, is properly certified, approved by the county treasurer, and filed with the department.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4925; C39, § 5008.24; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.128] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 24, § 10, 12
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.129 WHEN FEES RETURNABLE. 1. Whenever any application to the department is accompanied by a vehicle registration fee as required by law and the application is refused or rejected, the fee shall be returned to the applicant. 2. Whenever the department through error collects any vehicle registration fee not required to be paid under this chapter, the fee shall be refunded from the refund account to the person paying the fee upon application made within one year after the date of such payment. 3. This section does not apply to the fee for new registration administered by the department of revenue pursuant to section 321.105A.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5012.11; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.173] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2008 Acts, ch 1018, §21, 30; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §121
         C2009, §321.129
         Referred to in § 331.357 

         Footnotes

         Section transferred from § 321.173 in Code 2009 pursuant to
      directive in 2008 Acts, ch 1018, § 30
        

321.130 FEES IN LIEU OF TAXES. The registration fees imposed by this chapter upon private passenger motor vehicles or semitrailers are in lieu of all state and local taxes, except local vehicle taxes, to which motor vehicles or semitrailers are subject.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m8; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4927; C39, § 5008.26; C46,
      50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.130] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 32, §79; 89 Acts, ch 296, §30
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.131 LIEN OF FEE. All registration or other fees provided for in this chapter shall constitute a lien against the vehicle for which the fees are payable unless otherwise provided in this section until such time as they are paid as provided by law, with any accrued penalties. The county treasurer may perfect a security interest in a vehicle for the amount of such fees as provided in section 321.50. If the lien is not perfected as provided in this section, the lien shall not be valid against a bona fide purchaser of the vehicle without actual notice to the purchaser.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m21; SS15, § 1571-m7; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4928; C39, §
      5008.27; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.131] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2004 Acts, ch 1013, §22, 35
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.132 WHEN LIEN ATTACHES. The lien of the original annual registration fee attaches, at the time the fee is first payable, as provided by law, and the lien of all renewals of registration attach on the first day of each succeeding registration year.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4929; C39, § 5008.28; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.132] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 25, 38; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §99
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.133 METHODS OF COLLECTION. The collection of all fees and penalties may be enforced against any vehicle or they may be collected by suit against the owner who shall remain personally liable therefor until such time as the transfer thereof shall be reported to the county treasurer and the department or until such time as said vehicle ceases to be in use and all fees and penalties to such date shall be paid.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m21; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4930; C39, § 5009.01;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.133]
         Referred to in § 331.557, 331.653
        

321.134 MONTHLY PENALTY. 1. On the first day of the second month following the beginning of each registration year a penalty of five percent of the annual registration fee shall be added to the annual registration fees not paid by that date and an additional penalty of five percent shall be added the first day of each succeeding month, until the fee is paid. A penalty shall not be less than five dollars. If the owner of a vehicle surrenders the registration plates for a vehicle prior to the plates becoming delinquent, to the county treasurer of the county where the vehicle is registered, or to the department if the vehicle is registered under chapter 326, the owner may register the vehicle any time thereafter upon payment of the annual registration fee for the registration year without penalty. The penalty on vehicles registered under chapter 326 shall accrue February 1 of each year. To avoid a penalty or an additional penalty in the case of a delinquent registration, if the last calendar day of a month falls on Saturday, Sunday, or a holiday, the payment deadline is extended to include the first business day of the following month. For payments made through a county treasurer's authorized website only, if the last day of the month falls on a Saturday, Sunday, or a holiday, the electronic payment must be initiated by midnight on the first business day of the next month. All other electronic payments must be initiated by midnight on the last day of the month preceding the delinquent date. 2. The annual registration fee for trucks, truck tractors, and road tractors, as provided in sections 321.121 and 321.122, may be payable in two equal semiannual installments if the annual registration fee exceeds the annual registration fee for a vehicle with a gross weight exceeding five tons. The penalties provided in subsection 1 shall be computed on the amount of the first installment only and on the first day of the seventh month of the registration period the same rate of penalty shall apply to the second installment, until the fee is paid. Semiannual installments do not apply to commercial vehicles, as defined under section 326.2, subject to proportional registration, with a base state other than the state of Iowa, as defined in section 326.2, subsection 1. The penalty on vehicles registered under chapter 326 accrues August 1 of each year except as provided in section 326.6. The department shall not allow the annual registration fee for a commercial vehicle registered under chapter 326 to be paid in two equal semiannual installments for five years after the registrant has paid the annual registration fee late for two consecutive years. 3. If a penalty applies to an annual vehicle registration fee provided for in sections 321.121 and 321.122, the same penalty shall be assessed on the fees collected to increase the registered gross weight of the vehicle, if the increased gross weight is requested within forty-five days from the date the delinquent vehicle is registered for the current registration period. 4. Notwithstanding subsections 1 through 3, if a vehicle registration is delinquent for twenty-four months or more, a flat penalty and fee shall be assessed for the delinquent period in addition to the current annual registration fee. The flat penalty and fee shall be one hundred fifty percent of the current annual registration fee. 5. The department shall waive the penalties imposed by this section for an owner who is in the military service of the United States and who has been relocated as a result of being placed on active duty on or after September 11, 2001. The department shall adopt rules to implement this subsection, including, if necessary, procedures for refunding penalties collected prior to March 29, 2004.

         Section History: Early Form

         [SS15, § 1571-m7; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4931; C39, § 5009.02;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.134] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 26, 38; 83 Acts, ch 24, § 6, 12; 89 Acts, ch
      185, § 4; 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 18; 2002 Acts, ch 1043, §2; 2004 Acts,
      ch 1013, §23, 35; 2004 Acts, ch 1092, §4; 2007 Acts, ch 143, §13;
      2008 Acts, ch 1113, §100
         Referred to in § 321.39, 321.123, 326.6, 331.557, 331.653
        

321.135 WHEN FEES DELINQUENT. Except as otherwise provided, annual registration fees become delinquent and penalties accrue the first of the month following the purchase of a new vehicle, and thirty days following the date a vehicle is brought into the state.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4932; C39, § 5009.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.135] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1219, § 22; 85 Acts, ch 209, §4; 2008 Acts, ch 1113,
      §101
         Referred to in § 331.557, 331.653
        

321.136 THROUGH 321.144 Repealed by 80 Acts, ch 1094, § 51.

321.145 DISPOSITION OF MONEYS AND FEES. 1. Except for fines, forfeitures, court costs, and the collection fees retained by the county treasurer pursuant to section 321.152, and except as provided in subsection 2, moneys and motor vehicle registration fees collected under this chapter shall be credited by the treasurer of state to the road use tax fund. 2. Revenues derived from trailer registration fees collected pursuant to sections 321.105 and 321.105A, fees charged for driver's licenses and nonoperator's identification cards, fees charged for the issuance of a certificate of title, the certificate of title surcharge collected pursuant to section 321.52A, and revenues credited pursuant to section 423.43, subsection 2, and section 423C.5 shall be deposited in a fund to be known as the statutory allocations fund under the control of the department and credited as follows: a. Four million two hundred fifty thousand dollars per quarter shall be deposited into and credited to the Iowa comprehensive petroleum underground storage tank fund created in section 455G.3, and the moneys so deposited are a continuing appropriation for expenditure under chapter 455G, and moneys so appropriated shall not be used for other purposes. b. Moneys remaining after the operation of paragraph "a" shall be credited in order of priority as follows: (1) An amount equal to four percent of the revenue from the operation of section 321.105A, subsection 2, shall be credited to the department, to be used for purposes of public transit assistance under chapter 324A. (2) An amount equal to two dollars per year of license validity for each issued or renewed driver's license which is valid for the operation of a motorcycle shall be credited to the motorcycle rider education fund established under section 321.180B. (3) The amounts required to be transferred pursuant to section 321.34 from revenues available under this subsection shall be transferred and credited as provided in section 321.34, subsections 7, 10, 10A, 11, 11A, 11B, 13, 16, 17, 18, 19, 20, 20A, 20B, 21, 22, 23, and 24 for the various purposes specified in those subsections. c. Any such revenues remaining shall be credited to the road use tax fund.

         Section History: Early Form

         [SS15, § 1571-m32; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4999; C39, § 5010.01;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.145] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, § 19; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §30, 36; 2009 Acts, ch
      97, §9; 2009 Acts, ch 130, §1
         Referred to in § 312.1, 321.34, 321.52A, 321.211, 331.557, 423.43,
      423C.5, 455G.3, 455G.6, 455G.8
         Road use tax fund, § 312.1
        

321.146 Repealed by 77 Acts, ch 60, § 25.

321.147 Reserved.

321.148 MONTHLY ESTIMATE. The department shall, on the first day of each month, furnish an estimate in writing to the treasurer of state of the amount of expenditures to be made by the department during that month.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 5003-c1; C39, § 5010.04; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.148]
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.149 SUPPLIES. The department shall prepare and furnish to the treasurer of each county all supplies required for the administration of this chapter in such form as the department may prescribe. Contracts for the supplies shall be awarded by the director of the department of administrative services to persons, firms, partnerships, or corporations engaged in the business of printing in Iowa unless, or through them, the persons, firms, partnerships, or corporations cannot provide the required printing set forth in this section. In lieu of purchasing under competitive bids, the director of the department of administrative services shall have authority to arrange with the director of the department of corrections to furnish the supplies as can be made in the state institutions.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m2; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5006; C39, § 5010.05; C46,
      50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.149] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 27, 38; 83 Acts, ch 96, § 157, 159; 98 Acts,
      ch 1119, §25; 98 Acts, ch 1164, §40; 2003 Acts, ch 145, §249; 2004
      Acts, ch 1013, §24, 35
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.150 TIME LIMIT. Blanks or forms for listing used motor vehicles shall be placed in the hands of county treasurers not later than December 15 of any year.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5007; C39, § 5010.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.150]
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.151 DUTY AND LIABILITY OF TREASURER. The county treasurer shall collect the registration fee, the fee for new registration, and penalties on each vehicle registered by the county treasurer and shall be responsible on the county treasurer's bond for such amount. The county treasurer shall remit such amount to the treasurer of state as provided in this chapter. Fees collected pursuant to participation in county issuance of driver's licenses under chapter 321M shall be governed by the provisions of that chapter.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5011; C39, § 5010.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.151] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         98 Acts, ch 1073, §12; 98 Acts, ch 1143, §18, 26; 2008 Acts, ch
      1113, §102
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.152 COLLECTION FEES RETAINED BY COUNTY. 1. A county treasurer may retain for deposit in the county general fund the following: a. Four percent of the total collection, excluding the amount of any fee for new registration, for each annual or semiannual vehicle registration and each duplicate registration card or plate issued. b. Two dollars and fifty cents from each fee collected for certificates of title. c. Forty percent of all fees collected for certified copies of certificates of title. d. Sixty percent of all fees collected for perfection of security interests. e. Twenty-five percent of each penalty collected for improper business-trade truck registration under section 321.120, subsection 5. f. One dollar from each fee for new registration collected pursuant to section 321.105A. 2. The moneys retained under subsection 1 shall be deducted, and reported to the department when the county treasurer transfers the money collected under this chapter. However, a deduction is not lawful unless the county treasurer has complied with sections 321.24 and 321.153. 3. This section does not apply to fees collected or retained by a county treasurer pursuant to participation in county issuance of driver's licenses under chapter 321M.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5012; C39, § 5010.08; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.152] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 123, § 126, 209; 84 Acts, ch 1305, § 64; 91 Acts, ch
      267, § 608; 92 Acts, ch 1238, § 32; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §12; 98 Acts,
      ch 1143, §19, 26; 2004 Acts, ch 1013, §25, 35; 2008 Acts, ch 1113,
      §8, 11, 103, 104
         Referred to in § 321.145, 321.153, 331.427, 331.557
        

321.153 TREASURER'S REPORT TO DEPARTMENT. The county treasurer on the tenth day of each month shall certify to the department a full and complete statement of all fees and penalties received by the county treasurer during the preceding calendar month and shall remit all moneys not retained for deposit under section 321.152 to the treasurer of state. The distributed teleprocessing network shall be used in the collection, receipting, accounting, and reporting of any fee collected through the registration renewal or title process, with sufficient time and financial resources provided for implementation. This section does not apply to fees collected or retained by a county treasurer pursuant to participation in county issuance of driver's licenses under chapter 321M.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5013; C39, § 5010.09; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.153] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         89 Acts, ch 185, § 5; 92 Acts, ch 1073, § 4; 92 Acts, ch 1238, §
      33; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §12; 98 Acts, ch 1143, §20, 26; 2004 Acts, ch
      1013, §26, 35
         Referred to in § 321.152, 331.555, 331.557, 331.558
        

321.154 REPORTS BY DEPARTMENT. The department, immediately upon receiving said report, shall also report to the treasurer of state the amount so collected by such county treasurer.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5014; C39, § 5010.10; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.154]
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.155 DUTY OF TREASURER OF STATE. The treasurer of state shall keep proper books of account for the purposes specified herein and shall report to the department each remittance from the county treasurer, when said remittance is received.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5015; C39, § 5010.11; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.155]
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.156 AUDIT BY DEPARTMENT. The department shall check and audit all fees and penalties collected, and shall effect a settlement with the county treasurer annually.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5016; C39, § 5010.12; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.156]
         Referred to in § 331.557
        

321.157 SCHEDULE OF PRICES AND WEIGHTS. 1. A manufacturer or importer of a motor vehicle sold or offered for sale in this state, either by the manufacturer, importer, distributor, dealer, or any other person, shall file in the office of the department a sworn statement showing the various models manufactured by the manufacturer, importer, distributor, dealer, or other person, and the retail list price and weight of each model concurrently with a public announcement of such prices or concurrently with notification of such prices to dealers licensed to sell such motor vehicles under chapter 322, whichever comes first. The manufacturer, importer, distributor, dealer, or other person shall also make the same report on subsequent new models manufactured. 2. In lieu of filing the sworn statement required under subsection 1, a manufacturer or importer of a motor vehicle sold or offered for sale in this state may electronically provide the information required in subsection 1 to the department, or, if the manufacturer or importer provides the required information to a third-party vendor, the manufacturer or importer shall make the required information available to the department through the third-party vendor.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4968; C39, § 5011.01; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.157] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2000 Acts, ch 1016, §45, 47
         Referred to in § 321.160, 321.161
        

321.158 REGISTRATION DEPENDENT ON SCHEDULE. No motor vehicle shall be registered in this state unless the manufacturer thereof has furnished to the department the sworn statement herein provided, giving the list price and weight of the model of the motor vehicle that is offered for registration, except as provided in section 321.159.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4970; C39, § 5011.02; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.158]
        

321.159 EXCEPTIONAL CASES -- ANNUAL REGISTRATION FEE. 1. The department shall have the power to fix the annual registration fee on all makes and models of motor vehicles which are not now being furnished or upon which the statement from the factory cannot be obtained. 2. For a current year model of a motor vehicle for which the manufacturer or importer of the motor vehicle has not provided the weight and list price, the department shall set the annual registration fee at ten dollars greater than the annual registration fee for the previous year model. Once the manufacturer or importer provides the required information, the information shall be used to set the annual registration fee or the registration renewal fee for the succeeding registration or registration renewal time for the motor vehicle.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4971; C39, § 5011.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.159] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         92 Acts, ch 1222, § 3; 2000 Acts, ch 1016, §46, 47; 2008 Acts, ch
      1113, §105
         Referred to in § 321.158
        

321.160 DEPARTMENT TO MAINTAIN STATEMENT. The department shall maintain a statement showing all the different makes and models of motor vehicles previously registered in the department, and all the different makes and models of motor vehicles, statements of which have been filed in the office by the manufacturers as provided in section 321.157, together with the retail list price and weight of the vehicles. Copies of the statement shall be furnished to each county treasurer and additional copies may be sold by the department to other persons, at a price to be set by the department, covering the approximate cost of the copies and service involved. Copies of the statement required by this section may be provided electronically. All funds received shall be forwarded by the department to the treasurer of state.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4972; C39, § 5011.04; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.160] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2004 Acts, ch 1013, §27, 35
        

321.161 DEPARTMENT TO FIX VALUES AND WEIGHT. The department shall annually, and at such other times as new makes or models of motor vehicles are offered for sale or sold in this state, fix the value and weight of each of the different makes and models of motor vehicles which are sold or offered for sale within the state. The value and weight as fixed by the department shall, on 1975 and subsequent year model motor vehicles, be based on the original certification as provided in section 321.157.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4973; C39, § 5011.05; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.161]
        

321.162 METHOD OF FIXING VALUE AND WEIGHT. The value shall be fixed at the next even one hundred dollars above the retail list price F.O.B. the factory, and the weight shall be fixed at the next even one hundred pounds above the manufacturer's shipping weight or the actual weight of the vehicle fully equipped.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4974; C39, § 5011.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.162]
        

321.163 Repealed by 71 Acts, ch 84, § 99.

321.164 Repealed by 72 Acts, ch 1019, § 7.

321.165 MANUFACTURE BY STATE. The director shall have authority to arrange with the director of the department of corrections to furnish such supplies as may be made at the state institutions.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4977; C39, § 5012.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.165] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 96, § 157, 159
        

321.166 VEHICLE PLATE SPECIFICATIONS. Vehicle registration plates shall conform to the following specifications: 1. Registration plates shall be of metal and of a size not to exceed six inches by twelve inches, except that the size of plates issued for use on motorized bicycles, motorcycles, motorcycle trailers, and trailers with an empty weight of two thousand pounds or less shall be established by the department. Trailers with empty weights of two thousand pounds or less may, upon request, be licensed with regular-sized license plates. 2. Every registration plate or pair of plates shall display a registration plate number which shall consist of alphabetical or numerical characters or a combination thereof and the name of this state, which may be abbreviated. Every registration plate issued by the county treasurer shall display the name of the county, including any plate issued pursuant to section 321.34, except Pearl Harbor and purple heart registration plates issued prior to January 1, 1997; registration plates issued pursuant to section 321.34, subsection 13, paragraph "d"; and collegiate, fire fighter, and medal of honor registration plates. Special truck registration plates shall display the word "special". The department may adopt rules to implement this subsection. 3. The registration plate number shall be displayed in characters which shall not exceed a height of four inches nor a stroke width exceeding five-eighths of an inch. Special plates issued to dealers shall display the alphabetical character "D", which shall be of the same size as the characters in the registration plate. The registration plate number issued for motorized bicycles, motorcycles, trailers with an empty weight of two thousand pounds or less, and motorcycle trailers shall be a size prescribed by the department. 4. The registration plate number, except on motorized bicycle, motorcycle, motorcycle trailer, and trailers with an empty weight of two thousand pounds or less shall be of sufficient size to be readable from a distance of one hundred feet during daylight. 5. There shall be a marked contrast between the color of the registration plates and the data which is required to be displayed on the registration plates. When a new series of registration plates is issued to replace a current series, the new registration plates shall be of a distinctively different color from the series which is replaced, except for collegiate registration plates issued under section 321.34, subsection 7 or 7A. 6. Registration plates issued to a disabled veteran under the provisions of section 321.105 shall display the alphabetical characters "DV" which shall precede the registration plate number. The plates may also display a persons with disabilities parking sticker if issued to the disabled veteran by the department under section 321L.2. 7. The year and month of expiration of registration, which may be abbreviated, shall be displayed on vehicle registration plates issued by the county treasurer. A distinctive emblem or validation sticker may be prescribed by the department to designate the year and month of expiration. The year and month of expiration shall not be required to be displayed on plates issued under section 321.19. 8. The owner of a trailer with an empty weight of two thousand pounds or less shall receive registration plates for the trailer smaller than plates regularly issued for automobiles pursuant to rules adopted by the department in accordance with this section unless the owner requests regular-sized plates. 9. Special registration plates issued pursuant to section 321.34, other than gold star, medal of honor, collegiate, fire fighter, and natural resources registration plates, shall be consistent with the design and color of regular registration plates but shall provide a space on a portion of the plate for the purpose of allowing the placement of a distinguishing processed emblem. Special registration plates shall also comply with the requirements for regular registration plates as provided in this section to the extent the requirements are consistent with the section authorizing a particular special vehicle registration plate. 10. If the department reissues a new registration plate design for a special registration plate under section 321.34, all persons who have purchased or obtained the special registration plates shall not be required to pay the issuance fee.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m12, -m13; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4978; C39, § 5001.19,
      5001.20, 5012.04; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, §
      321.35, 321.36, 321.166; C79, 81, § 321.166] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1032, § 3, 4; 82 Acts, ch 1062, § 28, 29, 36, 38; 83
      Acts, ch 24, § 7, 12; 86 Acts, ch 1225, § 2; 88 Acts, ch 1215, § 11;
      89 Acts, ch 247, § 5; 92 Acts, ch 1026, § 1; 94 Acts, ch 1028, §1--4;
      95 Acts, ch 118, § 20, 40; 96 Acts, ch 1088, § 5, 6; 96 Acts, ch
      1152, § 7, 8; 96 Acts, ch 1171, § 3; 96 Acts, ch 1219, § 25; 97 Acts,
      ch 70, §4; 97 Acts, ch 104, § 14, 15; 99 Acts, ch 13, §10, 29; 2007
      Acts, ch 184, §6, 7; 2008 Acts, ch 1124, §7; 2009 Acts, ch 130, §25,
      26
         Referred to in § 321L.1
        

321.167 DELIVERY OF PLATES, STICKERS, AND EMBLEMS. The department, upon requisition by the county treasurer, shall provide vehicle registration plates, validation stickers, and emblems as required for the administration of this chapter. Vehicle registration plates and validation stickers shall be provided to the county treasurer in numerical sequence.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4979; C39, § 5012.05; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.167] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         82 Acts, ch 1062, § 30, 38
        

321.168 ADDITIONAL DELIVERIES. Thereafter, during the year, the department, upon requisition of the county treasurer, shall deliver additional number plates.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4980; C39, § 5012.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.168]
        

321.169 ACCOUNT OF PLATES. The department shall keep an accurate record of all number plates issued to each county, and shall also keep a record showing the assignment thereof by the county treasurer to motor vehicles.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4981; C39, § 5012.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.169]
        

321.170 PLATES FOR EXEMPT VEHICLES. The department shall furnish, on application, free of charge, distinguishing plates for motor vehicles exempted from annual registration fees and shall keep a separate record thereof.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4982; C39, § 5012.08; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.170] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2008 Acts, ch 1113, §106
         See also § 8A.362, 321.19
        

321.171 TITLE OF PLATES. All number plates issued shall be and remain the property of the state.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4983; C39, § 5012.09; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.171]
        

321.172 Repealed by 63 Acts, ch 190, § 2.

321.173 WHEN FEES RETURNABLE. Transferred to § 321.129; 2008 Acts, ch 1018, § 30.

321.174 OPERATORS LICENSED -- OPERATION OF COMMERCIAL MOTOR VEHICLES. 1. A person, except those expressly exempted, shall not operate any motor vehicle upon a highway in this state unless the person has a driver's license issued by the department valid for the vehicle's operation. 2. A person operating a commercial motor vehicle shall not have more than one driver's license. A nonresident may operate a commercial motor vehicle in Iowa if the nonresident has been issued a license by another state, a nonresident commercial driver's license, or a driver's license issued by a foreign jurisdiction which the federal highway administration has determined to be issued in conformity with the federal commercial driver testing and licensing standards, if the license, commercial driver's license, or driver's license is valid for the vehicle operated. A person who operates a commercial motor vehicle upon the highways of this state without having been issued a driver's license valid for the vehicle operated commits a simple misdemeanor. 3. A licensee shall have the licensee's driver's license in immediate possession at all times when operating a motor vehicle and shall display the same upon demand of a judicial magistrate, district associate judge, district judge, peace officer, or examiner of the department. However, a person charged with violating this subsection shall not be convicted and the citation shall be dismissed by the court if the person produces to the clerk of the district court, prior to the licensee's court date indicated on the citation, a driver's license issued to that person and valid for the vehicle operated at the time of the person's arrest or at the time the person was charged with a violation of this section. Upon dismissal, the court or clerk of court shall assess the costs of the action against the defendant named on the citation.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d2, -d29; C39, § 5013.01, 5013.15; C46, 50,
      54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, § 321.174, 321.190; C77, 79, § 321.174,
      321.189; C81, § 321.174] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §20; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9; 2004 Acts, ch 1120,
      §2; 2006 Acts, ch 1144, §4
         Referred to in § 321.176, 805.8A(4c)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see § 805.8A, subsection 4,
      paragraph c
        

321.174A OPERATION OF MOTOR VEHICLE WITH EXPIRED LICENSE. A person shall not operate a motor vehicle upon a highway in this state with an expired driver's license.

         Section History: Recent Form

         97 Acts, ch 108, §11; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9
         Referred to in § 805.8A(4a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 4,
      paragraph a
        

321.175 Repealed by 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 97.

321.176 PERSONS EXEMPT FROM DRIVER'S LICENSING REQUIREMENTS. The following persons are exempt from driver's licensing requirements: 1. Any person while operating a military motor vehicle in the service of the armed forces of the United States. 2. Any person while operating a farm tractor or implement of husbandry to or from the home farm buildings to any adjacent or nearby farmland for the exclusive purpose of conducting farm operations. 3. A nonresident operating a motor vehicle within the legal scope of the nonresident's home state or country license except a nonresident may operate a commercial motor vehicle only in compliance with section 321.174.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d3, -d4; C39, § 5013.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.176; 81 Acts, ch 105, § 1, 2] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §21; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §11
        

321.176A PERSONS EXEMPT FROM COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE REQUIREMENTS. The following operators are exempt from the commercial driver's license requirements: 1. A farmer or a person working for a farmer while operating a commercial motor vehicle controlled by the farmer within one hundred fifty air miles of the farmer's farm to transport the farmer's own agricultural products, farm machinery, or farm supplies to or from the farm. The exemption provided in this subsection shall apply to farmers who assist each other through an exchange of services and shall include operation of a commercial motor vehicle between the farms of the farmers who are exchanging services. 2. A fire fighter while operating a fire vehicle for a volunteer or paid fire organization or a peace officer, as defined in section 801.4, while operating a commercial motor vehicle for a law enforcement agency, under conditions necessary to preserve life or property or to execute related governmental functions. 3. The following persons when operating commercial motor vehicles for military purposes: a. Active duty military personnel. b. Members of the military reserves. c. Members of the national guard on active duty, including personnel on full-time national guard duty, personnel on part-time national guard training, and national guard military technicians. d. Active duty United States coast guard personnel. 4. A person while operating a motor home solely for personal or family use. 5. A person operating a motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of less than twenty-six thousand one pounds towing a travel trailer or fifth-wheel travel trailer solely for personal or family use. 6. A person exempted by rules adopted by the department pursuant to section 321.176B. 7. A home care aide operating a motor vehicle in the course of the home care aide's duties.

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, § 22; 92 Acts, ch 1175, § 20; 93 Acts, ch 139, §
      8; 96 Acts, ch 1152, § 9; 2005 Acts, ch 8, §14; 2006 Acts, ch 1068,
      §19
         Referred to in § 321.189
        

321.176B PERSONS EXEMPT BY RULE FROM COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE REQUIREMENTS. If after July 1, 1990, federal law or federal regulations are changed to allow exemptions from commercial driver's license requirements for suppliers of agricultural inputs or their employees while delivering these products to their customers, the department shall immediately, pursuant to chapter 17A, adopt rules which allow these exemptions from the commercial driver's license requirements.

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §23
         Referred to in § 321.176A
        

321.177 PERSONS NOT TO BE LICENSED. The department shall not issue a driver's license: 1. To any person who is under the age of eighteen years except as provided in section 321.180B. However, the department may issue a driver's license to certain minors as provided in section 321.178 or 321.194, or a driver's license restricted to motorized bicycles as provided in section 321.189. 2. To any person holding any other driver's license. 3. To any person whose driver's license or driving privilege is suspended or revoked. 4. To any person who is a chronic alcoholic, or is addicted to the use of an illegal narcotic drug. 5. To any person who has previously been adjudged to be incompetent by reason of mental illness and who has not at the time of application been restored to competency by the methods provided by law. 6. To any person who fails to pass an examination required by this chapter. 7. To any person when the director has good cause to believe the person by reason of physical or mental disability would not be able to operate a motor vehicle safely. 8. To any person to operate a commercial motor vehicle unless the person is eighteen years of age or older and the person qualifies under federal and state law to be issued a commercial driver's license in this state. 9. To any person, as a chauffeur, who is under the age of eighteen.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d5--4960-d9; C39, § 5013.04; C46, 50, 54, 58,
      62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.177] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 195, §34; 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 24; 95 Acts, ch 194, §5;
      98 Acts, ch 1073, §9; 98 Acts, ch 1112, §1, 14, 16; 2003 Acts, ch
      145, §286; 2006 Acts, ch 1030, §35
         Referred to in § 321.180A
        

321.178 DRIVER EDUCATION -- RESTRICTED LICENSE -- RECIPROCITY. 1. Approved course. a. An approved driver education course as programmed by the department shall consist of at least thirty clock hours of classroom instruction, of which no more than one hundred eighty minutes shall be provided to a student in a single day, and six or more clock hours of laboratory instruction of which at least three clock hours shall consist of street or highway driving. Classroom instruction shall include all of the following: (1) A minimum of four hours of instruction concerning substance abuse. (2) A minimum of twenty minutes of instruction concerning railroad crossing safety. (3) Instruction relating to becoming an organ donor under the revised uniform anatomical gift Act as provided in chapter 142C. (4) Instruction providing an awareness about sharing the road with bicycles and motorcycles. The instruction course shall be first approved by the state department of transportation. Instructional materials creating an awareness about sharing the road with bicycles and motorcycles shall also be distributed during the course of instruction. b. To be qualified as a classroom driver education instructor, a person shall have satisfied the educational requirements for a teaching license at the elementary or secondary level and hold a valid license to teach driver education in the public schools of this state. c. Every public school district in Iowa shall offer or make available to all students residing in the school district or Iowa students attending a nonpublic school in the district an approved course in driver education. The receiving district shall be the school district responsible for making driver education available to a student participating in open enrollment under section 282.18. The courses may be offered at sites other than at the public school, including nonpublic school facilities within the public school districts. An approved course offered during the summer months, on Saturdays, after regular school hours during the regular terms or partly in one term or summer vacation period and partly in the succeeding term or summer vacation period, as the case may be, shall satisfy the requirements of this section to the same extent as an approved course offered during the regular school hours of the school term. A student who successfully completes and obtains certification in an approved course in driver education or an approved course in motorcycle education may, upon proof of such fact, be excused from any field test which the student would otherwise be required to take in demonstrating the student's ability to operate a motor vehicle. A student shall not be excused from any field test if a parent, guardian, or instructor requests that a test be administered. Street or highway driving instruction may be provided by a person qualified as a classroom driver education instructor or a person certified by the department and authorized by the board of educational examiners. A person shall not be required to hold a current Iowa teacher or administrator license at the elementary or secondary level or to have satisfied the educational requirements for an Iowa teacher license at the elementary or secondary level in order to be certified by the department or authorized by the board of educational examiners to provide street or highway driving instruction. A final field test prior to a student's completion of an approved course shall be administered by a person qualified as a classroom driver education instructor. The department shall adopt rules pursuant to chapter 17A to provide for certification of persons qualified to provide street or highway driving instruction. The board of educational examiners shall adopt rules pursuant to chapter 17A to provide for authorization of persons certified by the department to provide street or highway driving instruction. d. "Student", for purposes of this section, means a person between the ages of fourteen years and twenty-one years who satisfies the preliminary licensing requirements of the department. e. Any person who successfully completes an approved driver education course at a private or commercial driver education school licensed by the department shall likewise be eligible for a driver's license as provided in section 321.180B or 321.194. 2. Restricted license. a. A person between sixteen and eighteen years of age who has completed an approved driver's education course and is not in attendance at school and has not met the requirements described in section 299.2, subsection 1, may be issued a restricted license only for travel to and from work or to transport dependents to and from temporary care facilities, if necessary for the person to maintain the person's present employment. The restricted license shall be issued by the department only upon confirmation of the person's employment and need for a restricted license to travel to and from work or to transport dependents to and from temporary care facilities if necessary to maintain the person's employment. The employer shall notify the department if the employment of the person is terminated before the person attains the age of eighteen. b. The department may suspend a restricted license issued under this section upon receiving a record of the person's conviction for one violation and shall revoke the license upon receiving a record of conviction for two or more violations of a law of this state or a city ordinance regulating the operation of motor vehicles on highways, other than parking violations as defined in section 321.210. After revoking a license under this section the department shall not grant an application for a new license or permit until the expiration of one year or until the person attains the age of eighteen whichever is the longer period. 3. Driver's license reciprocity. a. The department may issue a class C or M driver's license to a person who is sixteen or seventeen years of age and who is a current resident of the state, but who has been driving as a resident of another state for at least one year prior to residency within the state. b. The following criteria must be met prior to issuance of a driver's license pursuant to this subsection: (1) The minor must reside with a parent or guardian. (2) The minor must have driven under a valid driver's license for at least one year in the prior state of residence. Six months of the one year computation may include driving with an instruction permit. (3) The minor must have had no moving traffic violations on the minor's driving record. (4) The minor must pass the written and driving skills tests as required by the department, but is not required to have taken a driver's education class.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C66, § 321.177; C71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.178; 82 Acts, ch
      1215, § 1, 2, ch 1248, § 1] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1022, § 3; 86 Acts, ch 1220, § 28; 89 Acts, ch 266, §
      1; 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 25; 91 Acts, ch 128, § 1, 2; 92 Acts, ch 1163,
      § 75; 92 Acts, ch 1231, § 44; 94 Acts, ch 1102, §1; 98 Acts, ch 1112,
      §2, 14, 16; 99 Acts, ch 13, §11; 2000 Acts, ch 1133, §3; 2001 Acts,
      ch 33, §1; 2002 Acts, ch 1140, §32, 33; 2003 Acts, ch 108, §55; 2005
      Acts, ch 8, §15; 2006 Acts, ch 1021, §1; 2007 Acts, ch 44, §28; 2007
      Acts, ch 214, §40
         Referred to in §321.177, 321.180B, 321.191, 321.213B
         Driver education courses to include instruction relating to energy
      efficiency and safety; 90 Acts, ch 1252, § 54
         Department of public health to cooperate to provide materials and
      information relating to becoming an organ donor; 94 Acts, ch 1102, §3

        

321.179 Repealed by 98 Acts, ch 1143, § 22. See chapter 321M.

321.180 INSTRUCTION PERMITS. 1. a. A person who is at least eighteen years of age and who, except for the person's lack of instruction in operating a motor vehicle, would be qualified to obtain a driver's license, shall, upon meeting the requirements of section 321.186 other than a driving demonstration, and upon paying the required fee, be issued an instruction permit by the department. Subject to the limitations in this subsection, an instruction permit entitles the permittee, while having the permit in the permittee's immediate possession, to operate a motor vehicle, other than a commercial motor vehicle or as a chauffeur or a motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of sixteen thousand one or more pounds, upon the highways for a period not to exceed four years from the licensee's birthday anniversary in the year of issuance. If the applicant for an instruction permit holds a driver's license issued in this state valid for the operation of a motorized bicycle or a motorcycle, the instruction permit shall be valid for such operation without the need of an accompanying person. A permittee shall not be penalized for failing to have the instruction permit in immediate possession if the permittee produces in court, within a reasonable time, an instruction permit issued to the permittee and valid at the time of the permittee's arrest or at the time the permittee was charged with failure to have the permit in the permittee's immediate possession. b. Except as otherwise provided, a permittee who is eighteen years of age or older must be accompanied by a person issued a driver's license valid for the vehicle operated who is a member of the permittee's immediate family if the family member is at least twenty-one years of age, an approved driver education instructor, a prospective driver education instructor who is enrolled in a practitioner preparation program with a safety education program approved by the state board of education, or a person at least twenty-five years of age, and who is actually occupying a seat beside the driver. However, if the permittee is operating a motorcycle in accordance with this section or section 321.180B, the accompanying person must be within audible and visual communications distance from the permittee and be accompanying the permittee on or in a different motor vehicle. Only one permittee shall be under the immediate supervision of an accompanying qualified person. 2. A person who holds a class A, B, C, or D driver's license, upon meeting each of the following requirements, shall be eligible to apply for a commercial driver's instruction permit valid for the operation of a commercial motor vehicle, except a vehicle transporting hazardous materials requiring placarding, when the permittee is accompanied by a person properly licensed to operate a commercial motor vehicle and actually occupying a seat beside the permittee. An applicant must be at least eighteen years of age and qualified to obtain a valid commercial driver's license including the requirements of section 321.188 other than the knowledge examination and driving skills tests. The commercial driver's instruction permit shall be valid for a period not to exceed six months. A commercial driver's instruction permit may be renewed only once in any two-year period. If the applicant for a commercial driver's instruction permit holds a driver's license issued in this state valid for the operation of a commercial or noncommercial vehicle, the commercial driver's instruction permit shall be valid for such operation without the need of an accompanying person. 3. A person, upon meeting each of the following requirements, shall be eligible to apply for a chauffeur's instruction permit valid for the operation of a motor vehicle, other than a commercial motor vehicle, as a chauffeur when the permittee is accompanied by a person, possessing a valid class D driver's license or commercial driver's license valid for the operation of the motor vehicle and the accompanying person is actually occupying a seat beside the permittee. An applicant must be at least eighteen years of age, otherwise qualified to obtain a class D driver's license, and must meet the requirements of section 321.186 other than a driving demonstration. The chauffeur's instruction permit shall be valid for a period not to exceed two years from the licensee's birthday anniversary in the year of issuance and shall be returned to the department upon issuance of a class D driver's license or commercial driver's license. If the applicant for a chauffeur's instruction permit holds a driver's license issued under this chapter, the chauffeur's instruction permit shall be valid in the same manner as the driver's license would be for the operation of motor vehicles without the need of an accompanying person. 4. The instruction permit, chauffeur's instruction permit, and commercial driver's instruction permit are subject to suspension or revocation for the same reasons and in the same manner as suspension or revocation of a driver's license. 5. A motorcycle instruction permit issued under this section is not renewable.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d23; C39, § 5013.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.180] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         88 Acts, ch 1134, §67; 89 Acts, ch 265, §39; 90 Acts, ch 1230, §
      26; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9; 98 Acts, ch 1112, §3, 4, 14, 16; 2006 Acts,
      ch 1068, §20, 21
         Referred to in § 321.196, 805.8A(4a)
         Fee, § 321.191
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 4,
      paragraph a
        

321.180A SPECIAL INSTRUCTION PERMIT. 1. Notwithstanding other provisions of this chapter, a person with a physical disability, who is not suffering from a convulsive disorder and who can provide a favorable medical report, whose license renewal has been denied under section 321.177, subsection 6 or 7, or whose driver's license has been suspended under section 321.210, subsection 1, paragraph "c", upon meeting the requirements of section 321.186, other than a driving demonstration or the person's limitations which caused the denial under section 321.177, subsection 6 or 7, or suspension under section 321.210, subsection 1, paragraph "c", and upon paying the fee required in section 321.191, shall be issued a special instruction permit by the department. Upon issuance of the permit the denial or suspension shall be stayed and the stay shall remain in effect as long as the permit is valid. 2. a. A special instruction permit entitles the permittee, while having the permit in the permittee's immediate possession, to operate a noncommercial motor vehicle upon the highways for a period of six months from the date of issuance. However, the permittee must be accompanied by a person who is at least twenty-one years of age, who has been issued a driver's license valid for the vehicle being operated, and who is actually occupying a seat beside the permittee. b. A permittee shall not be penalized for failing to have the permit in immediate possession if the permittee produces in court, within a reasonable time, the special instruction permit issued to the permittee which was valid at the time of the permittee's arrest. 3. The permittee may apply for a driver's license if thirty days have elapsed since issuance of the special instruction permit. The department shall issue a driver's license if the permittee is qualified, passes all required tests, including a driving test, and pays the required fees. If the person has not obtained a driver's license before expiration of the person's special instruction permit, the person's former denial or suspension under section 321.177, subsection 6 or 7, or section 321.210, subsection 1, paragraph "c", upon service of notice by the department, shall be reinstated. A permit shall be reissued for one additional six-month period if a permittee continues to meet the qualifications of subsection 1 and has incurred no motor vehicle violations.

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, § 27; 96 Acts, ch 1129, § 78; 98 Acts, ch 1073,
      §9
        

321.180B GRADUATED DRIVER'S LICENSES FOR PERSONS AGED FOURTEEN THROUGH SEVENTEEN. Persons under age eighteen shall not be issued a license or permit to operate a motor vehicle except under the provisions of this section. However, the department may issue restricted and special driver's licenses to certain minors as provided in sections 321.178 and 321.194, and driver's licenses restricted to motorized bicycles as provided in section 321.189. A license or permit shall not be issued under this section or section 321.178 or 321.194 without the consent of a parent or guardian or a person having custody of the applicant under chapter 232 or 600A. An additional consent is required each time a license or permit is issued under this section or section 321.178 or 321.194. The consent must be signed by at least one parent, guardian, or custodian on an affidavit form provided by the department. 1. Instruction permit. The department may issue an instruction permit to an applicant between the ages of fourteen and eighteen years if the applicant meets the requirements of sections 321.184 and 321.186, other than a driving demonstration, and pays the required fee. An instruction permit issued under this section shall be valid for a period not to exceed four years from the licensee's birthday anniversary in the year of issuance. A motorcycle instruction permit issued under this section is not renewable. Subject to the limitations in this subsection, an instruction permit entitles the permittee, while having the permit in the permittee's immediate possession, to operate a motor vehicle other than a commercial motor vehicle or as a chauffeur or a motor vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of sixteen thousand one or more pounds upon the highways. Except as otherwise provided, a permittee who is less than eighteen years of age and who is operating a motor vehicle must be accompanied by a person issued a driver's license valid for the vehicle operated who is the parent, guardian, or custodian of the permittee, member of the permittee's immediate family if the family member is at least twenty-one years of age, an approved driver education instructor, a prospective driver education instructor who is enrolled in a practitioner preparation program with a safety education program approved by the state board of education, or a person at least twenty-five years of age if written permission is granted by the parent, guardian, or custodian, and who is actually occupying a seat beside the driver. A permittee shall not operate a motor vehicle if the number of passengers in the motor vehicle exceeds the number of passenger safety belts in the motor vehicle. If the applicant for an instruction permit holds a driver's license issued in this state valid for the operation of a motorized bicycle or a motorcycle, the instruction permit shall be valid for such operation without the requirement of an accompanying person. However, if the permittee is operating a motorcycle in accordance with this section, the accompanying person must be within audible and visual communications distance from the permittee and be accompanying the permittee on or in a different motor vehicle. Only one permittee shall be under the immediate supervision of an accompanying qualified person. A permittee shall not be penalized for failing to have the instruction permit in the permittee's immediate possession if the permittee produces in court, within a reasonable time, an instruction permit issued to the permittee and valid at the time of the permittee's arrest or at the time the permittee was charged with failure to have the permit in the permittee's immediate possession. 2. Intermediate license. The department may issue an intermediate driver's license to a person sixteen or seventeen years of age who possesses an instruction permit issued under subsection 1 or a comparable instruction permit issued by another state for a minimum of six months immediately preceding application, and who presents an affidavit signed by a parent, guardian, or custodian on a form to be provided by the department that the permittee has accumulated a total of twenty hours of street or highway driving of which two hours were conducted after sunset and before sunrise and the street or highway driving was with the permittee's parent, guardian, custodian, instructor, a person certified by the department, or a person at least twenty-five years of age who had written permission from a parent, guardian, or custodian to accompany the permittee, and whose driving privileges have not been suspended, revoked, or barred under this chapter or chapter 321J during, and who has been accident and violation free continuously for, the six-month period immediately preceding the application for an intermediate license. An applicant for an intermediate license must meet the requirements of section 321.186, including satisfactory completion of driver education as required in section 321.178, and payment of the required license fee before an intermediate license will be issued. A person issued an intermediate license must limit the number of passengers in the motor vehicle when the intermediate licensee is operating the motor vehicle to the number of passenger safety belts. Except as otherwise provided, a person issued an intermediate license under this subsection who is operating a motor vehicle between the hours of twelve-thirty a.m. and five a.m. must be accompanied by a person issued a driver's license valid for the vehicle operated who is the parent, guardian, or custodian of the permittee, a member of the permittee's immediate family if the family member is at least twenty-one years of age, an approved driver education instructor, a prospective driver education instructor who is enrolled in a practitioner preparation program with a safety education program approved by the state board of education, or a person at least twenty-five years of age if written permission is granted by the parent, guardian, or custodian, and who is actually occupying a seat beside the driver. However, a licensee may operate a vehicle to and from school-related extracurricular activities and work without an accompanying driver between the hours of twelve-thirty a.m. and five a.m. if such licensee possesses a waiver on a form to be provided by the department. An accompanying driver is not required between the hours of five a.m. and twelve-thirty a.m. 3. Remedial driver improvement action -- suspension of permit, intermediate license, or full license. A person who has been issued an instruction permit, an intermediate license, or a full driver's license under this section, upon conviction of a moving traffic violation or involvement in a motor vehicle accident which occurred during the term of the instruction permit or intermediate license, shall be subject to remedial driver improvement action or suspension of the permit or current license. A person possessing an instruction permit who has been convicted of a moving traffic violation or has been involved in an accident shall not be issued an intermediate license until the person has completed the remedial driver improvement action and has been accident and violation free continuously for the six-month period immediately preceding the application for the intermediate license. A person possessing an intermediate license who has been convicted of a moving traffic violation or has been involved in an accident shall not be issued a full driver's license until the person has completed the remedial driver improvement action and has been accident and violation free continuously for the twelve-month period immediately preceding the application for a full driver's license. 4. Full driver's license. A full driver's license may be issued to a person seventeen years of age who possesses an intermediate license issued under subsection 2 or a comparable intermediate license issued by another state for a minimum of twelve months immediately preceding application, and who presents an affidavit signed by a parent, guardian, or custodian on a form to be provided by the department that the intermediate licensee has accumulated a total of ten hours of street or highway driving of which two hours were conducted after sunset and before sunrise and the street or highway driving was with the licensee's parent, guardian, custodian, instructor, a person certified by the department, or a person at least twenty-five years of age who had written permission from a parent, guardian, or custodian to accompany the licensee, whose driving privileges have not been suspended, revoked, or barred under this chapter or chapter 321J during, and who has been accident and violation free continuously for, the twelve-month period immediately preceding the application for a full driver's license, and who has paid the required fee. 5. Class M license education requirements. A person under the age of eighteen applying for an intermediate or full driver's license valid for the operation of a motorcycle shall be required to successfully complete a motorcycle education course either approved and established by the department of transportation or from a private or commercial driver education school licensed by the department of transportation before the class M license will be issued. A public school district shall charge a student a fee which shall not exceed the actual cost of instruction minus moneys received by the school district under subsection 6. 6. Motorcycle rider education fund. The motorcycle rider education fund is established in the office of the treasurer of state. The moneys credited to the fund are appropriated to the state department of transportation to be used to establish new motorcycle rider education courses and reimburse sponsors of motorcycle rider education courses for the costs of providing motorcycle rider education courses approved and established by the department. The department shall adopt rules under chapter 17A providing for the distribution of moneys to sponsors of motorcycle rider education courses based upon the cost of providing the education courses. 7. Rules. The department may adopt rules pursuant to chapter 17A to administer this section.

         Section History: Recent Form

         98 Acts, ch 1112, §5, 14, 16; 99 Acts, ch 13, §12, 13; 99 Acts, ch
      128, §1--3; 2006 Acts, ch 1068, §22--24; 2009 Acts, ch 130, §2--5
         Referred to in § 321.34, 321.145, 321.177, 321.178, 321.180,
      321.189, 321.194, 321.196, 321.218A, 321A.17, 805.8A(4a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 4,
      paragraph a
        

321.181 TEMPORARY PERMIT. The department may issue a temporary permit to an applicant for a driver's license permitting the applicant to operate a motor vehicle while the department is completing its investigation and determination of all facts relative to the applicant's privilege to receive the driver's license. The permit must be in the applicant's immediate possession while operating a motor vehicle. The temporary permit shall be invalid and returned to the department when the applicant's license is issued or when the license is denied.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5013.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.181] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §28; 96 Acts, ch 1152, § 10; 98 Acts, ch 1073,
      §9
         Referred to in § 321.190
        

321.182 APPLICATION. Every applicant for a driver's license shall do all of the following: 1. a. Make application on a form provided by the department which shall include the applicant's full name, signature, current mailing address, current residential address, date of birth, social security number, and physical description including sex, height, and eye color. The application may contain other information the department may require by rule. Pursuant to procedures established by the department and for an applicant who is a foreign national temporarily present in this state, the department may waive the requirement that the application include the applicant's social security number. b. A licensee shall notify the department when the licensee's mailing address changes and provide the new address within thirty days of obtaining the new address. The application provided by the department shall include a statement for the applicant to sign that acknowledges the applicant's knowledge of the requirement to notify the department of a mailing address change. The penalty under section 321.482 shall not apply to a licensee's failure to notify the department of such an address change. 2. Surrender all other driver's licenses and nonoperator's identification cards. 3. Certify that the applicant has no other driver's license and certify that the applicant is a resident of this state as provided in section 321.1A. However, certification of residency is not required for an applicant for a nonresident commercial driver's license who is a foreign national temporarily present in this state, as determined by the department. 4. Certify that the applicant is not currently subject to suspension, revocation, or cancellation of any driver's license and has committed no offense and has not acted in a manner which either alone or with previous actions or offenses could result in suspension, revocation, or cancellation of any driver's license.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d12; C39, § 5013.08; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.182] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §29; 95 Acts, ch 118, §21; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9,
      10; 2001 Acts, ch 32, §42; 2002 Acts, ch 1063, §23, 55
         Referred to in § 321.188, 321.190, 321.196
         Voter registration, see § 48A.18
        

321.183 APPLICATION FOR DRIVER'S LICENSE OR NONOPERATOR'S IDENTIFICATION CARD -- SELECTIVE SERVICE REGISTRATION. 1. A person who applies for a driver's license or nonoperator's identification card or for renewal of a driver's license or nonoperator's identification card, and who is required by 50 U.S.C. app. § 451 et seq. to register with the United States selective service system, shall be registered by the department with the selective service system. The department shall forward to the selective service system in an electronic format the necessary personal information of such applicant, notwithstanding provisions to the contrary in section 321.11, subsection 3. 2. An applicant's submission of an application for a driver's license or nonoperator's identification card or for renewal of a driver's license or nonoperator's identification card shall indicate that the applicant has already registered with the selective service system or that the applicant authorizes the department to forward the applicant's personal information to the selective service system for registration. The department shall notify the applicant on the application that submission of the application shall serve as consent to registration with the selective service system, if the applicant is required by 50 U.S.C. app. § 451 et seq. to register. 3. Notwithstanding subsections 1 and 2, an applicant for a driver's license or nonoperator's identification card or for renewal of a driver's license or nonoperator's identification card who is required to register with the United States selective service system shall not be registered by the department if, after being given information on the penalties for failure to register, the applicant declines to be registered. The department shall forward to the selective service system in an electronic format the applicable personal information of such applicant indicating the applicant refused to be registered.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2003 Acts, ch 41, §1
         Referred to in § 321.190
        

321.184 APPLICATIONS OF UNMARRIED MINORS. 1. Consent required. The application of an unmarried person under the age of eighteen years for a driver's license shall contain the verified consent and confirmation of the applicant's birthday by either parent of the applicant, the guardian of the applicant, or a person having custody of the applicant under chapter 232 or 600A. Officers and employees of the department may administer the oaths without charge. 2. Withdrawal of consent. The person who provided the signed consent under subsection 1 may withdraw that consent at any time. The withdrawal of consent shall be in writing, signed and verified. The department, upon receipt of the withdrawal of consent, shall cancel the applicant's driver's license and shall not issue a new license until such time as a new application, duly signed and verified, is made as required in this chapter. This subsection does not apply if the licensee or permittee has attained the age of eighteen years or is married.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d13; C39, § 5013.10; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.184; 82 Acts, ch 1248, § 2] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1219, § 23; 86 Acts, ch 1048, § 1; 90 Acts, ch 1230, §
      30; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9; 2009 Acts, ch 130, §6
         Referred to in §321.180B
        

321.185 DEATH OF PERSON SIGNING APPLICATION -- EFFECT. The department upon receipt of satisfactory evidence of the death of the persons who signed the application of a minor for a license shall cancel such license and shall not issue a new license until such time as a new application, duly signed and verified, is made as required by this chapter. This provision shall not apply in the event the minor has attained the age of eighteen years.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5013.11; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.185]
        

321.186 EXAMINATION OF NEW OR INCOMPETENT OPERATORS. 1. The department may examine every new applicant for a driver's license or any person holding a valid driver's license when the department has reason to believe that the person may be physically or mentally incompetent to operate a motor vehicle, or whose driving record appears to the department to justify the examination. The department shall make every effort to accommodate a functionally illiterate applicant when the applicant is taking a knowledge test. The department shall make every effort to have an examiner conduct the commercial driver's license driving skills tests at other locations in this state where skills may be adequately tested when requested by a person representing ten or more drivers requiring driving skills testing. 2. The department shall make every effort to accommodate a commercial driver's license applicant's need to arrange an appointment for a driving skills test at an established test site other than where the applicant passed the required knowledge test. The department shall report to the governor and the general assembly on any problems, extraordinary costs, and recommendations regarding the appointment scheduling process. 3. The examination shall include a screening of the applicant's eyesight, a test of the applicant's ability to read and understand highway signs regulating, warning, and directing traffic, a test of the applicant's knowledge of the traffic laws of this state, an actual demonstration of ability to exercise ordinary and reasonable control in the operation of a motor vehicle, and other physical and mental examinations as the department finds necessary to determine the applicant's fitness to operate a motor vehicle safely upon the highways. However, an applicant for a new driver's license other than a commercial driver's license need not pass a vision test administered by the department if the applicant files with the department a vision report in accordance with section 321.186A which shows that the applicant's visual acuity level meets or exceeds those required by the department. 4. A physician licensed under chapter 148 or an optometrist licensed under chapter 154 may report to the department the identity of a person who has been diagnosed as having a physical or mental condition which would render the person physically or mentally incompetent to operate a motor vehicle in a safe manner. The physician or optometrist shall make reasonable efforts to notify the person who is the subject of the report, in writing. The written notification shall state the nature of the disclosure and the reason for the disclosure. A physician or optometrist making a report under this section shall be immune from any liability, civil or criminal, which might otherwise be incurred or imposed as a result of the report. A physician or optometrist has no duty to make a report or to warn third parties with regard to any knowledge concerning a person's mental or physical competency to operate a motor vehicle in a safe manner. Any report received by the department from a physician or optometrist under this section shall be kept confidential. Information regulated by chapter 141A shall be subject to the confidentiality provisions and remedies of that chapter.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d14; C39, § 5013.12; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.186] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, § 31; 92 Acts, ch 1175, § 32; 98 Acts, ch 1029,
      §1; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9; 99 Acts, ch 181, §16; 2002 Acts, ch 1032,
      §1; 2008 Acts, ch 1088, §119
         Referred to in § 321.180, 321.180A, 321.180B
        

321.186A VISION REPORT IN LIEU OF VISION TEST. 1. An applicant for a new or renewed driver's license other than a commercial driver's license need not take a vision test administered by the department if the applicant files with the department a vision report signed by a licensed vision specialist in accordance with this section. 2. An applicant for such a new or renewed driver's license who fails a vision test administered by the department may subsequently be issued the driver's license without need of passing a department administered vision test, if the applicant files with the department a vision report from a licensed vision specialist in accordance with this section. 3. The vision report shall state the visual acuity level of the applicant as measured by the vision specialist and shall be in the form and include other information as required by rule of the department. A vision report is valid only if the visual acuity level of the applicant has been measured by the licensed vision specialist within thirty days before the application for the new or renewed driver's license. 4. As used in this section, a "licensed vision specialist" means a physician licensed under chapter 148 or an optometrist licensed under chapter 154.

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §32; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9; 2008 Acts, ch 1088,
      §120
         Referred to in § 321.186, 321.189, 321.196
        

321.187 EXAMINERS. 1. The department shall examine applicants for driver's licenses. Examiners of the department shall wear an identifying badge and uniform provided by the department. 2. The department may by rule designate community colleges to administer the driving skills test required for a commercial driver's license provided that all of the following occur: a. The driving skills test is the same as that which would otherwise be administered by the state. b. The examiner contractually agrees to comply with the requirements of 49 C.F.R. § 383.75 as adopted by rule by the department.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d17; C39, § 5013.13; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.187] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, § 33; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §10; 99 Acts, ch 96, §29

        

321.188 COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE REQUIREMENTS. 1. Before the department issues, renews, or upgrades a commercial driver's license and in addition to the requirements of section 321.182, the license applicant shall do all of the following: a. Certify whether the applicant is subject to and meets applicable driver qualifications of 49 C.F.R. part 391 as adopted by rule by the department. b. Certify the applicant is not subject to any commercial driver's license disqualification and has committed no offense and has not acted in a manner which either alone or with previous actions or offenses could result in commercial driver's license disqualification. c. Successfully pass knowledge tests and driving skills tests which the department shall require by rule. The rules adopted shall substantially comply with the federal minimum testing and licensing requirements in 49 C.F.R. part 383, subparts E, G, and H as adopted by rule by the department. Except as required under 49 C.F.R. part 383, subpart E, G, or H, a commercial driver's license is renewable without a driving skills test within one year after its expiration date. d. Certify the vehicle to be operated in the driving skills tests represents the largest class of vehicle the applicant will operate on the highway. e. Certify that the applicant is a resident of Iowa or a resident of a foreign jurisdiction. f. Identify all states where the applicant has been licensed to drive any type of motor vehicle during the previous ten years. 2. An applicant for a commercial driver's license may substitute for a driving skills test the applicant's operating record and previous passage of a driving skills test or the applicant's operating record and previous driving experience if all of the following conditions exist: a. The applicant is currently licensed to operate a commercial motor vehicle. b. The applicant certifies that during the two years immediately preceding application all of the following apply: (1) The applicant has not held driver's licenses valid for the operation of commercial motor vehicles from more than one state simultaneously. (2) The applicant has not had any convictions which are federal commercial driver's license disqualifying offenses under 49 C.F.R. § 383.51 as adopted by rule by the department while operating any type of vehicle. (3) The applicant has not committed a traffic violation, other than a parking violation, arising in connection with a traffic accident. (4) No record of an accident exists for which the applicant was convicted of a moving traffic violation. (5) The applicant has not had any driver's license suspended, revoked, or canceled. c. The applicant provides evidence of and certifies that the applicant is employed in a job requiring operation of a commercial motor vehicle and the applicant has done one of the following: (1) Has previously passed a driving skills test given by this state or its designee in a motor vehicle representative of the class of motor vehicle the applicant will operate. (2) Has operated during the two-year period immediately preceding the application a motor vehicle representative of the class of motor vehicle the applicant will operate. 3. An applicant for a hazardous material endorsement must pass a knowledge test as required under 49 C.F.R. § 383.121 as adopted by rule by the department to obtain or retain the endorsement. However, an applicant for license issuance who was previously issued a commercial driver's license from another state may retain the hazardous material endorsement from the previously issued license if the applicant successfully passed the endorsement test within the preceding twenty-four months. Pursuant to procedures established by the department, an applicant for a hazardous material endorsement must also comply with the application and security threat assessment requirements established under 49 C.F.R. pt. 383, 384, and 1572. A hazardous material endorsement shall be revoked or denied if the department determines that the applicant has not complied with or met the security threat assessment standards. 4. The department shall check the applicant's driving record as maintained by the applicant's current licensing state, the national commercial driver's license information system, and the national driver register to determine whether the applicant qualifies to be issued a commercial driver's license. The department shall notify the national commercial driver's license information system of the issuance, renewal, or upgrade of a commercial driver's license. 5. A resident of this state holding a commercial driver's license issued by a former state of residence in conformity with the federal commercial driver testing and licensing standards shall not be required to take a knowledge or driving skills test prior to issuance of a commercial driver's license in this state, except a basic Iowa rules of the road knowledge test and, when applicable, motorcycle operator knowledge and driving skills tests. The commercial driver's license issued by this state shall be valid for operation of the same class of vehicles with the same endorsements and restrictions as in the former state of licensure. However, a person with a hazardous materials endorsement must comply with subsection 3.

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, § 34; 92 Acts, ch 1175, § 21; 98 Acts, ch 1073,
      §9, 10; 99 Acts, ch 96, §30--32; 2000 Acts, ch 1133, §4; 2004 Acts,
      ch 1013, §28, 35; 2006 Acts, ch 1068, §25
         Referred to in § 321.180, 321.196
        

321.189 DRIVER'S LICENSE -- CONTENT. 1. Classification and issuance. Upon payment of the required fee, the department shall issue to every qualified applicant a driver's license. Driver's licenses shall be classified as follows: a. Class A -- Valid for the operation of vehicles with a gross combination weight rating of twenty-six thousand one or more pounds if the towed vehicle or vehicles have a gross vehicle weight rating or gross combination weight rating of ten thousand one or more pounds, and also valid for the operation of vehicles with lower gross combination weight ratings and other vehicles except motorcycles. b. Class B -- Valid for the operation of a vehicle with a gross vehicle weight rating of twenty-six thousand one or more pounds or a combination of vehicles with a gross combination weight rating of twenty-six thousand one or more pounds if the towing vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating of twenty-six thousand one or more pounds and the towed vehicle or vehicles have a gross vehicle weight rating or gross combination weight rating of less than ten thousand one pounds, and also valid for the operation of vehicles with lower gross vehicle weight ratings or gross combination weight ratings except motorcycles. c. Class C -- Valid for the operation of a vehicle, other than a motorcycle, or a combination of vehicles with a gross combination weight rating of twenty-six thousand one or more pounds provided the towing vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating of less than twenty-six thousand one pounds and each towed vehicle has a gross vehicle weight rating of less than ten thousand one pounds, or a combination of vehicles with a gross vehicle weight rating or gross combination weight rating of less than twenty-six thousand one pounds and also valid for the operation of any vehicle, other than a motorcycle, for which the operator is exempt from commercial driver's license requirements under section 321.176A. d. Class D -- Valid for the operation of a motor vehicle as a chauffeur. e. Class M -- Valid for the operation of a motorcycle. A driver's license may be issued for more than one class. Class A and B driver's licenses shall only be issued as commercial driver's licenses. Class C and M driver's licenses may be issued as commercial driver's licenses. A driver's license is not valid for the operation of a vehicle requiring an endorsement unless the driver's license is endorsed for the vehicle. A class D driver's license is also valid as a noncommercial class C driver's license. The holder of a commercial driver's license is not required to obtain a class D driver's license to operate a motor vehicle as a chauffeur. When necessary, the department shall by rule create additional classes or modify existing classes of driver's licenses, however, the rule shall be temporary and if within sixty days after the next regular session of the general assembly convenes the general assembly has not made corresponding changes in this chapter, the temporary classification or modification shall be nullified. 2. Content of license. a. Appearing on the driver's license shall be a distinguishing number assigned to the licensee; the licensee's full name, date of birth, sex, and residence address; a colored photograph; a physical description of the licensee; the name of the state; the dates of issuance and expiration; and the usual signature of the licensee. The license shall identify the class of vehicle the licensee may operate and the applicable endorsements and restrictions which the department shall require by rule. b. A commercial driver's license shall include the licensee's address as required under federal regulations, and the words "commercial driver's license" or "CDL" shall appear prominently on the face of the license. If the applicant is a nonresident, the license must conspicuously display the word "nonresident". c. The department shall assign an applicant for a driver's license a distinguishing driver's license number other than the applicant's social security number. d. The license may contain other information as required under the department's rules. 3. Replacement. If prior to the renewal date, a person desires to obtain a driver's license in the form authorized by this section, a license may be issued as a voluntary replacement upon payment of the required fee as set by the department by rule. A person shall return a driver's license and be issued a new license when the first license contains inaccurate information upon payment of the required fee as set by the department by rule. 4. Symbols. Upon the request of a licensee, the department shall indicate on the license the presence of a medical condition, that the licensee is a donor under the revised uniform anatomical gift Act as provided in chapter 142C, or that the licensee has in effect a medical advance directive. For purposes of this subsection, a medical advance directive includes but is not limited to a valid durable power of attorney for health care as defined in section 144B.1. The license may contain such other information as the department may require by rule. 5. Tamperproofing. The department shall issue a driver's license by a method or process which prevents as nearly as possible the alteration, reproduction, or superimposition of a photograph on the license without ready detection. 6. Licenses issued to persons under age twenty-one. A driver's license issued to a person under eighteen years of age shall contain the same information as any other driver's license except that the words "under eighteen" shall appear prominently on the face of the license. A driver's license issued to a person eighteen years of age or older but less than twenty-one years of age shall contain the same information as any other driver's license except that the words "under twenty-one" shall appear prominently on the face of the license. Upon attaining the age of eighteen or upon attaining the age of twenty-one, and upon payment of a one dollar fee, the person shall be entitled to a new driver's license or nonoperator's identification card for the unexpired months of the driver's license or card. An instruction permit or intermediate license issued under section 321.180B, subsection 1 or 2, shall include a distinctive color bar. An intermediate license issued under section 321.180B, subsection 2, shall include the words "intermediate license" printed prominently on the face of the license. 7. Motorized bicycle. a. The department may issue a driver's license valid only for operation of a motorized bicycle to a person fourteen years of age or older who has passed a vision test or who files a vision report as provided in section 321.186A which shows that the applicant's visual acuity level meets or exceeds those required by the department and who passes a written examination on the rules of the road. A person under the age of sixteen applying for a driver's license valid only for operation of a motorized bicycle shall also be required to successfully complete a motorized bicycle education course approved and established by the department or successfully complete an approved motorized bicycle education course at a private or commercial driver education school licensed by the department. A public school district shall charge a student a fee which shall not exceed the actual cost of instruction. A driver's license valid only for operation of a motorized bicycle entitles the licensee to operate a motorized bicycle upon the highway while having the license in the licensee's immediate possession. The license is valid for a period not to exceed two years from the licensee's birthday anniversary in the year of issuance, subject to termination or cancellation as provided in this section. b. A driver's license valid only for operation of a motorized bicycle shall be canceled upon a conviction for a moving traffic violation and reapplication may be made thirty days after the date of cancellation. The cancellation of the license upon conviction for a moving traffic violation shall not result in requiring the applicant to maintain proof of financial responsibility under section 321A.17, unless the conviction would otherwise result in a suspension or revocation of a person's driver's license. c. As used in this section, "moving traffic violation" does not include a parking violation as defined in section 321.210 or a violation of a section of the Code or municipal ordinance pertaining to standards to be maintained for motor vehicle equipment except sections 321.430 and 321.431, or except a municipal ordinance pertaining to motor vehicle brake requirements as applicable to motorized bicycles. d. The holder of any class of driver's license may operate a motorized bicycle.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d19, -d20, -d22, -d28; C39, § 5013.14; C46,
      50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, § 321.189; C77, 79, 81, § 321.189; 81
      Acts, ch 107, § 1, 2] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1022, § 4; 84 Acts, ch 1292, § 3; 87 Acts, ch 167, §
      1; 87 Acts, ch 206, § 2, 3; 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 35; 92 Acts, ch 1175,
      § 22, 23; 93 Acts, ch 164, § 1; 94 Acts, ch 1102, § 2; 95 Acts, ch
      67, §25; 95 Acts, ch 95, §1; 95 Acts, ch 118, §22; 96 Acts, ch 1017,
      § 1--3; 97 Acts, ch 74, §1; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9; 98 Acts, ch 1112, §
      6, 7, 14, 16; 99 Acts, ch 13, §14; 2001 Acts, ch 90, §2; 2001 Acts,
      ch 132, §5; 2001 Acts, ch 180, §7; 2003 Acts, ch 108, §56; 2006 Acts,
      ch 1068, §26; 2007 Acts, ch 44, §29
         Referred to in § 321.177, 321.180B, 321.189A, 321.190, 321.191,
      321.213
         Fee, see § 321.191
        

321.189A DRIVER'S LICENSE FOR UNDERCOVER LAW ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS -- FEE -- PENALTIES. 1. The department may issue undercover driver's licenses to certified peace officers employed by a local authority or by the state or federal law enforcement officers for use in the line of duty when a fictitious identity is necessary. The department, in cooperation with the commissioner of public safety, shall adopt rules pursuant to chapter 17A regarding the issuance, use, and cancellation of licenses issued pursuant to this section. 2. A license issued pursuant to this section shall only be issued to a certified peace officer or federal law enforcement officer, who is qualified to obtain the class of license sought, at the request of the law enforcement agency employing the officer for official use when the officer is involved in duty in which a fictitious identity is necessary. An officer issued a license pursuant to this section shall surrender the license when the license is no longer needed. 3. a. A license issued pursuant to this section shall only be used in the line of duty when it is necessary for the officer holding the license to assume a fictitious identity. An officer issued a license pursuant to this section shall report as soon as practical to the law enforcement agency employing the officer any traffic citation issued to the officer while using the officer's fictitious identity. b. An officer using a license issued under this section shall not be prosecuted for a public offense under this chapter if the offense was committed in the line of duty and was necessary to protect the identity of the officer. However, this paragraph shall not apply to a violation of subsection 4, paragraph "a". 4. a. An officer who provides the department false information for the purposes of obtaining a license under this section commits a class "D" felony. b. An officer who displays or uses a license issued pursuant to this section during the commission or attempted commission of a public offense other than a public offense referred to in subsection 3 or who knowingly permits another person to use the license issued under this section commits a class "D" felony. c. An officer who displays or uses a license issued pursuant to this section in any manner which is not a public offense but which is not authorized under this section or who knowingly fails or refuses to surrender the license upon demand by the department commits an aggravated misdemeanor. 5. The fee for issuing a license under this section shall be the same as for licenses issued pursuant to section 321.189. 6. The department shall keep as confidential public records under section 22.7, all records regarding licenses issued under this section.

         Section History: Recent Form

         97 Acts, ch 92, §2; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §10
         Referred to in § 22.7
        

321.190 ISSUANCE OF NONOPERATOR'S IDENTIFICATION CARDS -- FEE. 1. Application for and contents of card. a. The department shall, upon application and payment of the required fee, issue to an applicant a nonoperator's identification card. To be valid the card shall bear a distinguishing number other than a social security number assigned to the cardholder, the full name, date of birth, sex, residence address, a physical description and a colored photograph of the cardholder, the usual signature of the cardholder, and such other information as the department may require by rule. An applicant for a nonoperator's identification card shall apply for the card in the manner provided in section 321.182, subsections 1 through 3. The card shall be issued to the applicant at the time of application pursuant to procedures established by rule. An applicant for a nonoperator's identification card who is required by 50 U.S.C. app. § 451 et seq. to register with the United States selective service system shall be registered by the department with the selective service system as provided in section 321.183. b. The department shall not issue a card to a person holding a driver's license. However, a card may be issued to a person holding a temporary permit under section 321.181. The card shall be identical in form to a driver's license issued under section 321.189 except the word "nonoperator" shall appear prominently on the face of the card. A nonoperator's identification card issued to a person under eighteen years of age shall contain the same information as any other nonoperator's identification card except that the words "under eighteen" shall appear prominently on the face of the card. A nonoperator's identification card issued to a person eighteen years of age or older but under twenty-one years of age shall contain the same information as any other nonoperator's identification card except that the words "under twenty-one" shall appear prominently on the face of the card. c. The department shall use a process or processes for issuance of a nonoperator's identification card, that prevent, as nearly as possible, the opportunity for alteration or reproduction of, and the superimposition of a photograph on the nonoperator's identification card without ready detection. d. The fee for a nonoperator's identification card shall be five dollars and the card shall be valid for a period of five years from the date of issuance. A nonoperator's identification card shall be issued without expiration to anyone age seventy or over. If an applicant for a nonoperator's identification card is a foreign national who is temporarily present in this state, the nonoperator's identification card shall be issued only for the length of time the foreign national is authorized to be present as determined by the department, not to exceed two years. An issuance fee shall not be charged for a person whose driver's license or driving privilege has been suspended under section 321.210, subsection 1, paragraph "c". The nonoperator's identification card fees shall be transmitted by the department to the treasurer of state who shall credit the fees to the road use tax fund. 2. Cancellation. The department shall cancel a person's nonoperator's identification card upon determining the person was not entitled to be issued the card, did not provide correct information, committed fraud in applying for the card, or unlawfully used a nonoperator's identification card.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C77, 79, 81, § 321.190] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1305, § 65; 89 Acts, ch 317, §32; 90 Acts, ch 1230, §
      36, 37; 96 Acts, ch 1090, § 2; 96 Acts, ch 1152, § 11; 97 Acts, ch
      74, §2; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9; 2001 Acts, ch 132, §6; 2002 Acts, ch
      1063, §24; 2003 Acts, ch 41, §2; 2006 Acts, ch 1068, §27
         Referred to in § 123.48, 142C.2, 321M.1, 453A.4
         Voter registration, see § 48A.18
        

321.191 FEES FOR DRIVER'S LICENSES. 1. Instruction permits. The fee for an instruction permit, other than a special instruction permit, chauffeur's instruction permit, or commercial driver's instruction permit, is six dollars. The fee for a special instruction permit is ten dollars. The fee for a chauffeur's instruction permit or commercial driver's instruction permit is twelve dollars. 2. Noncommercial driver's licenses. The fee for a noncommercial driver's license, other than a class D driver's license or any type of instruction permit, is four dollars per year of license validity. 3. Licenses for chauffeurs. The fee for a noncommercial class D driver's license is eight dollars per year of license validity. 4. Commercial driver's licenses. The fee for a commercial driver's license, other than an instruction permit, for the operation of a commercial motor vehicle is eight dollars per year of license validity. 5. Licenses valid for motorcycles. An additional fee of two dollars per year of license validity is required to issue a license valid to operate a motorcycle. 6. Special minors' licenses. Notwithstanding subsection 2, the fee for a driver's license issued to a minor under section 321.194 or a restricted license issued to a minor under section 321.178, subsection 2, is eight dollars. 7. Endorsements and removal of air brake restrictions. The fee for a double/triple trailer endorsement, tank vehicle endorsement, and hazardous materials endorsement is five dollars for each endorsement. The fee for a passenger endorsement or a school bus endorsement is ten dollars. The fee for removal of an air brake restriction on a commercial driver's license is ten dollars. Fees imposed under this subsection for endorsements or removal of restrictions are valid for the period of the license. Upon renewal of a commercial driver's license, no fee is payable for retaining endorsements or the removal of the air brake restriction for those endorsements or restrictions which do not require the taking of either a knowledge or a driving skills test for renewal. 8. Driver's license reinstatements. The fee for reinstatement of a driver's license shall be twenty dollars for a license which is, after notice and opportunity for hearing, canceled, suspended, revoked, or barred. However, reinstatement of the privilege suspended under section 321.210, subsection 1, paragraph "c", shall be without fee. The fee for reinstatement of the privilege to operate a commercial motor vehicle after a period of disqualification shall be twenty dollars. 9. Upgrading a license class privilege -- fee adjustment. a. If an applicant wishes to upgrade a license class privilege, the fee charged shall be prorated on full-year fee increments of the new license in accordance with rules adopted by the department. The expiration date of the new license shall be the expiration date of the currently held driver's license. The fee for a commercial driver's license endorsement, the removal of an air brake restriction, or a commercial driver's license instruction permit shall not be prorated. b. As used in this subsection "to upgrade a license class privilege" means to add any privilege to a valid driver's license. The addition of a privilege includes converting from a noncommercial to a commercial license, converting from a noncommercial class C to a class D license, converting an instruction permit to a class license, adding any privilege to a section 321.189, subsection 7, license, adding an instruction permit privilege, adding a section 321.189, subsection 7, license to an instruction permit, and adding any privilege relating to a driver's license issued to a minor under section 321.194 or 321.178.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d26; C39, § 5013.16; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.191; 82 Acts, ch 1160, § 1, ch 1167, §
      1] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1305, § 66; 86 Acts, ch 1220, § 29; 87 Acts, ch 167, §
      2; 87 Acts, ch 206, § 4; 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 38; 96 Acts, ch 1152, §
      12; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9, 10; 2002 Acts, ch 1063, §25--27; 2003 Acts,
      ch 8, §14, 26; 2005 Acts, ch 8, §16, 17; 2008 Acts, ch 1113, §29
         Referred to in § 321.12, 321.180A, 321.210B, 321.211, 321.212
        

321.192 WAIVERS OR REFUNDS OF FEES. Repealed by 2009 Acts, ch 130, § 17.

321.193 RESTRICTIONS ON LICENSES -- PENALTY. As provided by rule, the department may impose restrictions suitable to the licensee's driving ability with respect to the type of motor vehicle or special mechanical control devices required on a motor vehicle which the licensee may operate or other restrictions applicable to the licensee as the department may determine to be appropriate. The department may set forth restrictions upon the driver's license. The department may suspend or revoke the driver's license upon receiving satisfactory evidence of any violation of the license's restrictions. It is a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection 4, paragraph "a", for a person to operate a motor vehicle in any manner in violation of the restrictions imposed on a restricted license issued to that person under this section.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5013.18; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.193] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, § 39; 92 Acts, ch 1175, § 33; 98 Acts, ch 1073,
      §9, 12; 2001 Acts, ch 176, §51, 59
         Referred to in § 321.213, 805.8A(4a)
        

321.194 SPECIAL MINORS' LICENSES. 1. Driver's license issued for travel to and from school. Upon certification of a special need by the school board, superintendent of the applicant's school, or principal, if authorized by the superintendent, the department may issue a class C or M driver's license to a person between the ages of fourteen and eighteen years whose driving privileges have not been suspended, revoked, or barred under this chapter or chapter 321J during, and who has not been convicted of a moving traffic violation or involved in a motor vehicle accident for, the six-month period immediately preceding the application for the special minor's license and who has successfully completed an approved driver education course. However, the completion of a course is not required if the applicant demonstrates to the satisfaction of the department that completion of the course would impose a hardship upon the applicant. The department shall adopt rules defining the term "hardship" and establish procedures for the demonstration and determination of when completion of the course would impose a hardship upon an applicant. a. The driver's license entitles the holder, while having the license in immediate possession, to operate a motor vehicle other than a commercial motor vehicle or as a chauffeur: (1) During the hours of 5 a.m. to 10 p.m. over the most direct and accessible route between the licensee's residence and schools of enrollment or the closest school bus stop or public transportation service, and between schools of enrollment, for the purpose of attending duly scheduled courses of instruction and extracurricular activities within the school district. (2) To a service station for the purpose of refueling, so long as the service station is the station closest to the route the licensee is traveling on under subparagraph (1). (3) At any time when the licensee is accompanied in accordance with section 321.180B, subsection 1. b. Each application shall be accompanied by a statement from the school board, superintendent, or principal, if authorized by the superintendent, of the applicant's school. The statement shall be upon a form provided by the department. The school board, superintendent, or principal, if authorized by the superintendent, shall certify that a need exists for the license and that the board, superintendent, or principal authorized by the superintendent is not responsible for actions of the applicant which pertain to the use of the driver's license. Upon receipt of a statement of necessity, the department shall issue the driver's license. The fact that the applicant resides at a distance less than one mile from the applicant's school of enrollment is prima facie evidence of the nonexistence of necessity for the issuance of a license. The school board shall develop and adopt a policy establishing the criteria that shall be used by a school district administrator to approve or deny certification that a need exists for a license. The student may appeal to the school board the decision of a school district administrator to deny certification. The decision of the school board is final. The driver's license shall not be issued for purposes of attending a public school in a school district other than either of the following: (1) The district of residence of the parent or guardian of the student. (2) A district which is contiguous to the district of residence of the parent or guardian of the student, if the student is enrolled in the public school which is not the school district of residence because of open enrollment under section 282.18 or as a result of an election by the student's district of residence to enter into one or more sharing agreements pursuant to the procedures in chapter 282. 2. Suspension and revocation. A driver's license issued under this section is subject to suspension or revocation for the same reasons and in the same manner as suspension or revocation of any other driver's license. The department may also suspend a driver's license issued under this section upon receiving satisfactory evidence that the licensee has violated the restrictions of the license or has been involved in one or more accidents chargeable to the licensee. The department may suspend a driver's license issued under this section upon receiving a record of the licensee's conviction for one violation. The department shall revoke the license upon receiving a record of conviction for two or more violations of a law of this state or a city ordinance regulating the operation of motor vehicles on highways other than parking violations as defined in section 321.210. After a person licensed under this section receives two or more convictions which require revocation of the person's license under this section, the department shall not grant an application for a new driver's license until the expiration of one year.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d5; C39, § 5013.19; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.194; 82 Acts, ch 1248, § 3] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 49, § 1, 4; 83 Acts, ch 101, § 68; 84 Acts, ch 1022, §
      5; 84 Acts, ch 1219, § 24; 89 Acts, ch 266, §2; 90 Acts, ch 1230, §
      40; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9; 98 Acts, ch 1112, §8, 14, 16; 2001 Acts, ch
      159, §17; 2005 Acts, ch 8, §18; 2009 Acts, ch 130, §7, 8
         Referred to in § 321.177, 321.178, 321.180B, 321.191, 321.213,
      321A.17, 805.8A(4a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 4,
      paragraph a
        

321.195 DUPLICATE DRIVER'S LICENSES AND NONOPERATOR'S IDENTIFICATION CARDS. If a driver's license or nonoperator's identification card issued under this chapter is lost or destroyed, the person to whom the license or card was issued may, upon payment of a fee of three dollars for a driver's license or nonoperator's identification card, obtain a duplicate, or substitute, upon furnishing proof satisfactory to the department that the driver's license or nonoperator's identification card has been lost or destroyed. A fee of one dollar shall be charged for the voluntary replacement of a driver's license or nonoperator's identification card.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d27; C39, § 5013.20; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.195] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         89 Acts, ch 317, §33; 91 Acts, ch 27, §2; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9, 10

        

321.196 EXPIRATION OF LICENSE -- RENEWAL. 1. Except as otherwise provided, a driver's license, other than an instruction permit, chauffeur's instruction permit, or commercial driver's instruction permit issued under section 321.180, expires five years from the licensee's birthday anniversary occurring in the year of issuance if the licensee is between the ages of seventeen years eleven months and seventy years on the date of issuance of the license. If the licensee is under the age of seventeen years eleven months or age seventy or over, the license is effective for a period of two years from the licensee's birthday anniversary occurring in the year of issuance. A licensee whose license is restricted due to vision or other physical deficiencies may be required to renew the license every two years. If a licensee is a foreign national who is temporarily present in this state, the license shall be issued only for the length of time the foreign national is authorized to be present as verified by the department, not to exceed two years. 2. Except as required in section 321.188, and except for a motorcycle instruction permit issued in accordance with section 321.180 or 321.180B, a driver's license is renewable without a driving test or written examination within a period of one year after its expiration date. A person shall not be considered to be driving with an invalid license during a period of sixty days following the license expiration date. However, for a license renewed within the sixty-day period, the date of issuance shall be considered to be the previous birthday anniversary on which it expired. 3. For the purposes of this section, the birthday anniversary of a person born on February 29 shall be deemed to occur on March 1. 4. The department in its discretion may authorize the renewal of a valid driver's license other than a commercial driver's license upon application without an examination provided that the applicant satisfactorily passes a vision test as prescribed by the department or files a vision report in accordance with section 321.186A which shows that the applicant's visual acuity level meets or exceeds those required by the department. An application for renewal of a driver's license shall include a statement for the applicant to sign that acknowledges the applicant's knowledge of the requirement to notify the department of a mailing address change under section 321.182, subsection 1. 5. A resident of Iowa holding a valid driver's license who is temporarily absent from the state or incapacitated, may, at the time for renewal of such license, apply to the department for a temporary extension of the license. The department upon receipt of the application shall, upon a showing of good cause, issue a temporary extension of the driver's license for a period not to exceed six months.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d15, -d30; C39, § 5013.21; C46, 50, 54, 58,
      62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.196] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1219, § 25; 85 Acts, ch 195, §35; 86 Acts, ch 1220, §
      30; 87 Acts, ch 167, §3; 89 Acts, ch 296, §31; 90 Acts, ch 1230, §
      41; 93 Acts, ch 51, § 1; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9; 98 Acts, ch 1112, §9,
      14, 16; 2000 Acts, ch 1133, §5; 2001 Acts, ch 32, §43; 2001 Acts, ch
      180, §8; 2002 Acts, ch 1063, §28; 2008 Acts, ch 1018, §22; 2009 Acts,
      ch 124, §1
        

321.197 Repealed effective July 1, 1994, by its own terms per amendment in 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 42.

321.198 MILITARY SERVICE EXCEPTION. The effective date of a valid driver's license issued under the laws of this state, held by any person at the time of entering the military service of the United States or of the state of Iowa, notwithstanding the expiration of the license according to its terms, is hereby extended without fee until six months following the initial separation from active duty of the person from the military service, provided the person is not suffering from physical disabilities which impair the person's competency as an operator and provided further that the licensee shall furnish, upon demand of any peace officer, satisfactory evidence of the person's military service. However, a person entitled to the benefits of this section who is charged with operating a motor vehicle without a valid driver's license shall not be convicted if the person produces in court, within a reasonable time, a valid driver's license previously issued to that person along with evidence of the person's military service as provided in this paragraph. The department is authorized to renew any driver's license falling within the provisions and limitations of the preceding paragraph, without examination, upon application and payment of fee made within six months following separation from the military service. The provisions of this section shall also apply to the spouse and children or ward of such military personnel when such spouse, children or ward are living with the above described military personnel outside of the state of Iowa and provided that such extension of license does not exceed five years. A person whose period of validity of the person's driver's license is extended under this section may file an application in accordance with rules adopted by the department to have the person's record of issuance of a driver's license retained in the department's record system during the period for which the driver's license remains valid. If a person has had the record of issuance of the person's driver's license removed from the department's records, the person shall have the person's record of driver's license issuance reentered by the department upon request if the request is accompanied by a letter from the applicable person's commanding officer verifying the military service.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.198] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 167, §5; 87 Acts, ch 170, § 5; 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 43,
      44; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9; 2005 Acts, ch 8, §19
        

321.199 DRIVER'S LICENSE RECORDS. The department shall file every application for a license received by it and shall maintain suitable indexes containing, in alphabetical order, all of the following: 1. All applications denied and the reasons for the denial. 2. All applications granted. 3. The name of every licensee who has been disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle or whose license has been suspended, revoked, or canceled by the department and after each name a note on the reasons for the action.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d18; C39, § 5013.23; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.199] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §45; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9
        

321.200 CONVICTION AND ACCIDENT FILE. The department shall also file all accident reports and abstracts of court records of convictions received by it under the laws of this state or any other state or foreign jurisdiction and in connection therewith maintain convenient records or make suitable notations in order that an individual record of each licensee showing the convictions of such licensee and the traffic accidents in which the licensee has been involved shall be readily ascertainable and available for the consideration of the department upon any application for renewal of license and at other suitable times.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5013.24; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.200] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2005 Acts, ch 8, §20
         Referred to in § 321.213, 321.267A
        

321.200A CONVICTIONS BASED UPON FRAUD. 1. If a person discovers a record of conviction for a scheduled violation under this chapter was entered by fraudulent use of the person's name or by use of other fraudulent identification, the person may, within one year of the date of the discovery of the conviction, submit a written application to the department to investigate the allegation. The department may summarily reject the application as submitted or proceed to investigate the application. If the department investigates the application, the department may either deny the application or, if the department determines the allegation is warranted, approve the application. If the department investigates the application, the department shall also issue a report and findings with the decision of the department. The rejection, approval, or denial of an application is not subject to contested case proceedings or further review as provided in chapter 17A. If the application is investigated, the department shall provide the applicant with a certified copy of the decision of the department. If the department approves the application, the department shall also provide the applicant with a certified copy of the investigative report and findings. The department shall also provide certified copies of the department's decision approving or denying the application together with the investigative report and findings to the appropriate prosecuting attorney in the city or county that prosecuted the scheduled violation and to the district court in the county that prosecuted the scheduled violation. The department may electronically provide copies of any decision approving or denying the application and the investigative report and findings to the district court. 2. A person who discovers that a record of conviction for a scheduled violation under this chapter was entered by fraudulent use of the person's name or by use of other fraudulent identification may bypass the application process in subsection 1 and move in district court to set aside the judgment of conviction within one year of discovery of the conviction. An applicant with an approved application under subsection 1 shall also move in district court to set aside the judgment of conviction in order to have the department expunge or alter the records of the department or rescind or modify an administrative sanction. If the district court grants the motion to set aside the judgment, the district court shall order the charging agency or official to modify the records of the agency or official to reflect the order setting aside the judgment. The clerk of the district court shall provide the court order setting aside the judgment, either by regular mail or electronic means, to the charging agency or official, and the department of transportation. The clerk of the district court shall also provide the applicant with a certified copy of the court order at no cost to the applicant. 3. Notwithstanding the department's approval of an application pursuant to subsection 1, the department shall not expunge or alter the records of the department or rescind or modify an administrative sanction unless the department receives an order from the district court setting aside the previous judgment of the court as provided in subsection 2. Upon receiving a copy of an order from the district court setting aside the previous judgment of the court, the department shall expunge the record and shall rescind any administrative sanction imposed upon the applicant as a result of the judgment, unless the applicant is subject to sanctions for other reasons. The department may impose a new sanction if expunging the judgment would result in a lesser or different sanction. 4. The department shall adopt rules pursuant to chapter 17A to implement this section.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2009 Acts, ch 124, §2
         Referred to in § 811.9
        

321.201 CANCELLATION AND RETURN OF LICENSE -- PROHIBITION FROM ISSUANCE OF COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE FOR FALSE INFORMATION. 1. The department may cancel a driver's license upon determination of any of the following: a. That the licensee was not entitled to the issuance of the license. b. That the licensee failed to give required or correct information or committed fraud in making the application. Upon cancellation, the licensee shall immediately return the license to the department. 2. Upon cancellation of a commercial driver's license for providing false information or committing fraud in the application, the applicant shall not operate a commercial motor vehicle in this state and shall not be issued a license valid to operate a commercial motor vehicle for a period of sixty days.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d33; C39, § 5014.01; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.201] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §46; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9
        

321.202 Repealed by 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 97.

321.203 SUSPENDING PRIVILEGES OF NONRESIDENTS. A nonresident's privilege to operate a motor vehicle on a highway in this state is subject to suspension or revocation for the same reasons and in the same manner as suspension or revocation of a resident's driver's license and is also subject to suspension as provided in section 321.513.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d37; C39, § 5014.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.203] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §47
        

321.204 CERTIFICATION OF CONVICTION -- NOTIFICATION OF COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE DISQUALIFICATION. 1. The department is authorized, upon receiving a record of the conviction in this state of a nonresident operator of a motor vehicle for any offense under the motor vehicle laws of this state, to forward a certified written or electronic record of the conviction to the motor vehicle administrator in the licensing state. 2. The department shall notify the commercial driver's license information system and the commercial motor vehicle administrator in the licensing state, if applicable, of the disqualification of a commercial driver within ten days of any of the following: a. The disqualification of the commercial driver under section 321.208 if the disqualification is for sixty days or more. b. The suspension or revocation of a commercial driver's license if the suspension or revocation is for sixty days or more. c. The cancellation of a commercial driver's license.

        &nbSection History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d41; C39, § 5014.04; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.204] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, § 48
         Referred to in § 321.208
        

321.205 CONVICTION OR ADMINISTRATIVE DECISION IN ANOTHER JURISDICTION. The department is authorized to suspend or revoke the driver's license of a resident of this state or disqualify a resident of this state from operating a commercial motor vehicle for any of the following reasons: 1. Upon receiving notice of the conviction of the resident in another state for an offense which, if committed in this state, would be grounds for the suspension or revocation of the license or disqualification of the person from operating a commercial motor vehicle. 2. Upon receiving notice of a final administrative decision in another state that the resident has acted in a manner which would be grounds for suspension or revocation of the license or disqualification of the person from operating a commercial motor vehicle in this state.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d39; C39, § 5014.05; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.205] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §49; 93 Acts, ch 16, § 3; 93 Acts, ch 87, § 4;
      96 Acts, ch 1218, § 58; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9; 2005 Acts, ch 8, §21
         Referred to in §321.210C
        

321.206 SURRENDER OF LICENSE -- DUTY OF COURT. If a person is convicted in court of an offense for which this chapter requires mandatory revocation of the person's driver's license or, if the person's license is a commercial driver's license and the conviction disqualifies the person from operating a commercial motor vehicle, the court shall require the person to surrender the driver's license held by the person and the court shall destroy the license or forward the license together with a record of the conviction to the department as provided in section 321.491.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d32; C39, § 5014.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.206] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §50; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9; 2007 Acts, ch 143,
      §14
         Referred to in §321.210D
        

321.207 Repealed by 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 97.

321.208 COMMERCIAL DRIVER'S LICENSE DISQUALIFICATION -- REPLACEMENT DRIVER'S LICENSE -- TEMPORARY LICENSE. 1. A person is disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle for one year upon a conviction or final administrative decision that the person has committed any of the following acts or offenses in any state or foreign jurisdiction while operating a commercial motor vehicle: a. Operating a commercial motor vehicle with an alcohol concentration, as defined in section 321J.1, of 0.04 or more. b. Operating a commercial motor vehicle when, as a result of prior violations committed while operating a commercial motor vehicle, the person's commercial driver's license is revoked, suspended, or canceled or the person is disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle. c. Operating a commercial motor vehicle involved in a fatal accident and being convicted of manslaughter or vehicular homicide. 2. A person is disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle for one year upon a conviction or final administrative decision that the person has committed any of the following acts or offenses in any state or foreign jurisdiction while operating a commercial motor vehicle or while operating a noncommercial motor vehicle and holding a commercial driver's license: a. Operating a motor vehicle while intoxicated, as provided in section 321J.2, subsection 1. b. Refusal to submit to chemical testing required under chapter 321J. c. Leaving the scene or failure to stop or render aid at the scene of an accident involving the person's vehicle. d. A felony or aggravated misdemeanor involving the use of a motor vehicle other than an offense involving manufacturing, distributing, or dispensing a controlled substance. 3. A person is disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle for three years if an act or offense described in subsection 1 or 2 occurred while the person was operating a commercial motor vehicle transporting hazardous material of a type or quantity requiring vehicle placarding. 4. A person is disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle for life if convicted or found to have committed two or more of the acts or offenses described in subsection 1 or 2 arising out of two or more separate incidents. However, a disqualification for life is subject to a reduction to a ten-year disqualification as provided in 49 C.F.R. § 383.51 as adopted by rule by the department. 5. A person is disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle for life upon a conviction that the person used a commercial or noncommercial motor vehicle in the commission of a felony or aggravated misdemeanor involving the manufacturing, distributing, or dispensing of a controlled substance as defined in section 124.101 and held a commercial driver's license at the time the offense was committed. 6. A person is disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle if the person receives convictions for committing within any three-year period two or more of the following offenses while operating a commercial motor vehicle or while operating a noncommercial motor vehicle and holding a commercial driver's license if the convictions result in the revocation, cancellation, or suspension of the person's commercial driver's license or noncommercial motor vehicle driving privileges: a. Operating a commercial motor vehicle upon a highway when not issued a commercial driver's license. b. Operating a commercial motor vehicle upon a highway when not issued the proper class of commercial driver's license or endorsements for the specific vehicle group being operated or for the passengers or type of cargo being transported. c. Operating a commercial motor vehicle upon a highway without immediate possession of a driver's license valid for the vehicle operated. d. Speeding fifteen miles per hour or more over the legal speed limit. e. Reckless driving. f. Any violation of the traffic laws, except a parking violation or a vehicle weight violation, which arises in connection with a fatal traffic accident. g. Following another motor vehicle too closely. h. Improper lane changes in violation of section 321.306. 7. The period of disqualification under subsection 6 shall be sixty days for two offenses within any three-year period and one hundred twenty days for three offenses within any three-year period. Multiple periods of disqualification shall be consecutive. 8. A person is disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle when the person's driving privilege is suspended or revoked. 9. A person is disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle: a. For no less than one hundred eighty days and no more than one year upon conviction for the first violation of an out-of-service order; for no less than two and not more than five years upon conviction for a second violation of an out-of-service order in separate incidents within a ten-year period; and for not less than three and not more than five years upon conviction for a third or subsequent violation of an out-of-service order in separate incidents within a ten-year period. b. For one year upon conviction for the first violation and for not less than three years and not more than five years upon conviction for a second or subsequent violation of an out-of-service order while transporting hazardous materials required to be placarded, or while operating a commercial motor vehicle designed to transport more than fifteen passengers including the driver. 10. A person is disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle if the person is convicted of a first, second, or third railroad crossing at grade violation as follows: a. A person is disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle for sixty days if the person is convicted of a first railroad crossing at grade violation under section 321.341 or 321.343 and the violation occurred while the person was operating a commercial motor vehicle. b. A person is disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle for one hundred twenty days if the person is convicted of a second railroad crossing at grade violation under section 321.341 or 321.343, the violation occurred while the person was operating a commercial motor vehicle, and the violation occurred within three years after a first such violation. c. A person is disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle for one year if the person is convicted of a third or subsequent railroad crossing at grade violation under section 321.341 or 321.343, the violation occurred while the person was operating a commercial motor vehicle, and the violation occurred within three years after a first such violation. 11. Upon receiving a record of a person's disqualifying conviction, administrative decision, suspension, or revocation, the department shall, by rule, without preliminary hearing and upon thirty days' advance notice, disqualify the person from operating a commercial motor vehicle upon a highway. 12. a. A person is disqualified from operating a commercial motor vehicle if the person either refuses to submit to chemical testing required under chapter 321J or submits to chemical testing and the results show an alcohol concentration as defined in section 321J.1 of 0.04 or more. The department, upon receipt of the peace officer's certification, subject to penalty for perjury, that the peace officer had reasonable grounds to believe the person to have been operating a commercial motor vehicle with an alcohol concentration of 0.04 or more and that the person refused to submit to the chemical testing or submitted to chemical testing and the results show an alcohol concentration as defined in section 321J.1 of 0.04 or more, shall, without preliminary hearing and upon thirty days' advance notice, disqualify the person from operating a commercial motor vehicle upon a highway. b. The effective date of disqualification shall be thirty days after notification. Immediate notice of disqualification may be served on a person operating a commercial motor vehicle who refused to submit to a test or whose test results indicate an alcohol concentration of 0.04 or more by the peace officer administering the chemical test or, notwithstanding chapter 17A, the department may notify the person by first class mail. If immediate notice is served, the peace officer shall take the commercial driver's license or permit of the driver, if issued within the state, and issue a temporary commercial driver's license effective for only thirty days. The peace officer shall immediately send the person's commercial driver's license to the department in addition to the officer's certification required by this subsection. 13. Upon notice, the disqualified person shall surrender the person's commercial driver's license to the department and the department may issue a driver's license valid only to operate a noncommercial motor vehicle upon payment of a one dollar fee. The department shall notify the commercial driver's license information system of the disqualification if required to do so under section 321.204. 14. Notwithstanding the Iowa administrative procedure Act, chapter 17A, the filing of a petition for judicial review shall stay the disqualification pending the determination by the district court. 15. The department may reinstate a qualified person's privilege to operate a commercial motor vehicle after a period of disqualification and after payment of required fees. 16. As used in this section, the terms "acts", "actions", and "offenses" mean acts, actions, or offenses which occur on or after July 1, 1990.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5014.08; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.208] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, § 51; 92 Acts, ch 1175, § 24--26; 95 Acts, ch
      55, §6; 96 Acts, ch 1152, § 13; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9; 99 Acts, ch 96,
      §33; 2000 Acts, ch 1133, §6; 2001 Acts, ch 32, §44; 2001 Acts, ch
      132, §7; 2002 Acts, ch 1063, §29; 2003 Acts, ch 44, §114; 2005 Acts,
      ch 8, §22--25; 2006 Acts, ch 1068, §28; 2008 Acts, ch 1021, §5--9;
      2009 Acts, ch 130, §9, 10
         Referred to in §321.204, 321.218, 321A.17, 321J.8, 321J.13
        

321.208A OPERATION IN VIOLATION OF OUT-OF-SERVICE ORDER -- PENALTIES. 1. A person required to hold a commercial driver's license to operate a commercial motor vehicle shall not operate a commercial motor vehicle on the highways of this state in violation of an out-of-service order issued by a peace officer for a violation of the out-of-service rules adopted by the department. A driver who violates an out-of-service order shall be subject to a fine of not less than two thousand five hundred dollars upon conviction for the first violation of an out-of-service order and not less than five thousand dollars for a second or subsequent violation of an out-of-service order in separate incidents within a ten-year period. 2. An employer shall not knowingly allow, require, permit, or authorize an employee to drive a commercial motor vehicle in violation of an out-of-service order. An employer who violates this subsection shall be subject to a fine of not less than two thousand seven hundred fifty dollars and not more than twenty-five thousand dollars.

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §52; 95 Acts, ch 55, §7; 97 Acts, ch 108, §12;
      98 Acts, ch 1178, §1; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5; 2008 Acts, ch 1021, §10
        

321.209 MANDATORY REVOCATION. The department, upon thirty days' notice and without preliminary hearing, shall revoke the license or operating privilege of an operator upon receiving a record of the operator's conviction for any of the following offenses, when such conviction has become final: 1. Manslaughter resulting from the operation of a motor vehicle. 2. A felony if during the commission of the felony a motor vehicle is used. 3. Failure to stop and render aid as required under the laws of this state in the event of a motor vehicle accident resulting in the death or personal injury of another. 4. Perjury or the making of a false affidavit or statement under oath to the department under this chapter or under any other law relating to the ownership or operation of motor vehicles. 5. Conviction, or forfeiture of bail not vacated, upon two charges of reckless driving. 6. Conviction of drag racing. 7. Eluding or attempting to elude a law enforcement vehicle as provided in section 321.279.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d33, 5027-d1; C39, § 5014.09; C46, 50, 54,
      58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.209; 82 Acts, ch 1167, § 2]
      

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 125, § 3; 86 Acts, ch 1220, § 31; 90 Acts, ch 1230, §
      53; 93 Acts, ch 16, § 4; 96 Acts, ch 1152, § 14; 96 Acts, ch 1218, §
      59
         Referred to in §321.210D, 321.212, 321.213, 321.215
        

321.210 SUSPENSION. 1. The department is authorized to establish rules providing for the suspension of the license of an operator upon thirty days' notice and without preliminary hearing upon a showing by its records or other sufficient evidence that the licensee: a. Is an habitually reckless or negligent driver of a motor vehicle. b. Is an habitual violator of the traffic laws. c. Is physically or mentally incapable of safely operating a motor vehicle. d. Has permitted an unlawful or fraudulent use of the license. e. Has committed an offense or acted in a manner in another state or foreign jurisdiction which in this state would be grounds for suspension or revocation. f. Has committed a serious violation of the motor vehicle laws of this state. g. Is subject to a license suspension under section 321.513. Prior to a suspension taking effect under paragraph "a", "b", "c", "d", "e", or "f", the licensee shall have received thirty days' advance notice of the effective date of the suspension. Notwithstanding the terms of the Iowa administrative procedure Act, chapter 17A, the filing of a petition for judicial review shall, except for suspensions under paragraph "c", operate to stay the suspension pending the determination by the district court. 2. In determining suspension the department shall not consider the following: a. Violation of motor vehicle equipment standards if repairs are made within seventy-two hours of the violation and satisfactory evidence of repair is immediately sent to the department. b. Violations of requirements to install and use safety belts, safety harnesses, and child restraint devices under sections 321.445 and 321.446. c. Parking violations, meaning violation of a local authority parking ordinance or violation of sections 321L.4, 321.366, subsection 6, and 321.354 through 321.361 except section 321.354, subsection 1. d. The first two speeding violations within any twelve- month period of ten miles per hour or less over the legal speed limit in speed zones having a legal speed limit between thirty-four miles per hour and fifty-six miles per hour.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d35; C39, § 5014.10; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.210; 82 Acts, ch 1100, § 18, 19] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1016, § 2; 84 Acts, ch 1022, § 1; 86 Acts, ch 1009, §
      1; 86 Acts, ch 1220, § 32; 87 Acts, ch 120, §1; 87 Acts, ch 167, §6;
      89 Acts, ch 247, §6; 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 54; 96 Acts, ch 1152, § 15;
      97 Acts, ch 23, § 33; 97 Acts, ch 104, §16
         Referred to in § 321.12, 321.178, 321.180A, 321.189, 321.190,
      321.191, 321.194, 321.210C, 321.212, 321.213, 321.215, 321.218,
      321.555, 321A.17
        

321.210A SUSPENSION FOR FAILURE TO PAY FINE, PENALTY, SURCHARGE, OR COURT COSTS. 1. The department shall suspend the driver's license of a person who, upon conviction of violating a law regulating the operation of a motor vehicle, has failed to pay the criminal fine or penalty, surcharge, or court costs, as follows: a. Upon the failure of a person to timely pay the fine, penalty, surcharge, or court costs the clerk of the district court shall notify the person by regular mail that if the fine, penalty, surcharge, or court costs remain unpaid after sixty days from the date of mailing, the clerk will notify the department of the failure for purposes of instituting suspension procedures. b. Upon the failure of a person to pay the fine, penalty, surcharge, or court costs within sixty days' notice by the clerk of the district court as provided in paragraph "b", the clerk shall report the failure to the department. c. Upon receipt of a report of a failure to pay the fine, penalty, surcharge, or court costs from the clerk of the district court, the department shall in accordance with its rules, suspend the person's driver's license until the fine, penalty, surcharge, or court costs are paid. 2. If after suspension, the person enters into an installment agreement with the county attorney, the county attorney's designee, or the centralized collection unit of the department of revenue in accordance with section 321.210B to pay the fine, penalty, court cost, or surcharge, the person's license shall be reinstated by the department upon receipt of a report of an executed installment agreement. 3. If the county attorney or the county attorney's designee, while collecting delinquent court debt pursuant to section 602.8107, determines that the person has been convicted of an additional violation of a law regulating the operation of a motor vehicle, the county attorney or the county attorney's designee shall notify the clerk of the district court of the appropriate case numbers, and the clerk of the district court shall notify the department for the purpose of instituting suspension procedures pursuant to this section.

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 197, § 3; 86 Acts, ch 1019, § 1; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9;
      2007 Acts, ch 196, §1; 2008 Acts, ch 1172, §19, 20; 2009 Acts, ch
      130, §11
         Referred to in § 321.12, 321.210B, 321.212, 321.215, 321.218,
      321A.17, 602.8102(50A)
        

321.210B INSTALLMENT AGREEMENT. 1. If a person's fine, penalty, surcharge, or court cost is deemed delinquent as provided in section 602.8107, subsection 2, and the person's driver's license has been suspended pursuant to section 321.210A, the person may execute an installment agreement with the county attorney, the county attorney's designee, or the centralized collection unit of the department of revenue to pay the delinquent amount and the fee assessed in subsection 7 in installments. Prior to execution of the installment agreement, the person shall provide the county attorney, the county attorney's designee, or the centralized collection unit of the department of revenue with a financial statement in order for the parties to the agreement to determine the amount of the installment payments. 2. If the person enters into an installment agreement with the county attorney or the county attorney's designee, the person shall execute an installment agreement in the county where the fine, penalty, surcharge, or court cost was imposed. If the county where the fine, penalty, surcharge, or court cost was imposed does not have an installment agreement program, the person shall execute an installment agreement in the person's county of residence. If the county of residence does not have an installment agreement program, the person may execute an installment agreement with any county attorney or county attorney's designee. 3. The county attorney, the county attorney's designee, or the centralized collection unit of the department of revenue shall file the installment agreement with the clerk of the district court in the county where the fine, penalty, surcharge, or court cost was imposed, within five days of execution of the agreement. 4. Upon receipt of an executed installment agreement and after the first installment payment, the clerk of the district court shall report the receipt of the executed installment agreement to the department of transportation. 5. Upon receipt of the report from the clerk of the district court and payment of the reinstatement fee as provided in section 321.191, the department shall immediately reinstate the driver's license of the person unless the driver's license of the person is otherwise suspended, revoked, denied, or barred under another provision of law. 6. If a driver's license is reinstated upon receipt of a report of an executed installment agreement the driver shall provide proof of financial responsibility pursuant to section 321A.17, if otherwise required by law. 7. a. A civil penalty assessed pursuant to section 321.218A, 321A.32A, or 321J.17 shall be added to the amount owing under the installment agreement. b. The clerk of the district court shall transmit to the department, from the first moneys collected, an amount equal to the amount of any civil penalty assessed pursuant to section 321.218A or 321A.32A and added to the installment agreement. The department shall transmit the money received from the clerk of the district court pursuant to this paragraph to the treasurer of state for deposit in the juvenile detention home fund created in section 232.142. c. The clerk of the district court shall transmit to the department, from the first moneys collected, an amount equal to the amount of any civil penalty assessed pursuant to section 321J.17 and added to the installment agreement. The department shall transmit the money received from the clerk of the district court pursuant to this paragraph to the treasurer of state who shall deposit one-half of the money in the separate fund established in section 915.94 and one-half of the money in the general fund of the state. 8. Upon determination by the county attorney, the county attorney's designee, or the centralized collection unit of the department of revenue that the person is in default, the county attorney, the county attorney's designee, or the centralized collection unit shall notify the clerk of the district court. 9. The clerk of the district court, upon receipt of a notification of a default from the county attorney, the county attorney's designee, or the centralized collection unit of the department of revenue, shall report the default to the department of transportation. 10. Upon receipt of a report of a default from the clerk of the district court, the department shall suspend the driver's license of a person as provided in section 321.210A. For purposes of suspension and reinstatement of the driver's license of a person in default, the suspension and any subsequent reinstatement shall be considered a suspension pursuant to section 321.210A. 11. If a new fine, penalty, surcharge, or court cost is imposed on a person after the person has executed an installment agreement with the county attorney, the county attorney's designee, or the centralized collection unit of the department of revenue, and the new fine, penalty, surcharge, or court cost is deemed delinquent as provided in section 602.8107, subsection 2, and the person's driver's license has been suspended pursuant to section 321.210A, the person may enter into a second installment agreement with the county attorney, county attorney's designee, or the centralized collection unit of the department of revenue to pay the delinquent amount and the fee, if assessed, in subsection 7 in installments. 12. If an installment agreement is in default, the fine, penalty, surcharge, or court cost covered under the agreement shall not become part of any new installment agreement. 13. A person is eligible to enter into five installment agreements in the person's lifetime. 14. Except for a civil penalty assessed and collected pursuant to subsection 7, any amount collected under the installment agreement by the county attorney or the county attorney's designee shall be distributed as provided in section 602.8107, subsection 4, and any amount collected by the centralized collection unit of the department of revenue shall be deposited with the clerk of the district court for distribution under section 602.8108.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2007 Acts, ch 196, §2, 17; 2008 Acts, ch 1018, §23, 31; 2008 Acts,
      ch 1172, §21
         Referred to in § 321.210A, 321.218A, 321A.32A, 321J.17,
      331.756(5d), 602.8107
        

321.210C PROBATION PERIOD. 1. A person whose driver's license or operating privileges have been suspended, revoked, or barred under this chapter for a conviction of a moving traffic violation, or suspended, revoked, or barred under section 321.205 or section 321.210, subsection 1, paragraph "e", must satisfactorily complete a twelve-month probation period beginning immediately after the end of the period of suspension, revocation, or bar. Upon a second conviction of a moving traffic violation which occurred during the probation period, the department may suspend the driver's license or operating privileges for an additional period equal in duration to the original period of suspension, revocation, or bar, or for one year, whichever is the shorter period. 2. A person whose driver's license or operating privileges have been revoked under chapter 321J, must satisfactorily complete a twelve-month probation period beginning immediately after the end of the period of revocation. Upon conviction of a moving traffic violation which occurs during the probation period, the department may revoke the driver's license or operating privileges for an additional period equal in duration to the original period of revocation, or for one year, whichever is the shorter period. 3. For purposes of determining a conviction under this section, the department shall not consider the first two speeding violations within the probation period that are ten miles per hour or less over the legal speed limit in speed zones having a legal speed limit between thirty-four miles per hour and fifty-six miles per hour.

         Section History: Recent Form

         98 Acts, ch 1112, §10, 14, 16; 2006 Acts, ch 1010, §89; 2007 Acts,
      ch 196, §4
        

321.210D VEHICULAR HOMICIDE SUSPENSION -- TERMINATION UPON REVOCATION OF LICENSE -- REOPENING OF SUSPENSION. 1. If a trial information or indictment is filed charging a person with the offense of homicide by vehicle under section 707.6A, subsection 1 or 2, the clerk of the district court shall, upon the filing of the information or indictment, forward notice to the department including the name and address of the party charged, the registration number of the vehicle involved, if known, the nature of the offense, and the date of the filing of the indictment or information. 2. Upon receiving notice from the clerk of the district court that an indictment or information has been filed charging an operator with homicide by vehicle under section 707.6A, subsection 1 or 2, the department shall notify the person that the person's driver's license will be suspended effective ten days from the date of issuance of the notice. The department shall adopt rules relating to the suspension of the license of an operator pursuant to this section which shall include, but are not limited to, procedures for the surrender of the person's license to the department upon the effective date of the suspension. 3. If a person whose driver's license has been suspended pursuant to this section is not convicted of the charge of homicide by vehicle under section 707.6A, subsection 1 or 2, upon record entry of disposition of the charge, the clerk of the district court shall forward a notice including the name and address of the party charged, the registration number of the vehicle involved, the nature of the offense charged by indictment or information, the date of the filing of the indictment or information, and of the disposition of the charge to the department. Upon receipt of the notice from the clerk, the department shall automatically rescind the suspension and reinstate the person's driver's license without payment of any charge or penalty. 4. Upon receiving a record of conviction under section 321.206, for a violation of section 707.6A, subsection 1 or 2, and upon revocation of the person's license or operating privileges under section 321.209, the suspension under subsection 2 shall automatically terminate in favor of the revocation.

         Section History: Recent Form

         98 Acts, ch 1073, §12; 98 Acts, ch 1088, §1; 2000 Acts, ch 1133,
      §7
         Referred to in §321A.17
        

321.211 NOTICE AND HEARING -- APPROPRIATION. Upon suspending the license of a person as authorized, the department shall immediately notify the licensee in writing and upon the licensee's request shall afford the licensee an opportunity for a hearing before the department of inspections and appeals as early as practical within thirty days after receipt of the request. The hearing shall be held by telephone conference unless the licensee and the department of inspections and appeals agree to hold the hearing in the county in which the licensee resides or in some other county. Upon the hearing the department of inspections and appeals may administer oaths and issue subpoenas for the attendance of witnesses and the production of relevant books and papers and may require a re-examination of the licensee. Upon the hearing and issuance of a recommendation by the department of inspections and appeals, the state department of transportation shall either rescind its order of suspension or for good cause may extend the suspension of the license or revoke the license. This section does not preclude the director from attempting to effect an informal settlement under chapter 17A. There is appropriated each year from the road use tax fund to the department of transportation two hundred twenty-five thousand dollars or as much thereof as is necessary to be used to pay the cost of notice and personal delivery of service, as necessary to meet the notice requirement of this section. The department shall adopt rules governing the payment of the cost of personal delivery of service. The reinstatement fees collected under section 321.191 shall be deposited in the road use tax fund in the manner provided in section 321.145, as reimbursement for the costs of notice under this section. A peace officer stopping a person for whom a notice of a suspension or revocation has been issued or to whom a notice of a hearing has been sent under the provisions of this section may personally serve such notice upon forms approved by the department to satisfy the notice requirements of this section. The peace officer may confiscate the driver's license of such person if the license has been revoked or has been suspended subsequent to a hearing and the person has not forwarded the driver's license to the department as required.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d36; C39, § 5014.11; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.211; 81 Acts, ch 14, § 24] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 198, § 21; 86 Acts, ch 1246, § 29; 89 Acts, ch 273, §
      1; 89 Acts, ch 317, § 34; 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 55; 90 Acts, ch 1267, §
      37; 92 Acts, ch 1238, § 34; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9
        

321.211A APPEAL OF EXTENDED SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION. Notwithstanding any provision of law to the contrary, if a person was not served with notice of a suspension or revocation under section 321.16, or section 321J.9, subsection 4, or section 321J.12, subsection 3, the person may appeal to the department an extension of the period of suspension or revocation based upon a conviction under section 321.218 or 321J.21. At the hearing on the appeal, the sole issue shall be whether the department failed to send notice of the underlying suspension or revocation to the person at the address contained in the department's records. If the department determines it failed to send such notice, the department shall rescind the extended suspension or revocation resulting from the conviction and send notice of the department's determination to the court that rendered the conviction. Upon receipt of the notice, the court shall enter an order exonerating the person of the conviction and ordering that the record of the conviction be expunged by the clerk of the district court.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2001 Acts, ch 32, §45
        

321.212 PERIOD OF SUSPENSION OR REVOCATION -- SURRENDER OF LICENSE. 1. a. Except as provided in section 321.210A or 321.513 the department shall not suspend a license for a period of more than one year, except that a license suspended because of incompetency to drive a motor vehicle shall be suspended until the department receives satisfactory evidence that the former holder is competent to operate a motor vehicle and a refusal to reinstate constitutes a denial of license within section 321.215; upon revoking a license the department shall not grant an application for a new license until the expiration of one year after the revocation, unless another period is specified by law. A suspension under section 321.210, subsection 1, paragraph "d", for a violation of section 321.216B shall not exceed six months. As soon as practicable after the period of suspension has expired, but not later than six months after the date of expiration, the department shall expunge information regarding the suspension from the person's driving record. b. The department shall not revoke a license under the provisions of subsection 5 of section 321.209 for more than thirty days nor less than five days as recommended by the trial court. c. The department shall revoke a license for six months for a first offense under the provisions of section 321.209, subsection 6, where the violation charged did not result in a personal injury or damage to property. d. The department shall revoke a driver's license according to an order issued pursuant to section 901.5, subsection 10, for one hundred eighty days. If the person has not been issued a driver's license, the issuance of a driver's license shall be delayed for one hundred eighty days after the person is first eligible. If the person's operating privileges have been suspended or revoked at the time the person is convicted, the one-hundred-eighty-day revocation period shall not begin until all other suspensions or revocations have terminated. 2. The department upon suspending or revoking a driver's license shall require that the license be surrendered to and be retained by the department. At the end of the period of suspension the license surrendered shall be reissued to the licensee upon payment of the reinstatement fee under section 321.191. At the end of a period of revocation the licensee must apply for a new driver's license.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d40, -d42, -d45; C39, § 5014.12, 5014.13;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.212, 321.213;
      82 Acts, ch 1167, § 3] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 197, §4; 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 56; 93 Acts, ch 16, § 5;
      93 Acts, ch 164, § 2; 96 Acts, ch 1218, § 60; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9
        

321.213 LICENSE SUSPENSIONS OR REVOCATIONS DUE TO VIOLATIONS BY JUVENILE DRIVERS. Upon the entering of a dispositional order suspending or revoking the driver's license or operating privileges of the juvenile under section 232.52, subsection 2, paragraph "a", the clerk of the juvenile court shall forward a copy of the adjudication and the dispositional order to the department. Notwithstanding section 232.55, a final adjudication in a juvenile court that the child violated a provision of this chapter or chapter 321A or 321J constitutes a final conviction for purposes of section 321.189, subsection 7, paragraph "b", and sections 321.193, 321.194, 321.200, 321.209, 321.210, 321.215, 321.555, 321A.17, 321J.2, 321J.3, and 321J.4.

         Section History: Early Form

         [82 Acts, ch 1070, § 1] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         C83, § 321.213
         86 Acts, ch 1220, § 33; 89 Acts, ch 296, §32; 90 Acts, ch 1230, §
      57; 93 Acts, ch 16, § 6; 93 Acts, ch 87, § 6; 95 Acts, ch 55, §8; 96
      Acts, ch 1218, § 61; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9
        

321.213A LICENSE SUSPENSION FOR JUVENILES ADJUDICATED DELINQUENT FOR CERTAIN DRUG OR ALCOHOL OFFENSES. Upon the entering of a dispositional order under section 232.52, subsection 2, paragraph "a", the clerk of the juvenile court shall forward a copy of the adjudication and the dispositional order suspending or revoking the driver's license or operating privileges of the juvenile to the department. The department shall suspend the license or operating privilege of the child for one year. The child may receive a temporary restricted license, if eligible, as provided in section 321.215.

         Section History: Recent Form

         94 Acts, ch 1172, §34; 95 Acts, ch 55, §9; 96 Acts, ch 1034, § 20;
      96 Acts, ch 1218, § 62; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9; 2001 Acts, ch 132, §8
         Referred to in § 321A.17
        

321.213B SUSPENSION FOR FAILURE TO ATTEND. The department shall establish procedures by rule for suspending the license of a juvenile who has been issued a driver's license and is not in compliance with the requirements of section 299.1B or issuing the juvenile a restricted license under section 321.178.

         Section History: Recent Form

         94 Acts, ch 1172, §35; 96 Acts, ch 1152, § 16; 2005 Acts, ch 8,
      §26
         Referred to in § 321.215, 321A.17
        

321.214 Repealed by 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 97.

321.215 TEMPORARY RESTRICTED LICENSE. 1. a. The department, on application, may issue a temporary restricted license to a person whose noncommercial driver's license is suspended or revoked under this chapter, allowing the person to drive to and from the person's home and specified places at specified times which can be verified by the department and which are required by any of the following: (1) The person's full-time or part-time employment. (2) The person's continuing health care or the continuing health care of another who is dependent upon the person. (3) The person's continuing education while enrolled in an educational institution on a part-time or full-time basis and while pursuing a course of study leading to a diploma, degree, or other certification of successful educational completion. (4) The person's substance abuse treatment. (5) The person's court-ordered community service responsibilities. (6) The person's appointments with the person's parole or probation officer. b. However, a temporary restricted license shall not be issued to a person whose license is revoked pursuant to a court order issued under section 901.5, subsection 10, or under section 321.209, subsections 1 through 5 or subsection 7; to a juvenile whose license has been suspended or revoked pursuant to a dispositional order under section 232.52, subsection 2, paragraph "a", for a violation of chapter 124 or 453B or section 126.3; to a juvenile whose license has been suspended under section 321.213B; or to a person whose license has been suspended pursuant to a court order under section 714.7D. A temporary restricted license may be issued to a person whose license is revoked under section 321.209, subsection 6, only if the person has no previous drag racing convictions. A person holding a temporary restricted license issued by the department under this section shall not operate a motor vehicle for pleasure. 2. a. Upon conviction and the suspension or revocation of a person's noncommercial driver's license under section 321.209, subsection 5 or 6; section 321.210; 321.210A; or 321.513; or upon revocation pursuant to a court order issued under section 901.5, subsection 10; or upon the denial of issuance of a noncommercial driver's license under section 321.560, based solely on offenses enumerated in section 321.555, subsection 1, paragraph "c", or section 321.555, subsection 2; or a juvenile, whose license has been suspended or revoked pursuant to a dispositional order under section 232.52, subsection 2, paragraph "a", for a violation of chapter 124 or 453B, or section 126.3; or upon suspension of a driver's license pursuant to a court order under section 714.7D, a person may petition the district court having jurisdiction over the residence of the person for a temporary restricted license to operate a motor vehicle for the limited purpose or purposes specified in subsection 1. The petition shall include a current certified copy of the petitioner's official driving record issued by the department. The application may be granted only if all of the following criteria are satisfied: (1) The temporary restricted license is requested only for a case of extreme hardship or compelling circumstances where alternative means of transportation do not exist. (2) The license applicant has not made an application for a temporary restricted license in any district court in the state which was denied. (3) The temporary restricted license is restricted to the limited purpose or purposes specified in subsection 1 at times specified in the license. (4) Proof of financial responsibility is established as defined in chapter 321A. However, such proof is not required if the driver's license was suspended under section 321.210A or 321.513 or revoked pursuant to a court order issued under section 901.5, subsection 10. b. If the district court determines that a temporary restricted license is necessary, the court shall order the department to issue a temporary restricted license to the applicant. The court shall forward a record of each application for a temporary restricted license to the department, together with the results of the disposition of the request by the court. 3. The temporary restricted license shall be canceled upon conviction of a moving traffic violation or upon a violation of a term of the license. A "moving traffic violation" does not include a parking violation as defined in section 321.210. 4. The temporary restricted license is not valid to operate a commercial motor vehicle if a commercial driver's license is required for the person's operation of the commercial motor vehicle.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d43, -d44; C39, § 5014.15; C46, 50, 54, 58,
      62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.215] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1022, § 6; 84 Acts, ch 1219, § 26; 90 Acts, ch 1230, §
      58; 93 Acts, ch 16, § 7--9; 95 Acts, ch 55, §10; 95 Acts, ch 143, §1;
      96 Acts, ch 1152, § 17; 96 Acts, ch 1218, § 63--65; 98 Acts, ch 1073,
      §9; 2000 Acts, ch 1133, §8--10; 2001 Acts, ch 132, §9; 2002 Acts, ch
      1050, §33; 2005 Acts, ch 8, §27; 2005 Acts, ch 141, §1, 2; 2007 Acts,
      ch 196, §3
         Referred to in § 321.212, 321.213, 321.213A, 321.560, 321.561
        

321.216 UNLAWFUL USE OF LICENSE OR NONOPERATOR'S IDENTIFICATION CARD -- PENALTY. It is a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection 4, paragraph "b", for any person: 1. To display or cause or permit to be displayed or have in the person's possession a canceled, revoked, suspended, fictitious, or fraudulently altered driver's license or nonoperator's identification card. 2. To lend that person's driver's license or nonoperator's identification card to another person or knowingly permit the use of the license by another. 3. To display or represent as one's own a driver's license or nonoperator's identification card not issued to that person. 4. To fail or refuse to surrender to the department upon its lawful demand a driver's license or nonoperator's identification card which has been suspended, revoked, or canceled. 5. To permit an unlawful use of a driver's license or nonoperator's identification card issued to that person.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d46, -d52; C39, § 5015.01; C46, 50, 54, 58,
      62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.216] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         89 Acts, ch 84, §1; 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 59; 96 Acts, ch 1090, § 3;
      98 Acts, ch 1073, §9; 2001 Acts, ch 176, §52, 59
         Referred to in § 123.48, 453A.4, 805.8A(4b)
        

321.216A FALSIFYING DRIVER'S LICENSES, NONOPERATOR'S IDENTIFICATION CARDS, OR FORMS. It is a serious misdemeanor for a person to do any of the following: 1. Make a driver's license, a nonoperator's vehicle identification card, or a blank driver's license form if the person has no authority or right to make the license, card, or form. 2. Obtain, possess, or have in the person's control or on the person's premises, driver's license or nonoperator's identification card forms. 3. Obtain, possess, or have in the person's control or on the person's premises, a driver's license or a nonoperator's identification card, or blank driver's license or nonoperator's identification card form, which has been made by a person having no authority or right to make the license, card, or form. 4. Use a false or fictitious name in any application for a driver's license or nonoperator's identification card or to knowingly make a false statement or knowingly conceal a material fact or otherwise commit fraud on an application.

         Section History: Recent Form

         89 Acts, ch 84, §2; 96 Acts, ch 1090, § 4; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9,
      10
         Referred to in § 123.48, 453A.4
        

321.216B USE OF DRIVER'S LICENSE OR NONOPERATOR'S IDENTIFICATION CARD BY UNDERAGE PERSON TO OBTAIN ALCOHOL. A person who is under the age of twenty-one, who alters or displays or has in the person's possession a fictitious or fraudulently altered driver's license or nonoperator's identification card and who uses the license to violate or attempt to violate section 123.47, commits a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection 4, paragraph "c". The court shall forward a copy of the conviction to the department.

         Section History: Recent Form

         93 Acts, ch 164, §3; 96 Acts, ch 1090, § 5; 97 Acts, ch 126, §40;
      98 Acts, ch 1073, § 9; 98 Acts, ch 1100, § 45; 2001 Acts, ch 176,
      §53, 59
         Referred to in § 123.48, 321.212, 321A.17, 805.8A(4c)
         Legislative intent regarding effect on insurance rates; 93 Acts,
      ch 164, § 6
        

321.216C USE OF DRIVER'S LICENSE OR NONOPERATOR'S IDENTIFICATION CARD BY UNDERAGE PERSON TO OBTAIN CIGARETTES OR TOBACCO PRODUCTS. A person who is under the age of eighteen, who alters or displays or has in the person's possession a fictitious or fraudulently altered driver's license or nonoperator's identification card and who uses the license or card to violate or attempt to violate section 453A.2, subsection 2, commits a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection 4, paragraph "c". The court shall forward a copy of the conviction to the department.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2000 Acts, ch 1105, §1; 2001 Acts, ch 176, §54, 59
         Referred to in § 453A.4, 805.8A(4c)
        

321.217 PERJURY. Any person who makes any false affidavit, or knowingly swears or affirms falsely to any matter or thing required by the terms of this chapter to be sworn to or affirmed, is guilty of a class "D" felony.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d47; C39, § 5015.02; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.217]
         Perjury, § 720.2
        

321.218 OPERATING WITHOUT VALID DRIVER'S LICENSE OR WHEN DISQUALIFIED -- PENALTIES. 1. A person whose driver's license or operating privilege has been denied, canceled, suspended, or revoked as provided in this chapter or as provided in section 252J.8 or section 901.5, subsection 10, and who operates a motor vehicle upon the highways of this state while the license or privilege is denied, canceled, suspended, or revoked, commits a simple misdemeanor. In addition to any other penalties, the punishment imposed for a violation of this subsection shall include assessment of a fine of not less than two hundred fifty dollars nor more than one thousand five hundred dollars. 2. The sentence imposed under this section shall not be suspended by the court, notwithstanding section 907.3 or any other statute. 3. a. The department, upon receiving the record of the conviction of a person under this section upon a charge of operating a motor vehicle while the license of the person is suspended or revoked, shall, except for licenses suspended under section 252J.8, 321.210, subsection 1, paragraph "c", or section 321.210A or 321.513, extend the period of suspension or revocation for an additional like period or for one year, whichever period is shorter, and the department shall not issue a new driver's license to the person during the extended period. b. If the department receives a record of a conviction of a person under this section but the person's driving record does not indicate what the original grounds of suspension were, the period of suspension under this subsection shall be for a period not to exceed six months. 4. A person who operates a commercial motor vehicle upon the highways of this state when disqualified from operating the commercial motor vehicle under section 321.208 or the imminent hazard provisions of 49 C.F.R. § 383.52 commits a serious misdemeanor if a commercial driver's license is required for the person to operate the commercial motor vehicle. 5. The department, upon receiving the record of a conviction of a person under this section upon a charge of operating a commercial motor vehicle while the person is disqualified, shall extend the period of disqualification for an additional like period or for the time period specified in section 321.208, whichever is longer.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d34, -d51; C39, § 5015.03; C46, 50, 54, 58,
      62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.218; 82 Acts, ch 1167, § 4] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1142, § 1; 85 Acts, ch 195, § 36; 86 Acts, ch 1220, §
      34; 89 Acts, ch 83, §43; 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 60; 93 Acts, ch 164, §
      4; 95 Acts, ch 48, §4; 96 Acts, ch 1090, § 6, 7; 97 Acts, ch 104,
      §17; 98 Acts, ch 1073, § 9; 99 Acts, ch 153, §2; 2005 Acts, ch 8,
      §28; 2006 Acts, ch 1030, §36; 2009 Acts, ch 130, §12
         Referred to in § 321.211A, 321J.4B
        

321.218A CIVIL PENALTY -- DISPOSITION -- REINSTATEMENT. When the department suspends, revokes, or bars a person's driver's license or nonresident operating privilege for a conviction under this chapter, the department shall assess the person a civil penalty of two hundred dollars. However, for persons age nineteen or under, the civil penalty assessed shall be fifty dollars. The civil penalty does not apply to a suspension issued for a violation of section 321.180B. The money collected by the department under this section shall be transmitted to the treasurer of state who shall deposit the money in the juvenile detention home fund created in section 232.142. Except as provided in section 321.210B, a temporary restricted license shall not be issued or a driver's license or nonresident operating privilege reinstated until the civil penalty has been paid. A person assessed a penalty under this section may remit the civil penalty along with a processing fee of five dollars to a county treasurer authorized to issue driver's licenses under chapter 321M, or the civil penalty may be paid directly to the department.

         Section History: Recent Form

         97 Acts, ch 190, §1; 98 Acts, ch 1073, § 9; 98 Acts, ch 1112, §
      11, 16; 2001 Acts, ch 191, §42; 2005 Acts, ch 54, §2, 12; 2007 Acts,
      ch 196, §5
         Referred to in § 232.142, 321.210B, 321M.9, 331.557A
        

321.219 PERMITTING UNAUTHORIZED MINOR TO DRIVE. A person shall not cause or knowingly permit the person's child or ward under the age of eighteen years to drive a motor vehicle upon any highway when the minor is not authorized under this chapter. A person convicted of a violation of this section is guilty of a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection 4, paragraph "c".

         Section Historyarly Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d48; C39, § 5015.04; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.219] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2000 Acts, ch 1203, §7; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5; 2002 Acts, ch 1119,
      §152
         Referred to in § 805.8A(4c)
        

321.220 PERMITTING UNAUTHORIZED PERSON TO DRIVE. A person shall not knowingly authorize or permit a motor vehicle owned by the person or under the person's control to be driven upon a highway by a person who is not issued a driver's license valid for the vehicle's operation. A person convicted of a violation of this section is guilty of a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection 4, paragraph "c".

         Section Historyarly Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d50; C39, § 5015.05; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.220] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §61; 98 Acts, ch 1073, § 9; 2000 Acts, ch 1203,
      §8; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5
         Referred to in § 805.8A(4c)
        

321.221 EMPLOYING UNLICENSED CHAUFFEUR. A person shall not employ as a chauffeur of a motor vehicle a person not then holding a class D driver's license or a commercial driver's license as provided in this chapter.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d49; C39, § 5015.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.221] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §62
        

321.222 RENTING MOTOR VEHICLE TO ANOTHER. No person shall rent a motor vehicle to any other person unless the latter person is then duly licensed hereunder or, in the case of a nonresident, then duly licensed under the laws of the state or country of residence except a nonresident whose home state or country does not require that an operator be licensed.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5015.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.222]
        

321.223 DRIVER'S LICENSE INSPECTION FOR MOTOR VEHICLE RENTAL. A person shall not rent a motor vehicle to another person without inspecting the driver's license of the person to whom the vehicle is to be rented and doing all of the following: 1. A comparison and verification of the signature on the driver's license with the signature of such person written in the inspecting person's presence. 2. A comparison and verification of the person to whom the motor vehicle is to be rented with the photograph and other identification information on the person's driver's license. 3. A determination that the driver's license of the person to whom the vehicle is to be rented is valid for operating the vehicle to be rented.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5015.08; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.223] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §63; 98 Acts, ch 1073, § 9
        

321.224 RECORD KEPT. Every person renting a motor vehicle to another shall keep a record of the registration number of the motor vehicle so rented, the name and address of the person to whom the vehicle is rented, the number of the license of the latter person and the date and place when and where the license was issued. The record shall be open to inspection by any peace officer as defined in section 801.4, subsection 11, paragraphs "a", "b", "c" and "h" or employee of the department.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5015.09; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.224; 81 Acts, ch 103, § 3]
        

321.225 THROUGH 321.227 Repealed by 87 Acts, ch 170, § 20.

321.228 PROVISIONS REFER TO HIGHWAYS -- EXCEPTIONS. The provisions of this chapter relating to the operation of vehicles refer exclusively to the operation of vehicles upon highways except: 1. Where a different place is specifically referred to in a given section. 2. The provisions of sections 321.261 to 321.273, and sections 321.277 and 321.280 shall apply upon highways and elsewhere throughout the state.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5017.01; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.228] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         86 Acts, ch 1220, § 35; 98 Acts, ch 1178, § 2
        

321.229 OBEDIENCE TO PEACE OFFICERS. No person shall willfully fail or refuse to comply with any lawful order or direction of any peace officer invested by law with authority to direct, control, or regulate traffic.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m18; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5064; C39, § 5017.02;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.229]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(14a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 14,
      paragraph a
        

321.230 PUBLIC OFFICERS NOT EXEMPT. The provisions of this chapter applicable to the drivers of vehicles upon the highways shall apply to the drivers of all vehicles owned or operated by the United States, this state or any county, city, district, or any other political subdivision of the state, subject to such specific exceptions as are set forth in this chapter with reference to authorized emergency vehicles.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5017.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.230]
        

321.231 AUTHORIZED EMERGENCY VEHICLES AND POLICE BICYCLES. 1. The driver of an authorized emergency vehicle, when responding to an emergency call or when in the pursuit of an actual or suspected perpetrator of a felony or in response to an incident dangerous to the public or when responding to but not upon returning from a fire alarm, may exercise the privileges set forth in this section. 2. The driver of any authorized emergency vehicle, may: a. Park or stand an authorized emergency vehicle, irrespective of the provisions of this chapter. b. Disregard laws or regulations governing direction of movement for the minimum distance necessary before an alternative route that conforms to the traffic laws and regulations is available. 3. The driver of a fire department vehicle, police vehicle, or ambulance, or a peace officer riding a police bicycle in the line of duty may do any of the following: a. Proceed past a red or stop signal or stop sign, but only after slowing down as may be necessary for safe operation. b. Exceed the maximum speed limits so long as the driver does not endanger life or property. 4. The exemptions granted to an authorized emergency vehicle under subsection 2 and for a fire department vehicle, police vehicle, or ambulance as provided in subsection 3 shall apply only when such vehicle is making use of an audible signaling device meeting the requirements of section 321.433 or a visual signaling device, except that use of an audible or visual signaling device shall not be required when exercising the exemption granted under subsection 3, paragraph "b" of this section when the vehicle is operated by a peace officer, pursuing a suspected violator of the speed restrictions imposed by or pursuant to this chapter, for the purpose of determining the speed of travel of such suspected violator. 5. The provisions of this section shall not relieve the driver of an authorized emergency vehicle or the rider of a police bicycle from the duty to drive or ride with due regard for the safety of all persons, nor shall such provisions protect the driver or rider from the consequences of the driver's or rider's reckless disregard for the safety of others.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5017.04, 5017.05, 5023.12; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, § 321.231, 321.232, 321.296; C77, 79, 81, § 321.231] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         97 Acts, ch 71, §1; 98 Acts, ch 1080, § 2; 98 Acts, ch 1100, § 46;
      2009 Acts, ch 133, §118
         Referred to in § 613.17, 805.8A(11)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 11,
      paragraph a
        

321.232 RADAR JAMMING DEVICES -- PENALTY. 1. A person shall not sell, operate or possess a radar jamming device, except as otherwise provided in this section, when the device is in a vehicle operated on the highways of this state or the device is held for sale in this state. 2. This section does not apply to radar speed measuring devices purchased by, held for purchase for, or operated by peace officers using the devices in their official duties. 3. A radar jamming device may be seized by a peace officer subject to forfeiture as provided by chapter 809 or 809A. 4. For the purposes of this section "radar jamming device" means any mechanism designed or used to transmit radio waves in the electromagnetic wave spectrum to interfere with the reception of those emitted from a device used by peace officers of this state to measure the speed of motor vehicles on the highways of this state and which is not designed for two-way transmission and cannot transmit in plain language.

         Section History: Early Form

         [81 Acts, ch 109, § 1] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         96 Acts, ch 1133, § 41
         Referred to in § 805.8A(14g), 809A.3
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 14,
      paragraph g
        

321.233 ROAD WORKERS EXEMPTED. This chapter, except sections 321.277 and 321.280, does not apply to persons and motor vehicles and other equipment while actually engaged in work upon the surface of a highway officially closed to traffic but does apply to such persons and vehicles when traveling to or from such work. The minimum speed restriction of section 321.285, subsection 5, and the provisions of sections 321.297, 321.298, and 321.323 do not apply to road workers operating maintenance equipment on behalf of any state or local authority while engaged in road maintenance, road blading, snow and ice control and removal, and granular resurfacing work on a highway, whether or not the highway is closed to traffic.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5017.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.233; 82 Acts, ch 1154, § 1] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 167, § 1; 86 Acts, ch 1220, § 36; 90 Acts, ch 1230, §
      64; 97 Acts, ch 104, §18; 2009 Acts, ch 133, §239
        

321.234 BICYCLES, ANIMALS, OR ANIMAL-DRAWN VEHICLES. 1. A person riding an animal or driving an animal drawing a vehicle upon a roadway is subject to the provisions of this chapter applicable to the driver of a vehicle, except those provisions of this chapter which by their nature can have no application. 2. A person, including a peace officer, riding a bicycle on the highway is subject to the provisions of this chapter and has all the rights and duties under this chapter applicable to the driver of a vehicle, except those provisions of this chapter which by their nature can have no application or those provisions for which specific exceptions have been set forth regarding police bicycles. 3. A person propelling a bicycle on the highway shall not ride other than upon or astride a permanent and regular seat attached to the bicycle. 4. A person shall not use a bicycle on the highway to carry more persons at one time than the number of persons for which the bicycle is designed and equipped. 5. This section does not apply to the use of a bicycle in a parade authorized by proper permit from local authorities.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5017.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.234] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 40, §2; 97 Acts, ch 71, §2
         Referred to in § 321.236, 805.8A(9)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 9
        

321.234A ALL-TERRAIN VEHICLES -- HIGHWAY USE. 1. All-terrain vehicles shall not be operated on a highway unless one or more of the following conditions apply: a. The operation is between sunrise and sunset and is incidental to the vehicle's use for agricultural purposes. b. The operation is incidental to the vehicle's use for the purpose of surveying by a licensed engineer or land surveyor. c. The all-terrain vehicle is operated by an employee or agent of a political subdivision or public utility for the purpose of construction or maintenance on or adjacent to the highway. d. The all-terrain vehicle is operated by an employee or agent of a public agency as defined in section 34.1 for the purpose of providing emergency services or rescue. e. The all-terrain vehicle is operated for the purpose of mowing, installing approved trail signs, or providing maintenance on a snowmobile or all-terrain vehicle trail designated by the department of natural resources. 2. A person operating an all-terrain vehicle on a highway shall have a valid driver's license and the vehicle shall be operated at speeds of thirty-five miles per hour or less. 3. An all-terrain vehicle that is owned by the owner of land adjacent to a highway, other than an interstate road, may be operated by the owner of the all-terrain vehicle, or by a member of the owner's family, on the portion of the highway right-of-way that is between the shoulder of the roadway, or at least five feet from the edge of the roadway, and the owner's property line. A person operating an all-terrain vehicle within the highway right-of-way under this subsection shall comply with the registration, safety, and age requirements under chapter 321I. 4. A person convicted of a violation of this section is guilty of a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection 3, paragraph "f".

         Sectionstory: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 35, §3; 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 65; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9;
      99 Acts, ch 108, §4; 2000 Acts, ch 1203, §9; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5;
      2002 Acts, ch 1001, §1; 2004 Acts, ch 1132, §81; 2006 Acts, ch 1036,
      §1; 2007 Acts, ch 141, §1
         Referred to in § 321.1, 321I.1, 321I.9, 321I.10, 805.8A(3f)
        

321.235 PROVISIONS UNIFORM. The provisions of this chapter shall be applicable and uniform throughout this state and in all political subdivisions and municipalities therein and no local authority shall enact or enforce any rule or regulation in conflict with the provisions of this chapter unless expressly authorized herein. Local authorities may, however, adopt additional traffic regulations which are not in conflict with the provisions of this chapter.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5017.08; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.235]
         State patrol, see chapter 80
        

321.235A ELECTRIC PERSONAL ASSISTIVE MOBILITY DEVICES. An electric personal assistive mobility device, which is a two-wheeled device as defined in section 321.1, subsection 20B, may be operated by a person at least sixteen years of age on sidewalks and bikeways in accordance with this section. 1. None of the following are required for operation of an electric personal assistive mobility device: a. Licensure or registration of the electric personal assistive mobility device under this chapter. b. Possession of a driver's license or permit by the operator of the electric personal assistive mobility device. c. Proof of financial responsibility. 2. A person operating an electric personal assistive mobility device on a sidewalk or bikeway shall do all of the following: a. Yield the right-of-way to pedestrians and human-powered devices. b. Give an audible signal before overtaking and passing a pedestrian or human-powered device. 3. A person shall not operate an electric personal assistive mobility device at the times specified in section 321.384 unless the person or the electric personal assistive mobility device is equipped with a headlight visible from the front of the electric personal assistive mobility device and at least one red reflector visible from the rear of the electric personal assistive mobility device. 4. Violations of this section are punishable as a scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection 9A.

         Section History: Recent Form

         2002 Acts, ch 1063, §30; 2004 Acts, ch 1013, §29, 35; 2004 Acts,
      ch 1175, §397, 400
         Referred to in §321.236, 805.8A(9a)
        

321.236 POWERS OF LOCAL AUTHORITIES. Local authorities shall have no power to enact, enforce, or maintain any ordinance, rule, or regulation in any way in conflict with, contrary to, or inconsistent with the provisions of this chapter, and no such ordinance, rule, or regulation of said local authorities heretofore or hereafter enacted shall have any force or effect. However, the provisions of this chapter shall not be deemed to prevent local authorities, with respect to streets and highways under their jurisdiction and within the reasonable exercise of the police power, from doing any of the following: 1. Regulating the standing or parking of vehicles. a. Parking meter, snow route, and overtime parking violations which are contested shall be charged and proceed before a court the same as other traffic violations. Filing fees and court costs shall be assessed as provided in section 602.8106, subsection 1, and section 805.6, subsection 1, paragraph "a" for parking violation cases. b. Parking violations which are uncontested shall be charged and collected upon a simple notice of a fine payable to the city clerk. The fine for each violation charged under a simple notice of a fine shall be established by ordinance. The fine may be increased by five dollars if the parking violation is not paid within thirty days of the date upon which the violation occurred. Violations of section 321L.4, subsection 2, shall be charged and collected upon a simple notice of a one hundred dollar fine payable to the city clerk. Costs or other charges shall not be assessed. All fines collected by a city pursuant to this paragraph shall be retained by the city and all fines collected by a county pursuant to this paragraph shall be retained by the county, except as provided by an agreement between a city and a county treasurer for the collection of fines pursuant to section 331.553, subsection 8. c. (1) If the local authority regulating the standing or parking of vehicles under this subsection is located in a county where the renewal of registration of a vehicle shall be refused for unpaid restitution under section 321.40, the simple notice of fine under paragraph "b" shall contain the following statement: "FAILURE TO PAY RESTITUTION OWED BY YOU CAN BE GROUNDS FOR REFUSING TO RENEW YOUR MOTOR VEHICLE'S REGISTRATION." (2) This paragraph "c" does not invalidate forms for notice of parking violations in existence prior to July 1, 1980. Existing forms may be used until supplies are exhausted. d. (1) If the local authority regulating the standing or parking of vehicles under this subsection is a county or is a city which has an agreement with a county treasurer by which the renewal of registration of a vehicle shall be refused for uncontested and unpaid parking fines under section 321.40, the simple notice of a fine under paragraph "b" shall contain the following statement: "failure to pay parking fines owed by you can be grounds for refusing to renew your motor vehicle's registration." (2) This paragraph "d" does not invalidate forms for notice of parking violations in existence prior to July 1, 2007. Existing forms may be used until supplies are exhausted. e. Cities that enter into chapter 28E agreements for the collection of delinquent parking fines in conjunction with renewal of motor vehicle registrations pursuant to section 321.40 shall be responsible for computer programming costs incurred by the department to accommodate the collection and dissemination of delinquent parking ticket information to county treasurers, with each such city paying a per capita share of the costs as provided in this paragraph. The department's programming costs shall be paid by the first city to enter into such an agreement. Thereafter, cities that enter into such agreements on or before June 30, 2010, shall pay a pro rata share of the department's programming costs on or before September 30, 2010, to the city which first paid the costs, based on the respective populations of each city as of the last decennial census. 2. Regulating traffic by means of police officers or traffic-control signals. 3. Regulating or prohibiting processions or assemblages on the highways. 4. Designating particular highways as one-way highways and requiring that all vehicles thereon be moved in one specific direction. 5. Regulating the speed of vehicles in public parks. 6. Designating any highway as a through highway and requiring that all vehicles stop or yield the right-of-way before entering or crossing the same or designating any intersection as a stop intersection and requiring all vehicles to stop at one or more entrances to such intersections. 7. Licensing and regulating the operation of vehicles offered to the public for hire and used principally in intracity operation. 8. Restricting the use of highways as authorized in sections 321.471 to 321.473. 9. Regulating or prohibiting the turning of vehicles at and between intersections. 10. Regulating the operation of bicycles and requiring the registration and licensing of the same, including the requirement of a registration fee. However, the regulations shall not conflict with the provisions of section 321.234. 11. Establishing speed limits in public alleys and providing the penalty for violation thereof. 12. Designating highways or portions of highways as snow routes. a. When conditions of snow or ice exist on the traffic surface of a designated snow route, it is unlawful for the driver of a vehicle to impede or block traffic if the driving wheels of the vehicle are not equipped with snow tires, tire chains, or a nonslip differential. b. A person charged with impeding or blocking traffic for lack of snow tires, chains, or nonslip differential shall have the charge dismissed upon a showing to the court that the person's motor vehicle was equipped with snow tires, chains, or a nonslip differential. 13. Establishing a rural residence district. a. The board of supervisors of a county with respect to highways under its jurisdiction may establish, by ordinance or resolution, rural residence districts and may, by ordinance or resolution, regulate the speed and parking of vehicles within the rural residence district consistent with sections 321.239, 321.285, and 321.293. b. Before establishing a rural residence district, the board of supervisors shall hold a public hearing on the proposal, notice of which shall be published in a newspaper having a general circulation in the area where the proposed district is located at least twenty days before the date of hearing. The notice shall state the time and place of the hearing, the proposed location of the district, and other data considered pertinent by the board of supervisors. 14. Regulating or prohibiting the operation of electric personal assistive mobility devices authorized pursuant to section 321.235A.

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m18, -m20; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4992, 4995, 4997; C39,
      § 5018.01; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.236; 82 Acts, ch 1111, § 1] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 40, § 3; 86 Acts, ch 1056, § 2; 86 Acts, ch 1238, §
      14; 90 Acts, ch 1102, § 1; 90 Acts, ch 1151, § 2; 90 Acts, ch 1170, §
      2, 3; 92 Acts, ch 1122, § 1; 95 Acts, ch 169, §2; 97 Acts, ch 108,
      §13; 97 Acts, ch 147, §1; 2002 Acts, ch 1063, §31; 2003 Acts, ch 178,
      §14; 2005 Acts, ch 54, §3, 4, 12; 2009 Acts, ch 21, §1, 2; 2009 Acts,
      ch 41, §115, 252
         Referred to in § 321.40, 321.237, 321.285, 321.449, 331.362,
      364.3, 602.8103, 602.8106, 805.6, 805.8A(1a, 5a, 6a, 8, 9)
         For fines applicable to offenses charged as scheduled violations,
      see §805.8A
        

321.237 SIGNS -- REQUIREMENT -- NOTICE. A traffic ordinance or regulation enacted under subsection 4, 5, 6, 8, 12 or 13 of section 321.236 shall not be effective until signs, giving notice of such local traffic regulations as specified in the department manual on uniform traffic-control devices, are posted upon or at the entrances to the highway or part thereof affected as may be most appropriate and shall be erected at the expense of the local authority. When a city has adopted an ordinance as authorized in section 321.236, subsection 12, or an ordinance which prohibits standing or parking of vehicles upon a street or streets during any time when snow-removal operations are in progress and before such operations have resulted in the removal or clearance of snow from such street or streets, signs as specified in the above manual, posted as hereinabove provided shall be deemed sufficient notice of the existence of such restrictions.

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5018.02; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.237] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         86 Acts, ch 1056, § 3
         Referred to in § 331.362
         StartOfSec321.238  Repealed by 84 Acts, ch 1305, § 73.
         StartOfSec321.239  COUNTIES MAY RESTRICT PARKING OF VEHICLES.
         1.  The county board of supervisors may adopt, amend, or repeal
      traffic ordinances to regulate or prohibit the standing or parking of
      vehicles within the right-of-way of any highway under its
      jurisdiction.
         2.  Any person violating a traffic ordinance adopted under this
      section shall be guilty of a misdemeanor and shall, upon conviction,
      be fined not to exceed twenty-five dollars, or be imprisoned not to
      exceed seven days in the county jail.  The form and style of the
      information shall be in the name of the county and as against the
      person in violation of the traffic ordinance.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.239]
         Referred to in § 321.236, 331.362, 602.8103, 602.8106, 805.8A(1a)
         For fines applicable to offenses charged as scheduled violations,
      see §805.8A, subsection 1, paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.240  Repealed by 96 Acts, ch 1152, § 26.
         StartOfSec321.241 THROUGH 321.246  Repealed by 71 Acts, ch
      183, § 7.
         StartOfSec321.247  GOLF CART OPERATION ON CITY STREETS.
         Incorporated areas may, upon approval of their governing body,
      allow the operation of golf carts on city streets by persons
      possessing a valid driver's license.  However, a golf cart shall not
      be operated upon a city street which is a primary road extension
      through the city but shall be allowed to cross a city street which is
      a primary road extension through the city.  The golf carts shall be
      equipped with a slow moving vehicle sign and a bicycle safety flag
      and operate on the streets only from sunrise to sunset.  Golf carts
      operated on city streets shall be equipped with adequate brakes and
      shall meet any other safety requirements imposed by the governing
      body.  Golf carts are not subject to the registration provisions of
      this chapter.
         A person convicted of a violation of this section is guilty of a
      simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section
      805.8A, subsection 3, paragraph "f".  

         Section Historyarly Form

         [82 Acts, ch 1041, § 1] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §66; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9; 2000 Acts, ch 1203,
      §10; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5
         Referred to in § 331.362, 805.8A(3f)
         StartOfSec321.248  PARKS AND CEMETERIES.
         Local authorities may by general rule, ordinance, or regulation
      exclude vehicles from any cemetery or ground used for the burial of
      the dead, or exclude vehicles used solely or principally for
      commercial purposes, from any park or part of a park system where
      such general rule, ordinance, or regulation is applicable equally and
      generally to all other vehicles used for the same purpose, if, at the
      entrance, or at each entrance if there be more than one, to such
      cemetery or park from which vehicles are so excluded, there shall
      have been posted a sign plainly legible from the middle of the public
      highway on which such cemetery or park opens, plainly indicating such
      exclusion and prohibition.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m20; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4994; C39, § 5018.13;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.248]
         Referred to in § 331.362
         StartOfSec321.249  SCHOOL ZONES.
         Cities and counties shall have the power to establish school zones
      and provide for the stopping of all motor vehicles approaching the
      school zones, when movable stop signs have been placed in the streets
      in the cities and highways in counties at the limits of the zones,
      notwithstanding the provisions of any statute to the contrary.  All
      traffic-control devices provided for school zones shall conform to
      specifications included in the manual of traffic- control devices
      adopted by the department, except the provision prohibiting the use
      of portable or part-time stop signs.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4997-d1; C39, § 5018.14; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.249] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         97 Acts, ch 108, §14
         Referred to in § 331.362
         StartOfSec321.250  DISCRIMINATIONS.
         When the local authorities of other states shall, by the adoption
      of rules and regulations or otherwise, prohibit motor vehicles
      registered under the laws of this state from operating upon highways
      in any subdivision of such other state, the local authorities of this
      state may, by ordinance or otherwise, require the motor vehicles of
      the subdivisions of such other state while operating by their own
      power in this state to be registered under the laws of this state.
      

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4998; C39, § 5018.15; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.250]
         Referred to in § 331.362
         StartOfSec321.251  RIGHTS OF OWNERS OF REAL PROPERTY --
      MANUFACTURED HOME COMMUNITIES OR MOBILE HOME PARKS.
         1.  This chapter shall not be construed to prevent the owner of
      real property used by the public for purposes of vehicular travel by
      permission of the owner and not as matter of right from prohibiting
      such use, or from requiring other or different or additional
      conditions than those specified in this chapter, or otherwise
      regulating such use as may seem best to such owner.
         2. a.  The owner of real property upon which a manufactured
      home community or mobile home park is located may elect to have the
      vehicular traffic provisions of this chapter, or the ordinances,
      rules, or regulations of the local authority where the real property
      is located, apply to the real property and any persons located on the
      real property by granting authority to any peace officer to enforce
      the vehicular traffic provisions of this chapter, or the ordinances,
      rules, or regulations of the local authority as well as any
      regulations or conditions imposed on the real property pursuant to
      subsection 1.  An election made pursuant to this subsection shall not
      create a higher priority for the enforcement of traffic laws on real
      property upon which a manufactured or mobile home is located than
      exists for the enforcement of traffic laws on public property.
         b.  A written notice of election shall be filed with the
      designated officials of the local authority whose ordinances, rules,
      or regulations will govern the vehicular traffic.  The appropriate
      officials shall be the city clerk and chief of police of the city in
      which the real property is located and the county sheriff and the
      county recorder of the county in which the real property is located.
      The notice shall include the legal description of the real property,
      the street address, if any, and the date and time when the owner
      wishes the election to become effective.  The notice shall be signed
      by every titleholder of the real property and acknowledged by a
      notary public.
         c.  An election shall terminate fourteen days following the
      filing of a written notice of withdrawal with the designated
      officials of the local authority whose ordinances, rules, or
      regulations will govern.
         d.  For purposes of this subsection, "titleholder of real
      property" means the person or entity whose name appears on the
      documents of title filed in the official county records as the owner
      of the real property upon which a manufactured home community or
      mobile home park is located.
         3.  The titleholder of real property under subsection 2 may elect
      to waive the right to have the vehicular traffic provisions of this
      chapter, or the ordinances, rules, or regulations of the local
      authority where the real property is located, apply to the real
      property and any persons located on the real property, by recording a
      waiver with the county recorder of each county in which the property
      is located.  The waiver shall include the legal description of the
      real property and shall bind the titleholder of the real property and
      any successors in interest.  The waiver may only be rescinded if each
      law enforcement jurisdiction, in which the titleholder of real
      property wishes to obtain the benefit of this section, consents to
      the rescission of the waiver through adoption of a resolution.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5018.16; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.251] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         91 Acts, ch 91, § 1; 92 Acts, ch 1068, § 1; 93 Acts, ch 109, §2;
      2001 Acts, ch 153, §15, 16; 2001 Acts, ch 176, §80
         StartOfSec321.252  DEPARTMENT TO ADOPT SIGN MANUAL.
         The department shall adopt a manual and specifications for a
      uniform system of traffic-control devices consistent with the
      provisions of this chapter for use upon highways within this state.
      Such uniform system shall correlate with and so far as possible
      conform to the system then current as approved by the American
      association of state highway and transportation officials.
         The department shall include in its manual of traffic- control
      devices, specifications for a uniform system of highway signs for the
      purpose of guiding traffic to organized off-highway permanent camps,
      and camp areas, operated by recognized and established civic,
      religious, and nonprofit charitable organizations and to for- profit
      campgrounds and ski areas.  The department shall purchase, install,
      and maintain the signs upon the prepayment of the costs by the
      organization or owner.
         The department shall also establish criteria for guiding traffic
      on all fully controlled-access, divided, multilaned highways
      including interstate highways to each tourist attraction which is
      located within thirty miles of the highway and receives fifteen
      thousand or more visitors annually.  Nothing in this unnumbered
      paragraph shall be construed to prohibit the department from erecting
      signs to guide traffic on these highways to tourist attractions which
      are located more than thirty miles from the highway or which receive
      fewer than fifteen thousand visitors annually.
         The department shall establish, by rule, in cooperation with a
      tourist signing committee, the standards for tourist-oriented
      directional signs and shall annually review the list of attractions
      for which signing is in place.  The rules shall conform to national
      standards for tourist-oriented directional signs adopted under 23
      U.S.C. § 131(q) and to the manual of uniform traffic-control devices.
      The tourist signing committee shall be made up of the directors or
      their designees of the departments of economic development,
      agriculture and land stewardship, natural resources, cultural
      affairs, and transportation, the chairperson or the chairperson's
      designee of the Iowa travel council, and a member of the outdoor
      advertising association of Iowa.  The director or the director's
      designee of the department of economic development shall be the
      chairperson of the committee.  The department of transportation shall
      be responsible for calling and setting the date of the meetings of
      the committee which meetings shall be based upon the amount of
      activity relating to signs.  However, the committee shall meet at
      least once a month.  However, a tourist attraction is not subject to
      a minimum number of visitors annually to qualify for tourist-oriented
      directional signing.  The rules shall not be applicable to
      directional signs relating to historic sites on land owned or managed
      by state agencies, as provided in section 321.253A.  The rules shall
      include but are not limited to the following:
         1.  Criteria for eligibility for signing.
         2.  Criteria for limiting or excluding businesses, activities,
      services, and sites that maintain signs that do not conform to the
      requirements of chapter 306B, chapter 306C, division II, or other
      statutes or administrative rules regulating outdoor advertising.
         3.  Provisions for a fee schedule to cover the direct and indirect
      costs of sign manufacture, erection, and maintenance, and related
      administrative costs.
         4.  Provisions specifying maximum distances to eligible
      businesses, activities, services, and sites.  Tourist-oriented
      directional signs may be placed on highways within the maximum travel
      distance that have the greatest traffic count per day, if sufficient
      space is available.  If an adjacent landowner complains to the
      department about the placement of a tourist-oriented directional
      sign, the department shall attempt to reach an agreement with the
      landowner for relocating the sign.  If possible, the sign shall be
      relocated from the place of objection.  If the sign must be located
      on an objectionable place, it shall be located on the least
      objectionable place possible.
         5.  Provisions for trailblazing to facilities that are not on the
      crossroad.  Appropriate trailblazing shall be installed over the most
      desirable routes on lesser traveled primary highways, secondary
      roads, and city streets leading to the tourist attraction.
         6.  Criteria for determining when to permit advance signing.
         7.  Provisions specifying conditions under which the time of
      operation of a business, activity, service, or site is shown.
         8.  Provisions for masking or removing signs during off seasons
      for businesses, activities, services, and sites operated on a
      seasonal basis.  Faded signs shall be replaced and the commercial
      vendor charged for the cost of replacement based upon the fee
      schedule adopted.
         9.  Provisions specifying the maximum number of signs permitted
      per intersection.
         10.  Provisions for determining what businesses, activities,
      services, or sites are signed when there are more applicants than the
      maximum number of signs permitted.
         11.  Provisions for removing signs when businesses, activities,
      services, or sites cease to meet minimum requirements for
      participation and related costs.
         Local authorities shall adhere to the specifications for such
      signs as established by the department, and shall purchase, install,
      and maintain such signs in their respective jurisdictions upon
      prepayment by the organization of the cost of such purchase,
      installation, and maintenance.  The department shall include in its
      manual of traffic-control devices specifications for a uniform system
      of traffic-control devices in legally established school zones.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, § 4627; C31, 35, § 4627, 5079-d7; C39, § 5019.01;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.252] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         86 Acts, ch 1060, § 1, 2; 90 Acts, ch 1183, § 4
         Referred to in § 321.342, 668.10
         StartOfSec321.253  DEPARTMENT TO ERECT SIGNS.
         1.  The department shall place and maintain such traffic-control
      devices, conforming to its manual and specifications, upon all
      primary highways as it deems necessary to indicate and to carry out
      the provisions of this chapter or to regulate, warn, or guide
      traffic.  Whenever practical, the devices or signs shall be purchased
      from the director of the Iowa department of corrections.
         2.  The department shall post signs informing motorists of the
      penalties for speeding in a road work zone and that the scheduled
      fine for committing any other moving traffic violation in a road work
      zone is doubled.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, § 4627; C31, 35, § 4627, 5079-d7; C39, § 5019.02;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.253] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 96, § 157, 159, 160; 93 Acts, ch 114, § 2; 97 Acts, ch
      104, §19; 2008 Acts, ch 1124, §8
         Analogous provisions, § 321.345
         StartOfSec321.253A  DIRECTIONAL SIGNS RELATING TO HISTORIC SITES
      ON LAND OWNED OR MANAGED BY STATE AGENCIES.
         1.  The department shall place and maintain directional signs upon
      primary highways which provide information about historic sites which
      are located on land owned or managed by an agency as defined in
      section 17A.2.  The signs shall conform to the manual of uniform
      traffic devices.  However, the directional signs are not subject to
      requirements applicable to tourist-oriented directional signs.
         2.  Upon request by a city or county in which a historic site is
      located on land owned or managed by an agency, the department shall
      distribute a directional sign as provided in this section to the city
      or county for erection upon roads or streets within their
      jurisdictions.
         3.  The location of the historic site shall be memorialized on
      transportation maps of the state published under the direction of the
      department and generally made available to the public.  However, if
      it is not reasonable and feasible to display specific historic sites
      on the state transportation map, the department shall consult with
      the agency managing the historic site.
         4.  The department shall not erect, maintain, or distribute a
      directional sign or include on a transportation map information about
      a historic site located on land owned or managed by an agency if the
      department receives an objection by the agency.  

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1183, §5
         Referred to in § 321.252
         StartOfSec321.253B  METRIC SIGNS RESTRICTED.
         The department shall not place a sign relating to a speed limit,
      distance, or measurement on a highway if the sign establishes the
      speed limit, distance, or measurement solely by using the metric
      system, unless specifically required by federal law.  

         Section History: Recent Form

         95 Acts, ch 118, §23
         StartOfSec321.254  LOCAL AUTHORITIES RESTRICTED.
         No local authority shall place or maintain any traffic-control
      device upon any highway under the jurisdiction of the department
      except by the latter's permission.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5019.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.254]
         Referred to in § 331.362
         StartOfSec321.255  LOCAL TRAFFIC-CONTROL DEVICES.
         Local authorities in their respective jurisdiction shall place and
      maintain such traffic-control devices upon highways under their
      jurisdiction as they may deem necessary to indicate and to carry out
      the provisions of this chapter or local traffic ordinances or to
      regulate, warn, or guide traffic.  All such traffic-control devices
      hereafter erected shall conform to the state manual and
      specifications.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5019.04; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.255]
         Referred to in § 331.362
         StartOfSec321.256  OBEDIENCE TO OFFICIAL TRAFFIC-CONTROL
      DEVICES.
         No driver of a vehicle shall disobey the instructions of any
      official traffic-control device placed in accordance with the
      provisions of this chapter, unless at the time otherwise directed by
      a peace officer subject to the exceptions granted the driver of an
      authorized emergency vehicle.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5019.05; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.256]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(8)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 8
         StartOfSec321.257  OFFICIAL TRAFFIC-CONTROL SIGNAL.
         1.  For the purposes of this section "stop at the official
      traffic-control signal" means stopping at the first opportunity at
      either the clearly marked stop line or before entering the crosswalk
      or before entering the intersection.
         2.  Official traffic-control signals consisting of colored lights
      or colored lighted arrows shall regulate vehicle and pedestrian
      traffic in the following manner:
         a.  A "steady circular red" light means vehicular traffic
      shall stop.  Vehicular traffic shall remain standing until a signal
      to proceed is shown or vehicular traffic, unless prohibited by a
      sign, may cautiously enter the intersection to make a right turn from
      the right lane of traffic or a left turn from a one-way street to a
      one-way street from the left lane of traffic on a one-way street onto
      the leftmost lane of traffic on a one-way street.  Turns made under
      this paragraph shall be made in a manner that does not interfere with
      other vehicular or pedestrian traffic lawfully using the
      intersection.  Pedestrian traffic facing a steady circular red light
      shall not enter the roadway unless the pedestrian can safely cross
      the roadway without interfering with any vehicular traffic.
         b.  A "steady circular yellow" or "steady yellow
      arrow" light means vehicular traffic is warned that the related
      green movement is being terminated and vehicular traffic shall no
      longer proceed into the intersection and shall stop.  If the stop
      cannot be made in safety, a vehicle may be driven cautiously through
      the intersection.  Pedestrian traffic is warned that there is
      insufficient time to cross the intersection and any pedestrian
      starting to cross the roadway shall yield the right-of-way to all
      vehicles.
         c.  A "steady circular green" light means vehicular
      traffic may proceed straight, turn right or turn left through the
      intersection unless otherwise specifically prohibited.  Vehicular
      traffic shall yield the right-of-way to other vehicular and
      pedestrian traffic lawfully within the intersection.
         d.  A "steady green arrow" light shown alone or with
      another official traffic-control signal means vehicular traffic may
      cautiously enter the intersection and proceed in the direction
      indicated by the arrow.  Vehicular traffic shall yield the
      right-of-way to other vehicles and pedestrians lawfully within the
      intersection.
         e.  A "flashing circular red" light means vehicular
      traffic shall stop and after stopping may proceed cautiously through
      the intersection yielding to all vehicles not required to stop or
      yield which are within the intersection or approaching so closely as
      to constitute a hazard, but then may proceed.
         f.  A "flashing yellow" light means vehicular traffic
      shall proceed through the intersection or past such signal with
      caution.
         g.  A "don't walk" light is a pedestrian signal which
      means that pedestrian traffic facing the illuminated pedestrian
      signal shall not start to cross the roadway in the direction of the
      pedestrian signal, and pedestrian traffic in the crossing shall
      proceed to a safety zone.
         h.  A "walk" light is a pedestrian signal which means that
      pedestrian traffic facing the illuminated pedestrian signal may
      proceed to cross the roadway in the direction of the pedestrian
      signal and shall be given the right-of-way by drivers of all
      vehicles.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5019.06, 5019.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75,
      77, § 321.257, 321.258; C79, 81, § 321.257]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(7a, 9)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 7,
      paragraph a, and subsection 9
         StartOfSec321.258  ARRANGEMENT OF LIGHTS ON OFFICIAL
      TRAFFIC-CONTROL SIGNALS.
         1.  Colored lights placed on a vertical official traffic-control
      signal face shall be arranged from the top to the bottom in the
      following order when used:  Circular red, circular yellow, circular
      green, straight through yellow arrow, straight through green arrow,
      left turn yellow arrow, left turn green arrow, right turn yellow
      arrow, and right turn green arrow.
         2.  Colored lights placed on a horizontal official traffic-control
      signal face shall be arranged from the left to the right in the
      following order when used:  Circular red, circular yellow, left turn
      yellow arrow, left turn green arrow, circular green, straight through
      yellow arrow, straight through green arrow, right turn yellow arrow,
      and right turn green arrow.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C79, 81, § 321.258]
         StartOfSec321.259  UNAUTHORIZED SIGNS, SIGNALS, OR MARKINGS.
         No person shall place, maintain, or display upon or in view of any
      highway any sign, signal, marking, or device which purports to be or
      is an imitation of or resembles an official parking sign, curb or
      other marking, traffic-control device or railroad sign or signal, or
      which attempts to direct the movement of traffic, or which hides from
      view or interferes with the effectiveness of any official
      traffic-control device or any railroad sign or signal, if such sign,
      signal, marking, or device has not been authorized by the department
      and local authorities with reference to streets and highways under
      their jurisdiction and no person shall place or maintain nor shall
      any public authority permit upon any highway any traffic sign or
      signal bearing thereon any commercial advertising.  This shall not be
      deemed to prohibit the erection upon private property adjacent to
      highways of signs giving useful directional information of a type
      that cannot be mistaken for official signs.
         Every such prohibited sign, signal, or marking is hereby declared
      to be a public nuisance and the authority having jurisdiction over
      the highway is hereby empowered to remove the same or cause it to be
      removed without notice.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5019.08; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.259]
         Nuisances in general, chapter 657
         StartOfSec321.260  INTERFERENCE WITH DEVICES, SIGNS, OR SIGNALS
      -- UNLAWFUL POSSESSION -- TRAFFIC SIGNAL PREEMPTION DEVICES.
         1. a.  A person who willfully and intentionally, without
      lawful authority, attempts to or in fact alters, defaces, injures,
      knocks down, or removes an official traffic-control device, an
      authorized warning sign or signal or barricade, whether temporary or
      permanent, a railroad sign or signal, an inscription, shield, or
      insignia on any of such devices, signs, signals, or barricades, or
      any other part thereof, shall, upon conviction, be guilty of a simple
      misdemeanor and shall be required to make restitution to the affected
      jurisdiction.  In addition to any other penalties, the punishment
      imposed for a violation of this subsection shall include assessment
      of a fine of not less than two hundred fifty dollars.
         b.  A person who is convicted under paragraph "a" of an
      act relating to a stop sign or a yield sign may be required to
      complete community service in addition to making restitution to the
      affected jurisdiction.
         2.  It shall be unlawful for any person to have in the person's
      possession any official traffic-control device except by legal right
      or authority.  Any person convicted of unauthorized possession of any
      official traffic-control device shall upon conviction be guilty of a
      simple misdemeanor.  In addition to any other penalties, the
      punishment imposed for a violation of this subsection shall include
      assessment of a fine of not less than two hundred fifty dollars.
         3. a.  A person shall not sell, own, possess, or use a traffic
      signal preemption device except as permitted in connection with the
      lawful operation of an authorized emergency vehicle as defined in
      section 321.1 or as otherwise authorized by the jurisdiction owning
      and operating an official traffic control signal.  A person who is
      convicted of the unauthorized sale, ownership, possession, or use of
      a traffic signal preemption device is guilty of a simple misdemeanor.
      In addition to any other penalties, the punishment imposed for a
      violation under this subsection shall include assessment of a fine of
      not less than two hundred fifty dollars, and if the violation
      involves the unauthorized use of a traffic signal preemption device,
      the person may also be required to complete community service.
         b.  For purposes of this subsection, "traffic signal
      preemption device" means a device that, when activated, is capable
      of changing an official traffic control signal to green out of
      sequence.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5019.09; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.260] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1064, §1; 91 Acts, ch 131, §1; 99 Acts, ch 153, §3, 4;
      2005 Acts, ch 63, §1
         StartOfSec321.261  DEATH OR PERSONAL INJURIES.
         1.  The driver of any vehicle involved in an accident resulting in
      injury to or death of any person shall immediately stop the vehicle
      at the scene of the accident or as close as possible and if able,
      shall then return to and remain at the scene of the accident in
      accordance with section 321.263.  Every such stop shall be made
      without obstructing traffic more than is necessary.
         2.  Any person failing to stop or to comply with the requirements
      in subsection 1 of this section, in the event of an accident
      resulting in an injury to any person is guilty upon conviction of a
      serious misdemeanor.
         3.  Notwithstanding subsection 2, any person failing to stop or to
      comply with the requirements in subsection 1, in the event of an
      accident resulting in a serious injury to any person, is guilty upon
      conviction of an aggravated misdemeanor.  For purposes of this
      section, "serious injury" means as defined in section 702.18.
         4.  A person failing to stop or to comply with the requirements in
      subsection 1, in the event of an accident resulting in the death of a
      person, is guilty upon conviction of a class "D" felony.
         5.  The director shall revoke the driver's license of a person
      convicted of a violation of this section.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m23; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5072, 5074; C39, §
      5020.01; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.261; 81 Acts, ch 103, § 4] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §67; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9; 2006 Acts, ch 1082,
      §1, 2
         Referred to in § 321.228, 321.484, 321.555, 515D.4, 902.12, 915.80

         StartOfSec321.262  LEAVING SCENE OF TRAFFIC ACCIDENT -- VEHICLE
      DAMAGE ONLY.
         The driver of any vehicle involved in an accident resulting only
      in damage to a vehicle which is driven or attended by any person
      shall immediately stop such vehicle at the scene of such accident or
      as close thereto as possible but shall forthwith return to and in
      every event shall remain at the scene of such accident until the
      driver has fulfilled the requirements of section 321.263.  Every such
      stop shall be made without obstructing traffic more than is
      necessary.  Any person failing to stop or comply with said
      requirements under such circumstances shall be guilty of a
      misdemeanor and punished as provided in section 321.482.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m23; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5079; C39, § 5020.02;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.262]
         Referred to in § 321.228, 321.484
         StartOfSec321.263  INFORMATION AND AID -- LEAVING SCENE OF
      PERSONAL INJURY ACCIDENT.
         1.  The driver of a vehicle involved in an accident resulting in
      injury to or death of a person or damage to a vehicle which is driven
      or attended by a person shall give the driver's name, address, and
      the registration number of the vehicle the driver is driving and
      shall upon request and if available exhibit the driver's driver's
      license to the person struck, the driver or occupant of, or the
      person attending the vehicle involved in the accident and shall
      render to a person injured in the accident reasonable assistance,
      including the transporting or arranging for the transporting of the
      person for medical treatment if it is apparent that medical treatment
      is necessary or if transportation for medical treatment is requested
      by the injured person.
         2.  If the accident causes the death of a person, all surviving
      drivers shall remain at the scene of the accident except to seek
      necessary aid or to report the accident to law enforcement
      authorities.  Before leaving the scene of the fatal accident, each
      surviving driver shall leave the surviving driver's driver's license,
      automobile registration receipt, or other identification data at the
      scene of the accident.  After leaving the scene of the accident, a
      surviving driver shall promptly report the accident to law
      enforcement authorities, and shall immediately return to the scene of
      the accident or inform the law enforcement authorities where the
      surviving driver can be located.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m23; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5072, 5079; C39, §
      5020.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.263] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §68; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §9
         Referred to in § 321.228, 321.261, 321.262, 321.555
         StartOfSec321.264  STRIKING UNATTENDED VEHICLE.
         The driver of any vehicle which collides with any vehicle which is
      unattended shall immediately stop and shall then and there either
      locate and notify the operator or owner of such vehicle of the name
      and address of the driver and owner of the vehicle striking the
      unattended vehicle or shall leave in a conspicuous place in the
      vehicle struck a written notice giving the name and address of the
      driver and of the owner of the vehicle doing the striking and a
      statement of the circumstances thereof.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5079; C39, § 5020.04; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.264]
         Referred to in § 321.228, 321.484
         StartOfSec321.265  STRIKING FIXTURES UPON A HIGHWAY.
         The driver of a vehicle involved in an accident resulting in
      damage to property legally upon or adjacent to a highway shall take
      reasonable steps to locate and notify the owner, a peace officer, or
      person in charge of the damaged property of the damage and shall
      inform the person of the driver's name and address and the
      registration number of the vehicle causing the damage and shall, upon
      request and if available, exhibit the driver's license of the driver
      of the vehicle and shall report the accident when and as required in
      section 321.266.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5079; C39, § 5020.05; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.265] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         90 Acts, ch 1230, §69; 98 Acts, ch 1073, §6
         Referred to in § 321.228
         StartOfSec321.266  REPORTING ACCIDENTS.
         1.  The driver of a vehicle involved in an accident resulting in
      injury to or death of any person shall immediately by the quickest
      means of communication give notice of such accident to the sheriff of
      the county in which said accident occurred, or the nearest office of
      the state patrol, or to any other peace officer as near as
      practicable to the place where the accident occurred.
         2.  The driver of a vehicle involved in an accident resulting in
      injury to or death of any person, or total property damage to an
      apparent extent of one thousand dollars or more shall, within
      seventy-two hours after the accident, forward a written report of the
      accident to the department.  However, such report is not required
      when the accident is investigated by a law enforcement agency.
         3.  Every law enforcement officer who, in the regular course of
      duty, investigates a motor vehicle accident of which report must be
      made as required in subsections 1 to 3 of this section, either at the
      time of and at the scene of the accident or thereafter by
      interviewing participants or witnesses shall, within twenty-four
      hours after completing such investigation, forward a written report
      of such accident to the department.
         4.  Notwithstanding section 455B.386, a carrier transporting
      hazardous material upon a public highway in this state, in the case
      of an accident involving the transportation of the hazardous
      material, shall immediately notify the police radio broadcasting
      system established pursuant to section 693.1 or shall notify a peace
      officer of the county or city in which the accident occurs.  When a
      local law enforcement agency is informed of the accident, the agency
      shall notify the state patrol and the state department of
      transportation office of motor vehicle enforcement.  A person who
      violates a provision of this subsection is guilty of a serious
      misdemeanor.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m23; C24, § 5073, 5075, 5104; C27, 31, 35, § 5073,
      5075, 5105-a35, 5105-c21; C39, § 5020.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.266; 81 Acts, ch 103, § 5] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 170, §6; 97 Acts, ch 72, §1; 97 Acts, ch 108, § 15; 98
      Acts, ch 1074, §23; 2002 Acts, ch 1063, §32; 2005 Acts, ch 35, §31
         Referred to in § 321.228, 321.265, 321.267, 321.271, 321G.10,
      321I.11
         StartOfSec321.267  SUPPLEMENTAL REPORTS.
         The department may require any driver of a vehicle involved in an
      accident of which report must be made as provided in section 321.266
      to file supplemental reports whenever the original report is
      insufficient in the opinion of the department and may require
      witnesses of accidents to render reports to the department.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5020.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.267]
         Referred to in § 321.228
         StartOfSec321.267A  TRAFFIC ACCIDENTS INVOLVING CERTIFIED LAW
      ENFORCEMENT OFFICERS OR OTHER EMERGENCY RESPONDERS -- REPORTS.
         1.  Any traffic accident involving the operation of a motor
      vehicle by a certified law enforcement officer or other emergency
      responder shall be reported to the department by the officer's or
      responder's employer.  The officer's or responder's employer shall
      certify to the department whether or not the accident occurred in the
      line of duty while operating an official government vehicle or during
      the responder's deployment on an emergency call.  Such a
      certification is effective only for the purposes of this section.
         2.  Notwithstanding section 321.200, upon receiving a
      certification pursuant to subsection 1, the department shall not
      include a notation of the accident described in the certification on
      the officer's or responder's driving record.
         3.  The provisions of this section shall not relieve a certified
      law enforcement officer or other emergency responder operating a
      motor vehicle of the duty to drive with due regard for the safety of
      all persons.
         4.  For the purposes of this section, "certified law enforcement
      officer" means a law enforcement officer who is certified through
      the Iowa law enforcement academy as provided in section 80B.13,
      subsection 3, or section 80B.17.
         5.  For the purposes of this section, "other emergency
      responder" means a fire fighter certified as a fire fighter I
      pursuant to rules adopted under chapter 100B and trained in emergency
      driving or an emergency medical responder certified under chapter
      147A and trained in emergency driving.  

         Section History: Recent Form

         2006 Acts, ch 1137, §1
         Referred to in § 321.228
         StartOfSec321.268  DRIVER UNABLE TO REPORT.
         Whenever the driver of a vehicle is physically incapable of making
      a required accident report and there was another occupant in the
      vehicle at the time of the accident capable of making a report, such
      occupant shall make or cause to be made said report.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5020.08; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.268]
         Referred to in § 321.228
         StartOfSec321.269  ACCIDENT REPORT FORMS.
         The department shall prepare and upon request supply to police
      departments, coroners, sheriffs, and other suitable agencies or
      individuals, forms for accident reports required hereunder, which
      reports shall call for sufficiently detailed information to disclose
      with reference to a traffic accident the cause, condition then
      existing, and the persons and vehicles involved.
         Every required accident report shall be made on a form approved by
      the department if said form is available.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5020.09; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.269]
         Referred to in § 321.228
         StartOfSec321.270  Reserved.
         StartOfSec321.271  REPORTS CONFIDENTIAL -- WITHOUT PREJUDICE --
      EXCEPTIONS.
         1.  All accident reports filed by a driver of a vehicle involved
      in an accident as required under section 321.266 shall be in writing.
      The report shall be without prejudice to the individual so reporting
      and shall be for the confidential use of the department, except that
      upon the request of any person involved in the accident, the person's
      insurance company or its agent, or the attorney for such person, the
      department shall disclose the identity and address of other persons
      involved in the accident and may disclose the name of the insurance
      companies with whom the other persons have liability insurance.  The
      department, upon written request of the person making the report,
      shall provide the person with a copy of that person's report.  The
      written report filed with the department shall not be admissible in
      or used in evidence in any civil or criminal case arising out of the
      facts on which the report is based.
         2.  All written reports filed by a law enforcement officer as
      required under section 321.266 shall be made available to any party
      to an accident, the party's insurance company or its agent, the
      party's attorney, the federal motor carrier safety administration, or
      the attorney general, on written request to the department and the
      payment of a fee of four dollars for each copy.  If a copy of an
      investigating officer's report of a motor vehicle accident filed with
      the department is retained by the law enforcement agency of the
      officer who filed the report, a copy shall be made available to any
      party to the accident, the party's insurance company or its agent,
      the party's attorney, the federal motor carrier safety
      administration, or the attorney general, on written request and the
      payment of a fee.  However, the attorney general and the federal
      motor carrier safety administration shall not be required by the
      department or the law enforcement agency to pay a fee for a copy of a
      report filed by a law enforcement or investigating officer.
         3.  Notwithstanding subsections 1 and 2, the date, time, specific
      location, and immediate facts and circumstances surrounding a crime
      or incident shall not be kept confidential under this section, except
      in those unusual circumstances where disclosure would plainly and
      seriously jeopardize an investigation or pose a clear and present
      danger to the safety of an individual.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5020.11; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.271; 81 Acts, ch 14, § 25] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 72, § 1; 90 Acts, ch 1054, § 1, 2; 98 Acts, ch 1073,
      §7; 2001 Acts, ch 32, §18; 2003 Acts, ch 8, §16
         Referred to in § 321.228, 321.273
         StartOfSec321.272  TABULATION OF REPORTS.
         The department shall tabulate and may analyze all accident reports
      and shall publish annually or at more frequent intervals statistical
      information based thereon as to the number and circumstances of
      traffic accidents.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5020.12; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.272]
         Referred to in § 321.228
         StartOfSec321.273  CITY MAY REQUIRE REPORTS.
         Any incorporated city or other municipality may by ordinance
      require that the driver of a vehicle involved in an accident shall
      also file with a designated city department a report of such accident
      or a copy of any report herein required to be filed with the
      department.  All such reports shall be for the confidential use of
      the city department and subject to the provisions of section 321.271.
      

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5020.13; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.273]
         Referred to in § 321.228
         StartOfSec321.274  Repealed by 98 Acts, ch 1178, § 16.
         StartOfSec321.275  OPERATION OF MOTORCYCLES AND MOTORIZED
      BICYCLES.
         1.  General.  The motor vehicle laws apply to the operators of
      motorcycles and motorized bicycles to the extent practically
      applicable.
         2.  Riders.
         a.  Motorized bicycles.  A person operating a motorized
      bicycle on the highways shall not carry any other person on the
      vehicle.
         b.  Motorcycles.  A person shall not operate or ride a
      motorcycle on the highways with another person on the motorcycle
      unless the motorcycle is designed to carry more than one person.  The
      additional passenger may ride upon the permanent and regular seat if
      designed for two persons, or upon another seat firmly attached to the
      motorcycle at the rear of the operator.  The motorcycle shall be
      equipped with footrests for the passenger unless the passenger is
      riding in a sidecar or enclosed cab.  The motorcycle operator shall
      not carry any person nor shall any other person ride in a position
      that will interfere with the operation or control of the motorcycle
      or the view of the operator.
         3.  Sitting position.  A person operating a motorcycle or
      motorized bicycle shall ride only upon the vehicle's permanent and
      regular attached seat.  Every person riding upon the vehicle shall be
      sitting astride the seat, facing forward with one leg on either side
      of the vehicle.
         4.  Use of traffic lanes.  Persons shall not operate
      motorcycles or motorized bicycles more than two abreast in a single
      lane.  Except for persons operating such vehicles two abreast, a
      motor vehicle shall not be operated in a manner depriving a
      motorcycle or motorized bicycle operator of the full use of a lane.
      A motorcycle or motorized bicycle shall not be operated between lanes
      of traffic or between adjacent lines or rows of vehicles.  The
      operator of a motorcycle or motorized bicycle shall not overtake and
      pass in the same lane occupied by the vehicle being overtaken unless
      the vehicle being overtaken is a motorcycle or motorized bicycle.
         5.  Headlights on.  A person shall not operate a 1977 or later
      model year motorcycle or any model year motorized bicycle upon the
      highways without displaying at least one lighted headlamp of the type
      described in section 321.409.  However, this subsection is subject to
      the exceptions with respect to parked vehicles as provided in this
      chapter.
         6.  Packages.  The operator of a motorcycle or motorized
      bicycle shall not carry any package, bundle, or other article which
      prevents the operator from keeping both hands on the handlebars.
         7.  Parades.  The provisions of this section do not apply to
      motorcycles or motorized bicycles when used in a parade authorized by
      proper permit from local authorities.
         8.  Bicycle safety flags required on motorized bicycles.  When
      operated on a highway, a motorized bicycle shall have a bicycle
      safety flag which extends not less than five feet above the ground
      attached to the rear of the motorized bicycle.  The bicycle safety
      flag shall be triangular in shape with an area of not less than
      thirty square inches, and be Day-Glo in color.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.275] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         89 Acts, ch 184, §1; 98 Acts, ch 1075, §22; 98 Acts, ch 1178, §3
         Referred to in § 321.482A, 805.8A(6b, 9)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph b, and subsection 9
         Additional penalties for violations of subsection 4 causing
      serious injury or death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.276  Reserved.
         StartOfSec321.277  RECKLESS DRIVING.
         Any person who drives any vehicle in such manner as to indicate
      either a willful or a wanton disregard for the safety of persons or
      property is guilty of reckless driving.
         Every person convicted of reckless driving shall be guilty of a
      simple misdemeanor.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C73, § 4071; C97, § 5039; S13, § 1571-m19; C24, 27, 31, 35, §
      5028; C39, § 5022.04, 5022.05; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, § 321.283,
      321.284; C66, 71, 73, § 321.283; C75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.277]
         Referred to in § 321.228, 321.233, 707.6A, 915.80
         StartOfSec321.277A  CARELESS DRIVING.
         A person commits careless driving if the person intentionally
      operates a motor vehicle on a public road or highway in any one of
      the following ways:
         1.  Creates or causes unnecessary tire squealing, skidding, or
      sliding upon acceleration or stopping.
         2.  Simulates a temporary race.
         3.  Causes any wheel or wheels to unnecessarily lose contact with
      the ground.
         4.  Causes the vehicle to unnecessarily turn abruptly or sway.  

         Section History: Recent Form


         97 Acts, ch 147, §2
         Referred to in § 805.8A(6b)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph b
         StartOfSec321.278  DRAG RACING PROHIBITED.
         No person shall engage in any motor vehicle speed contest or
      exhibition of speed on any street or highway of this state and no
      person shall aid or abet any motor vehicle speed contest or speed
      exhibition on any street or highway of this state, except that a
      passenger shall not be considered as aiding and abetting.  Motor
      vehicle speed contest or exhibition of speed are defined as one or
      more persons competing in speed in excess of the applicable speed
      limit in vehicles on the public streets or highways.
         Any person who violates the provisions of this section shall be
      guilty of a simple misdemeanor.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C66, 71, 73, § 321.284; C75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.278]
         Referred to in § 707.6A, 707.8, 805.8A(5d)
         StartOfSec321.279  ELUDING OR ATTEMPTING TO ELUDE PURSUING LAW
      ENFORCEMENT VEHICLE.
         1.  The driver of a motor vehicle commits a serious misdemeanor if
      the driver willfully fails to bring the motor vehicle to a stop or
      otherwise eludes or attempts to elude a marked official law
      enforcement vehicle driven by a uniformed peace officer after being
      given a visual and audible signal to stop.  The signal given by the
      peace officer shall be by flashing red light, or by flashing red and
      blue lights, and siren.  For purposes of this section, "peace
      officer" means those officers designated under section 801.4,
      subsection 11, paragraphs "a", "b", "c", "f",
      "g", and "h".
         2.  The driver of a motor vehicle commits an aggravated
      misdemeanor if the driver willfully fails to bring the motor vehicle
      to a stop or otherwise eludes or attempts to elude a marked official
      law enforcement vehicle that is driven by a uniformed peace officer
      after being given a visual and audible signal as provided in this
      section and in doing so exceeds the speed limit by twenty-five miles
      per hour or more.
         3.  The driver of a motor vehicle commits a class "D" felony if
      the driver willfully fails to bring the motor vehicle to a stop or
      otherwise eludes or attempts to elude a marked official law
      enforcement vehicle that is driven by a uniformed peace officer after
      being given a visual and audible signal as provided in this section,
      and in doing so exceeds the speed limit by twenty-five miles per hour
      or more, and if any of the following occurs:
         a.  The driver is participating in a public offense, as
      defined in section 702.13, that is a felony.
         b.  The driver is in violation of section 321J.2 or 124.401.
         c.  The offense results in bodily injury to a person other
      than the driver.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C81, § 321.279] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         94 Acts, ch 1069, §1; 99 Acts, ch 31, §1; 2002 Acts, ch 1119,
      §153; 2008 Acts, ch 1147, §3
         Referred to in § 321.209, 321.555, 707.6A
         StartOfSec321.280  ASSAULTS AND HOMICIDE.
         A conviction of the violation of any of the provisions of this
      chapter shall not be a bar to a prosecution for an assault or for a
      homicide committed by any person in operating motor vehicles.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m30; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5091; C39, § 5022.01;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.280]
         Referred to in § 321.228, 321.233
         StartOfSec321.281 THROUGH 321.283  Repealed by 86 Acts, ch
      1220, § 47--49.
         StartOfSec321.284  OPEN CONTAINERS IN MOTOR VEHICLES --
      DRIVERS.
         A driver of a motor vehicle upon a public street or highway shall
      not possess in the passenger area of the motor vehicle an open or
      unsealed bottle, can, jar, or other receptacle containing an
      alcoholic beverage.  "Passenger area" means the area designed to
      seat the driver and passengers while the motor vehicle is in
      operation and any area that is readily accessible to the driver or a
      passenger while in their seating positions, including the glove
      compartment.  An open or unsealed receptacle containing an alcoholic
      beverage may be transported in the trunk of the motor vehicle.  An
      unsealed receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage may be
      transported behind the last upright seat of the motor vehicle if the
      motor vehicle does not have a trunk.  A person convicted of a
      violation of this section is guilty of a simple misdemeanor
      punishable as a scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection
      14, paragraph "e".  

         Section History: Recent Form<

         95 Acts, ch 48, §5; 98 Acts, ch 1100, §47; 98 Acts, ch 1204, §3;
      99 Acts, ch 77, §1; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5
         Referred to in § 123.30, 805.8A(14e)
         StartOfSec321.284A  OPEN CONTAINERS IN MOTOR VEHICLES --
      PASSENGERS.
         1.  A passenger in a motor vehicle upon a public street or highway
      shall not possess in the passenger area of the motor vehicle an open
      or unsealed bottle, can, jar, or other receptacle containing an
      alcoholic beverage.  "Passenger area" means the area of a motor
      vehicle designed to seat the driver and passengers while the motor
      vehicle is in operation and any area that is readily accessible to
      the driver or a passenger while in their seating positions, including
      the glove compartment.  An open or unsealed receptacle containing an
      alcoholic beverage may be transported in the trunk of the motor
      vehicle.  An unsealed receptacle containing an alcoholic beverage may
      be transported behind the last upright seat of the motor vehicle if
      the motor vehicle does not have a trunk.
         2.  This section does not apply to a passenger being transported
      in a motor vehicle designed, maintained, or used primarily for the
      transportation of persons for compensation, or a passenger being
      transported in the living quarters of a motor home, manufactured or
      mobile home, travel trailer, or fifth-wheel travel trailer.
         3.  A person convicted of a violation of this section is guilty of
      a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under
      section 805.8A, subsection 14, paragraph "e".
         4.  The department shall not include a conviction for a violation
      of this section on the individual driving record of the person
      committing the violation and the conviction shall not be considered
      by the department in any proceeding for suspension, revocation,
      barring, or denying of the person's driver's license or upon any
      application for renewal of driving privileges.  

         Section History: Recent Form

         99 Acts, ch 77, §2; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5; 2001 Acts, ch 153, §15;
      2001 Acts, ch 176, §80
         Referred to in § 123.30, 805.8A(14e)
         StartOfSec321.285  SPEED RESTRICTIONS.
         1.  Any person driving a motor vehicle on a highway shall drive
      the same at a careful and prudent speed not greater than nor less
      than is reasonable and proper, having due regard to the traffic,
      surface, and width of the highway and of any other conditions then
      existing, and no person shall drive any vehicle upon a highway at a
      speed greater than will permit the person to bring it to a stop
      within the assured clear distance ahead, such driver having the right
      to assume, however, that all persons using said highway will observe
      the law.
         2. a.  Unless otherwise provided by this section, or except as
      posted pursuant to sections 262.68, 321.236, subsection 5, section
      321.288, subsection 6, sections 321.289, 321.290, 321.293, 321.295,
      and 461A.36, the following shall be the lawful speed and any speed in
      excess thereof shall be unlawful:
         (1)  Twenty miles per hour in any business district.
         (2)  Twenty-five miles per hour in any residence or school
      district.
         (3)  Forty-five miles per hour in any suburban district.
         b.  Each school district as defined in subsection 70 of
      section 321.1 shall be marked by distinctive signs as provided by the
      current manual of uniform traffic control devices adopted by the
      department and placed on the highway at the limits of such school
      district.
         3.  Unless otherwise provided in this section or by other speed
      restrictions, the speed limit for all vehicular traffic shall be
      fifty-five miles per hour.
         4.  A reasonable and proper speed is required, but not greater
      than fifty-five miles per hour at any time between sunrise and
      sunset, and not greater than fifty miles per hour at any time between
      sunset and sunrise, on secondary roads unless such roads are surfaced
      with concrete or asphalt or a combination of both, in which case the
      speed limits shall be the same as provided in subsection 3.  When the
      board of supervisors of any county shall determine upon the basis of
      an engineering and traffic investigation that the speed limit on any
      secondary road is greater than is reasonable and proper under the
      conditions found to exist at any intersection or other place or upon
      any part of a secondary road, the board shall determine and declare a
      reasonable and proper speed limit at the intersection or other part
      of the secondary road.  The speed limits as determined by the board
      of supervisors shall be effective when appropriate signs giving
      notice of the speed limits are erected by the board of supervisors at
      the intersection or other place or part of the highway.
         5. a.  Notwithstanding any other speed restrictions, the speed
      limit for all vehicular traffic on fully controlled-access, divided,
      multilaned highways is sixty-five miles per hour.  However, the speed
      limit for all vehicular traffic on highways that are part of the
      interstate road system, as defined in section 306.3, is seventy miles
      per hour.  The department may establish a speed limit of sixty-five
      miles per hour on certain divided, multilaned highways not otherwise
      described in this paragraph.
         b.  The department, on its own motion or in response to a
      recommendation of a metropolitan or regional planning commission or
      council of governments, may establish a lower speed limit on a
      highway described in this subsection.
         c.  For the purposes of this subsection, "fully
      controlled-access highway" means a highway that gives preference to
      through traffic by providing access connections with selected public
      roads only and by prohibiting crossings at grade or direct private
      driveway connections.
         d.  A minimum speed may be established by the department on
      the highways referred to in this subsection if warranted by
      engineering and traffic investigations.
         e.  Any kind of vehicle, implement, or conveyance incapable of
      attaining and maintaining a speed of forty miles per hour shall be
      prohibited from using the interstate road system.
         6.  Notwithstanding any other speed restrictions, a self-propelled
      implement of husbandry equipped with flotation tires that is designed
      to be loaded and operated in the field and used exclusively for the
      application of organic or inorganic plant food materials,
      agricultural limestone, or agricultural chemicals shall not be
      operated on a highway at a speed in excess of thirty-five miles per
      hour.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m19, -m20; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5029, 5030; C39, §
      5023.01; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.285] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 120, §2; 93 Acts, ch 47, § 3--7; 94 Acts, ch 1173,
      §15; 96 Acts, ch 1126, § 5; 96 Acts, ch 1191, § 1; 2005 Acts, ch 165,
      §1; 2007 Acts, ch 143, §15; 2009 Acts, ch 133, §119
         Referred to in § 321.233, 321.236, 321.291, 321.292, 321.293,
      331.362, 805.8A(5a, 10)
         Speed limits at regents institutions, see § 262.68
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsections 5 and 10
         StartOfSec321.286 AND 321.287  Repealed by 93 Acts, ch 47, §
      14.
         StartOfSec321.288  CONTROL OF VEHICLE -- REDUCED SPEED.
         A person operating a motor vehicle shall have the vehicle under
      control at all times and shall reduce the speed to a reasonable and
      proper rate:
         1.  When approaching and passing a person walking in the traveled
      portion of the public highway.
         2.  When approaching and passing an animal which is being led,
      ridden, or driven upon a public highway.
         3.  When approaching and traversing a crossing or intersection of
      public highways, or a bridge, sharp turn, curve, or steep descent, in
      a public highway.
         4.  When approaching and passing an emergency warning device
      displayed in accordance with rules adopted under section 321.449, or
      an emergency vehicle displaying a revolving or flashing light.
         5.  When approaching and passing a slow moving vehicle displaying
      a reflective device or alternative reflective device as provided by
      section 321.383.
         6.  When approaching and passing through a sign-posted road work
      zone upon the public highway.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m18; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5031; C39, § 5023.04;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.288] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 167, §2; 87 Acts, ch 170, §7; 89 Acts, ch 296, §33; 97
      Acts, ch 104, §20; 99 Acts, ch 102, §1
         Referred to in § 321.285, 805.8A(6c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph c
         StartOfSec321.289  SPEED SIGNS -- DUTY TO INSTALL.
         The department shall furnish and place on primary roads or on
      extensions of primary roads within any city suitable standard signs
      showing the points at which the rate of speed changes and the maximum
      rate of speed in the district which the vehicle is entering.  On all
      other main highways the city shall furnish and erect suitable signs
      giving similar information to traffic on such highways.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m20; C24, § 5030; C27, 31, 35, § 5030-b2; C39, §
      5023.05; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.289]
         Referred to in § 321.285
         StartOfSec321.290  SPECIAL RESTRICTIONS.
         Whenever the department shall determine upon the basis of an
      engineering and traffic investigation that any speed limit
      hereinbefore set forth is greater or less than is reasonable or safe
      under the conditions found to exist at any intersection or other
      place or upon any part of the primary road system or upon any part of
      a primary road extension, said department shall determine and declare
      a reasonable and safe speed limit thereat which shall be effective
      when appropriate signs giving notice thereof are erected at such
      intersection or other place or part of the highway.
         Whenever the council in any city shall determine upon the basis of
      an engineering and traffic investigation that any speed limit
      hereinbefore set forth is greater or less than is reasonable or safe
      under the conditions found to exist at any intersection or other
      place or upon any part of the city street system, except primary road
      extensions, said council shall determine and adopt by ordinance such
      higher or lower speed limit as it deems reasonable and safe thereat.
      Such speed limit shall be effective when proper and appropriate signs
      giving notice thereof are erected at such intersections or other
      place or part of the street.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5023.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.290]
         Referred to in § 321.285
         StartOfSec321.291  INFORMATION OR NOTICE.
         In every charge of violation of section 321.285 the information,
      and also the notice to appear, shall specify the speed at which the
      defendant is alleged to have driven and the speed limit applicable
      within the district or at the location.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5023.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.291] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         93 Acts, ch 47, §8; 94 Acts, ch 1023, §104
         StartOfSec321.292  CIVIL ACTION UNAFFECTED.
         The provisions of section 321.285 shall not be construed to
      relieve the plaintiff in any civil action from the burden of proving
      negligence upon the part of the defendant as the proximate cause of
      an accident.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5023.08; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.292] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         93 Acts, ch 47, §9; 2009 Acts, ch 41, §116
         StartOfSec321.293  LOCAL AUTHORITIES MAY ALTER LIMITS.
         Local authorities in their respective jurisdiction may in their
      discretion subject to the approval of the department authorize by
      ordinance higher speeds than those stated in section 321.285 upon
      through highways or upon highways or portions thereof where stop or
      yield signs have been erected at the entrances thereto provided signs
      are erected giving notice of the authorized speed, but local
      authorities shall not have authority to authorize by ordinance a
      speed in excess of fifty-five miles per hour.  If local authorities
      fail to authorize by ordinance higher speeds than those stated in
      section 321.285 upon through highways or upon highways or portions
      thereof where stop signs have been erected at the entrances thereto,
      the department may recommend, upon the basis of an engineering and
      traffic investigation, to the local authorities that the speed limit
      be increased.  If local authorities fail to increase the speed limit
      upon said recommendation of the department, said department shall
      declare a reasonable and safe speed limit which shall be effective
      when appropriate signs are erected giving notice thereof.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5023.09; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.293]
         Referred to in § 321.236, 321.285
         StartOfSec321.294  MINIMUM SPEED REGULATION.
         A person shall not drive a motor vehicle at such a slow speed as
      to impede or block the normal and reasonable movement of traffic
      except when reduced speed is necessary for safe operation or in
      compliance with law.  Peace officers are hereby authorized to enforce
      this provision by directions to drivers, and in the event of apparent
      willful disobedience to this provision and refusal to comply with
      direction of an officer in accordance herewith the continued slow
      operation by a driver shall be a simple misdemeanor punishable as a
      scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection 8.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 5021-c1; C39, § 5023.10; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.294] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2000 Acts, ch 1203, §11; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5
         Referred to in § 805.8A(8)
         See also § 321.382
         StartOfSec321.295  LIMITATION ON BRIDGE OR ELEVATED
      STRUCTURES.
         No person shall drive a vehicle on any public bridge or elevated
      structure at a speed which is greater than the maximum speed
      permitted under this chapter on the street or highway at a point
      where said street or highway joins said bridge or elevated structure,
      provided that if the maximum speed permitted on said street or
      highway differs from the maximum speed on any other street or highway
      joining said bridge or elevated structure, then the lowest of said
      speeds shall be the maximum speed limit on said bridge or elevated
      structure, subject to the following:
         The department upon request from any local authority shall, or
      upon its own initiative may, conduct an investigation of any bridge
      or other elevated structure constituting a part of a highway, and if
      it shall thereupon find that such structure cannot with safety to
      itself withstand vehicles traveling at the speed otherwise
      permissible under this chapter, the department shall determine and
      declare the maximum speed of vehicles which such structure can
      withstand, and shall cause or permit suitable signs stating such
      maximum speed to be erected and maintained at a distance of two
      hundred feet before each end of such structure.
         No person shall drive a vehicle over any bridge or other elevated
      structure constituting a part of a highway at a speed which is
      greater than the maximum speed which can be maintained with safety to
      such bridge or structure, when such structure is signposted as
      provided in this section.
         Upon the trial of any person charged with driving a vehicle at a
      speed which is greater than the maximum speed which can be maintained
      with safety to such bridge or structure, proof of such determination
      of the maximum speed by said department and the existence of said
      signs shall constitute conclusive evidence of the maximum speed which
      can be maintained with safety to such bridge or structure.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5023.11; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.295]
         Referred to in § 321.285, 805.8A(5e)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 5,
      paragraph e
         StartOfSec321.296  Repealed by 76 Acts, ch 1165, § 37.
         StartOfSec321.297  DRIVING ON RIGHT-HAND SIDE OF ROADWAY --
      EXCEPTIONS.
         1.  A vehicle shall be driven upon the right half of the roadway
      upon all roadways of sufficient width, except as follows:
         a.  When overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in
      the same direction under the rules governing such movement.
         b.  When an obstruction exists making it necessary to drive to
      the left of the center of the roadway, provided, any person so doing
      shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles traveling in the proper
      direction upon the unobstructed portion of the roadway within such
      distance as to constitute an immediate hazard.
         c.  Upon a roadway divided into three marked lanes for traffic
      under the rules applicable thereon.
         d.  Upon a roadway restricted to one-way traffic.
         2.  Any vehicle proceeding at less than the normal speed of
      traffic at the time and place and under the conditions then existing
      shall be driven in the right-hand lane then available for traffic
      upon all roadways, or as close as practicable to the right-hand curb
      or edge of the roadway, except when overtaking and passing another
      vehicle proceeding in the same direction or when preparing for a left
      turn at an intersection, an alley, private road or driveway.
         3.  A vehicle shall not be driven upon any roadway having four or
      more lanes for moving traffic and providing for two-way movement of
      traffic, to the left of the center line of the roadway, except when
      authorized by official traffic-control devices designating certain
      lanes to the left side of the center of the roadway for use by
      traffic not otherwise permitted to use such lanes, or except as
      permitted under subsection 1, paragraph "b". This subsection
      shall not be construed as prohibiting the crossing of the center line
      in making a left turn into or from an alley, private road, or
      driveway.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m18; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5019; C39, § 5024.01;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.297]
         Referred to in § 321.233, 321.298, 321.482A, 805.8A(6c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph c
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.298  MEETING AND TURNING TO RIGHT.
         Except as otherwise provided in section 321.297, vehicles or
      persons on horseback meeting each other on any roadway shall yield
      one-half of the roadway by turning to the right.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [R60, § 908; C73, § 1000; C97, § 1569; S13, § 1569; C24, 27, 31,
      35, § 5020; C39, § 5024.02; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75,
      77, 79, 81, § 321.298]
         Referred to in § 321.233, 321.482A, 805.8A(7b)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 7,
      paragraph b
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.299  OVERTAKING A VEHICLE.
         The following rules shall govern the overtaking and passing of
      vehicles proceeding in the same direction, subject to those
      limitations, exceptions, and special rules hereinafter stated:
         The driver of a vehicle overtaking another vehicle proceeding in
      the same direction shall pass to the left thereof at a safe distance
      and shall not again drive to the right side of the roadway until
      safely clear of the overtaken vehicle.
         Except when overtaking and passing on the right is permitted, the
      driver of an overtaken vehicle shall give way to the right in favor
      of the overtaking vehicle and shall not increase the speed of the
      overtaken vehicle until completely passed by the overtaking vehicle.
      

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1569, 1571-m18; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5021, 5022; C39, §
      5024.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.299] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         89 Acts, ch 296, §34
         Referred to in § 321.482A, 805.8A(6c)
         Passing on right, § 321.302
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph c
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.300 AND 321.301  Repealed by 92 Acts, ch 1175, §
      42.
         StartOfSec321.302  OVERTAKING AND PASSING.
         1.  Unless otherwise prohibited by law, the driver of a vehicle on
      a roadway with unobstructed pavement of sufficient width for two or
      more lines of traffic moving in the same direction as the vehicle
      being passed may overtake and pass upon the right of another vehicle
      which is making or about to make a left turn when such movement can
      be made in safety.
         2.  Unless otherwise prohibited by law, the driver of a vehicle
      may overtake and, allowing sufficient clearance, pass another vehicle
      proceeding in the same direction either upon the left or upon the
      right on a roadway with unobstructed pavement of sufficient width for
      four or more lines of moving traffic when such movement can be made
      in safety.
         3.  The driver of a vehicle shall not drive off the pavement or
      upon the shoulder of the roadway or upon the apron or roadway of an
      intersecting roadway in overtaking or passing on the right or the
      left.
         4.  A person convicted of a violation of this section is guilty of
      a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under
      section 805.8A, subsection 6, paragraph "d".  

         Sectionstory: Early Form

         [C39, § 5024.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.302] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2000 Acts, ch 1203, §12; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5; 2003 Acts, ch 6,
      §2
         Referred to in § 321.482A, 805.8A(6d)
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.303  LIMITATIONS ON OVERTAKING ON THE LEFT.
         A vehicle shall not be driven to the left side of the center of
      the roadway in overtaking and passing another vehicle proceeding in
      the same direction unless the left side is clearly visible and is
      free of oncoming traffic for a sufficient distance ahead to permit
      the overtaking and passing to be completely made without interfering
      with the safe operation of a vehicle approaching from the opposite
      direction or a vehicle overtaken.  The overtaking vehicle shall
      return to the right-hand side of the roadway before coming within
      three hundred feet of a vehicle approaching from the opposite
      direction when traveling on a roadway having a legal speed limit in
      excess of thirty miles per hour, and the overtaking vehicle shall
      return to the right-hand side of the roadway before coming within one
      hundred feet of a vehicle approaching from the opposite direction
      when traveling on a roadway having a legal speed limit of thirty
      miles per hour or less.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5024.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.303] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 125, § 4
         Referred to in § 321.482A, 805.8A(6c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph c
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.304  PROHIBITED PASSING.
         No vehicle shall, in overtaking and passing another vehicle or at
      any other time, be driven to the left side of the roadway under the
      following conditions:
         1.  When approaching the crest of a grade or upon a curve in the
      highway where the driver's view along the highway is obstructed for a
      distance of approximately seven hundred feet.
         2.  When approaching within one hundred feet of any narrow bridge,
      viaduct, or tunnel, when so signposted, or when approaching within
      one hundred feet of or traversing any intersection or railroad grade
      crossing.
         3.  Where official signs are in place directing that traffic keep
      to the right or a distinctive center line or off-center line is
      marked, which distinctive line also so directs traffic as declared in
      the sign manual adopted by the department of transportation.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C35, § 5024-e1; C39, § 5024.08; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71,
      73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.304]
         Referred to in § 321.482A, 805.8A(6c, 8)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph c, and subsection 8
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.305  ONE-WAY ROADWAYS AND ROTARY TRAFFIC
      ISLANDS.
         1.  Upon a roadway designated and signposted for one-way traffic a
      vehicle shall be driven only in the direction designated.
         2.  A vehicle passing around a rotary traffic island shall be
      driven only to the right of such island.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5024.09; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.305]
         Referred to in § 321.482A, 805.8A(6c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph c
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.306  ROADWAYS LANED FOR TRAFFIC.
         Whenever any roadway has been divided into three or more clearly
      marked lanes for traffic the following rules in addition to all
      others consistent herewith shall apply:
         A vehicle shall be driven as nearly as practical entirely within a
      single lane and shall not be moved from such lane until the driver
      has first ascertained that such movement can be made with safety.
         Upon a roadway which is divided into three lanes a vehicle shall
      not be driven in the center lane except when overtaking and passing
      another vehicle where the roadway is clearly visible and such center
      lane is clear of traffic within a safe distance, or in preparation
      for a left turn or where such center lane is at the time allocated
      exclusively to traffic moving in the direction the vehicle is
      proceeding and is signposted to give notice of such allocation.
         Official signs may be erected directing slow-moving traffic to use
      a designated lane or allocating specified lanes to traffic moving in
      the same direction and drivers of vehicles shall obey the directions
      of every such sign.
         Vehicles moving in a lane designated for slow-moving traffic shall
      yield the right-of-way to vehicles moving in the same direction in a
      lane not so designated when such lanes merge to form a single lane.
         A portion of a highway provided with a lane for slow-moving
      vehicles does not become a roadway marked for three lanes of traffic.
      

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5024.10; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.306]
         Referred to in § 321.208, 321.482A, 805.8A(6c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph c
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.307  FOLLOWING TOO CLOSELY.
         The driver of a motor vehicle shall not follow another vehicle
      more closely than is reasonable and prudent, having due regard for
      the speed of such vehicles and the traffic upon and the condition of
      the highway.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5024.11; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.307]
         Referred to in § 321.482A, 805.8A(7b)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 7,
      paragraph b
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.308  MOTOR TRUCKS AND TOWED VEHICLES -- DISTANCE
      REQUIREMENTS.
         The driver of any motor truck, or of a motor vehicle drawing
      another vehicle, when traveling upon a roadway, outside of a business
      or residence district shall not follow within three hundred feet of
      another motor truck, or of a motor vehicle drawing another vehicle.
      The provisions of this section shall not be construed to prevent
      overtaking and passing nor shall the same apply upon any lane
      specially designated for use by motor trucks.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 5067-d9; C39, § 5024.12; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.308]
         Referred to in § 321.482A, 805.8A(7b)
         See § 321.309 for convoys or caravans
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 7,
      paragraph b
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.309  TOWING -- CONVOYS.
         1.  A person shall not pull or tow by motor vehicle, for hire,
      another motor vehicle over any highway outside the limits of any
      incorporated city, except in case of temporary movement of a disabled
      motor vehicle to the place where repairs will be made, unless the
      person has complied with the provisions of sections 321.57 and
      321.58.  Provided, however, if the person is a nonresident of the
      state of Iowa and has complied with the laws of the state of that
      person's residence governing licensing and registration as a
      transporter of motor vehicles, the person shall not be required to
      pay the fee provided in section 321.58 but only to submit proof of
      the person's status as a bona fide manufacturer or transporter as may
      reasonably be required by the department.
         2.  A person pulling or towing by motor vehicle another motor
      vehicle in convoy or caravan shall maintain a distance of at least
      five hundred feet between the units of the convoy or caravan.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 5067-d9; C39, § 5024.13; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.309] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 101, § 69; 97 Acts, ch 108, §16
         Referred to in § 321.482A, 805.8A(12a)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 12,
      paragraph a
         Additional penalties for violations of subsection 2 causing
      serious injury or death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.310  TOWING FOUR-WHEELED TRAILERS.
         1.  A motor vehicle shall not tow a four-wheeled trailer with a
      steering axle, or more than one trailer or semitrailer, or both in
      combination.  However, this section does not apply to a motor home,
      multipurpose vehicle, motor truck, truck tractor or road tractor nor
      to a farm tractor towing a four-wheeled trailer, nor to a farm
      tractor or motor vehicle towing implements of husbandry, nor to a
      wagon box trailer used by a farmer in transporting produce, farm
      products or supplies hauled to and from market.
         2.  Any four-wheeled trailer towed by a truck tractor or road
      tractor shall be registered under the semitrailer provisions of
      section 321.123, provided, however, that the provisions of this
      section shall not be applicable to motor vehicles drawing wagon box
      trailers used by a farmer in transporting produce, farm products or
      supplies hauled to and from market.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5024.14; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.310] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1226, § 1
         Referred to in § 805.8A(12a)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 12,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.311  TURNING AT INTERSECTIONS.
         1.  The driver of a vehicle intending to turn at an intersection
      shall do so as follows:
         a.  Both the approach for a right turn and right turn shall be
      made as close as practical to the right-hand curb or edge of the
      roadway.
         b.  Approach for a left turn shall be made in that portion of
      the right half of the roadway nearest the center line thereof and
      after entering the intersection the left turn shall be made so as to
      depart from the intersection to the right of the center line of the
      roadway being entered.
         c.  Approach for a left turn from a two-way street into a
      one-way street shall be made in that portion of the right half of the
      roadway nearest the center line thereof and by passing to the right
      of such center line where it enters the intersection.  A left turn
      from a one-way street into two-way street shall be made by passing to
      the right of the center line of the street being entered upon leaving
      the intersection.
         2.  Local authorities in their respective jurisdictions may cause
      markers, buttons, or signs to be placed within or adjacent to
      intersections and thereby require and direct that a different course
      from that specified in this section be traveled by vehicles turning
      at an intersection, and when markers, buttons, or signs are so placed
      no driver of a vehicle shall turn a vehicle at an intersection other
      than as directed and required by such markers, buttons, or signs.  

         Section History: Early Form


         [S13, § 1571-m18; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5033; C39, § 5025.01;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.311]
         Referred to in § 321.354, 321.482A, 805.8A(6c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph c
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.312  TURNING ON CURVE OR CREST OF GRADE.
         No vehicle shall be turned so as to proceed in the opposite
      direction upon any curve, or upon the approach to, or near the crest
      of a grade or hill, where such vehicle cannot be seen by the driver
      of any other vehicle approaching from either direction within five
      hundred feet.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5025.02; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.312]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(6c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph c
         StartOfSec321.313  STARTING PARKED VEHICLE.
         No person shall start a vehicle which is stopped, standing, or
      parked unless and until such movement can be made with reasonable
      safety.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5025.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.313]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(7b)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 7,
      paragraph b
         StartOfSec321.314  WHEN SIGNAL REQUIRED.
         No person shall turn a vehicle from a direct course upon a highway
      unless and until such movement can be made with reasonable safety and
      then only after giving a clearly audible signal by sounding the horn
      if any pedestrian may be affected by such movement or after giving an
      appropriate signal in the manner hereinafter provided in the event
      any other vehicle may be affected by such movement.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m18; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5032; C39, § 5025.04;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.314]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(6c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph c
         StartOfSec321.315  SIGNAL CONTINUOUS.
         A signal of intention to turn right or left shall be given
      continuously during not less than the last one hundred feet traveled
      by the vehicle before turning when the speed limit is forty-five
      miles per hour or less and a continuous signal during not less than
      the last three hundred feet when the speed limit is in excess of
      forty-five miles per hour.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5025.05; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.315]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(6b)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph b
         StartOfSec321.316  STOPPING.
         No person shall stop or suddenly decrease the speed of a vehicle
      without first giving an appropriate signal in the manner provided
      herein to the driver of any vehicle immediately to the rear when
      there is opportunity to give such signal.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m18; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5032; C39, § 5025.06;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.316]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(6b)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph b
         StartOfSec321.317  SIGNALS BY HAND AND ARM OR SIGNAL DEVICE.
         1.  The signals required under the provisions of this chapter may
      be given either by means of the hand and arm as provided in section
      321.318, or by a mechanical or electrical directional signal device
      or light conforming to the provisions of this chapter.
         2.  Directional signal devices shall be designed with a white,
      yellow or amber lamp or lamps to be displayed on the front of
      vehicles and with a lamp or lamps of red, yellow or amber to be
      displayed on the rear of vehicles.  Such devices shall be capable of
      clearly indicating any intention to turn either to the right or to
      the left and shall be visible and understandable during both daylight
      and darkness from a distance of at least one hundred feet from the
      front and rear of a vehicle equipped therewith.
         3.  It is unlawful for any person to sell or offer for sale or
      operate on the highways of the state any vehicle subject to
      registration under the provisions of this chapter which has never
      been registered in this or any other state prior to January 1, 1954,
      unless the vehicle is equipped with a directional signal device of a
      type in compliance with the provisions of subsection 2.  Motorcycles,
      motorized bicycles, and semitrailers and trailers less than forty
      inches in width are exempt from the provisions of this section.
         4.  When a vehicle is equipped with a directional signal device,
      such device shall at all times be maintained in good working
      condition.  No directional signal device shall project a glaring or
      dazzling light.  All directional signal devices shall be
      self-illuminated when in use while other lamps on the vehicle are
      lighted.
         5.  Whenever any vehicle or combination of vehicles is disabled or
      for other reason may present a vehicular traffic hazard requiring
      unusual care in approaching, overtaking or passing, the operator then
      may display on the vehicle or combination of vehicles four
      directional signals of a type complying with the provisions of this
      section relating to directional signal devices in simultaneous
      operation.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m18; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5032; C39, § 5025.07;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.317] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 170, §8; 97 Acts, ch 108, §17, 18
         Referred to in § 321.404A, 805.8A(3a)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.318  METHOD OF GIVING HAND AND ARM SIGNALS.
         All signals herein required which may be given by hand and arm
      shall when so given be given from the left side of the vehicle and
      the following manner and interpretation thereof is suggested:
         1.  Left turn -- Hand and arm extended horizontally.
         2.  Right turn -- Hand and arm extended upward.
         3.  Stop or decrease of speed -- Hand and arm extended downward.
      

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5025.08; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.318]
         Referred to in § 321.317, 805.8A(6b)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph b
         StartOfSec321.319  ENTERING INTERSECTIONS FROM DIFFERENT
      HIGHWAYS.
         When two vehicles enter an intersection from different highways or
      public streets at approximately the same time, the driver of the
      vehicle on the left shall yield the right-of-way to the vehicle on
      the right.
         The foregoing rule is modified at through highways and otherwise
      as hereinafter stated in this chapter.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m18; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5035; C39, § 5026.01;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.319]
         Referred to in § 321.482A, 805.8A(7b)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 7,
      paragraph b
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.320  LEFT TURNS -- YIELDING.
         The driver of a vehicle intending to turn to the left within an
      intersection or into an alley, private road, or driveway shall yield
      the right-of-way to all vehicles approaching from the opposite
      direction which are within the intersection or so close thereto as to
      constitute an immediate hazard, then said driver, having so yielded
      and having given a signal when and as required by this chapter, may
      make such left turn.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m18; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5035; C39, § 5026.02;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.320]
         Referred to in § 321.482A, 805.8A(7b)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 7,
      paragraph b
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.321  ENTERING THROUGH HIGHWAYS.
         The driver of a vehicle shall stop or yield as required by this
      chapter at the entrance to a through highway and shall yield the
      right-of-way to other vehicles which have entered the intersection
      from said through highway or which are approaching so closely on said
      through highway as to constitute a hazard, but said driver having so
      yielded may proceed cautiously and with due care enter said through
      highway.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C27, § 5079-b2, -b3; C31, 35, § 5079-b2, -b3, -d2, -d3; C39, §
      5026.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.321]
         Referred to in § 321.482A, 805.8A(7b)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 7,
      paragraph b
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.322  VEHICLES ENTERING STOP OR YIELD
      INTERSECTION.
         1.  The driver of a vehicle approaching a stop intersection
      indicated by a stop sign shall stop at the first opportunity at
      either the clearly marked stop line or before entering the crosswalk
      or before entering the intersection or at the point nearest the
      intersecting roadway where the driver has a view of approaching
      traffic on the intersecting roadway before entering the intersection.
      Before proceeding, the driver shall yield the right-of-way to any
      vehicle on the intersecting roadway which has entered the
      intersection or which is approaching so closely as to constitute an
      immediate hazard during the time the driver is moving across or
      within the intersection.
         2.  The driver of a vehicle approaching a yield sign shall slow to
      a speed reasonable for the existing conditions and, if required for
      safety, shall stop at the first opportunity at either the clearly
      marked stop line or before entering the crosswalk or before entering
      the intersection or at the point nearest the intersecting roadway
      where the driver has a view of approaching traffic on the
      intersecting roadway.  After slowing or stopping, the driver shall
      yield the right-of-way to any vehicle on the intersecting roadway
      which has entered the intersection or which is approaching so closely
      as to constitute an immediate hazard during the time the driver is
      moving across or within the intersection.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C27, § 5079-b2, -b3; C31, 35, § 5079-b2, -b3, -d2, -d3; C39, §
      5026.04; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.322]
         Referred to in § 321.482A, 805.8A(8)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 8
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.323  MOVING VEHICLE BACKWARD ON HIGHWAY.
         A person shall not cause a vehicle to be moved in a backward
      direction on a highway unless and until the vehicle can be backed
      with reasonable safety, and shall yield the right-of-way to any
      approaching vehicle on the highway or an intersecting highway which
      is so close as to constitute an immediate hazard.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.323] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         89 Acts, ch 296, §35
         Referred to in § 321.233, 321.482A, 805.8A(6c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph c
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.323A  APPROACHING CERTAIN STATIONARY VEHICLES.
         1.  The operator of a motor vehicle approaching a stationary
      authorized emergency vehicle that is displaying flashing yellow,
      amber, white, red, or red and blue lights shall approach the
      authorized emergency vehicle with due caution and shall proceed in
      one of the following manners, absent any other direction by a peace
      officer:
         a.  Make a lane change into a lane not adjacent to the
      authorized emergency vehicle if possible in the existing safety and
      traffic conditions.
         b.  If a lane change under paragraph "a" would be
      impossible, prohibited by law, or unsafe, reduce the speed of the
      motor vehicle to a reasonable and proper speed for the existing road
      and traffic conditions, which speed shall be less than the posted
      speed limit, and be prepared to stop.
         2.  The operator of a motor vehicle approaching a stationary
      towing or recovery vehicle, a stationary utility maintenance vehicle,
      a stationary municipal maintenance vehicle, or a stationary highway
      maintenance vehicle, that is displaying flashing yellow, amber, or
      red lights, shall approach the vehicle with due caution and shall
      proceed in one of the following manners, absent any other direction
      by a peace officer:
         a.  Make a lane change into a lane not adjacent to the towing,
      recovery, utility maintenance, municipal maintenance, or highway
      maintenance vehicle if possible in the existing safety and traffic
      conditions.
         b.  If a lane change under paragraph "a" would be
      impossible, prohibited by law, or unsafe, reduce the speed of the
      motor vehicle to a reasonable and proper speed for the existing road
      and traffic conditions, which speed shall be less than the posted
      speed limit, and be prepared to stop.  

         Section History: Recent Form

         2002 Acts, ch 1013, §1; 2003 Acts, ch 2, §1
         Referred to in § 321.482A, 805.8A(11b)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 11,
      paragraph b
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.324  OPERATION ON APPROACH OF EMERGENCY
      VEHICLES.
         Upon the immediate approach of an authorized emergency vehicle
      with any lamp or device displaying a red light or red and blue
      lights, or an authorized emergency vehicle of a fire department
      displaying a blue light, or when the driver is giving audible signal
      by siren, exhaust whistle, or bell, the driver of every other vehicle
      shall yield the right-of-way and shall immediately drive to a
      position parallel to, and as close as possible to, the right-hand
      edge or curb of the highway clear of any intersection and shall stop
      and remain in such position until the authorized emergency vehicle
      has passed, except when otherwise directed by a police officer.  For
      the purposes of this section, "red light" or "blue light"
      means a light or lighting device that, when illuminated, will exhibit
      a solid flashing or strobing red or blue light.
         Upon the approach of an authorized emergency vehicle, as above
      stated, the driver of every streetcar shall immediately stop such car
      clear of any intersection and keep it in such position until the
      authorized emergency vehicle has passed, except when otherwise
      directed by a police officer.
         This section shall not operate to relieve the driver of an
      authorized emergency vehicle from the duty to drive with due regard
      for the safety of all persons using the highway.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5026.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.324] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2000 Acts, ch 1045, §1
         Referred to in § 321.482A, 805.8A(11b)
         See also § 321.231
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 11,
      paragraph b
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.324A  FUNERAL PROCESSIONS.
         1.  For purposes of this section, "funeral procession" means a
      procession of motor vehicles accompanying the body of a deceased
      person during daylight hours which is being escorted by a vehicle
      continually displaying its emergency signal lamps flashing
      simultaneously and using lighted headlamps and identifying flags, or
      an escort vehicle displaying a flashing or revolving red and amber
      light visible to pedestrians in all directions, and keeping all other
      motor vehicles with lighted headlamps in close formation.
         2.  Upon the immediate approach of a funeral procession, the
      driver of every other vehicle, except an authorized emergency
      vehicle, shall yield the right-of-way.  An operator of a motor
      vehicle which is part of a funeral procession shall not be charged
      with violating traffic rules and regulations relating to traffic
      signals and devices while participating in the procession unless the
      operation is reckless.
         3.  The funeral establishment in charge of the funeral procession
      is liable only in connection with the procession for any negligent,
      reckless, or intentional act by the funeral establishment or any
      employee or agent of the funeral establishment that results in any
      death, personal injury or property damage suffered during a funeral
      procession.  

         Section History: Recent Form

         94 Acts, ch 1139, §1; 2006 Acts, ch 1070, §13
         Referred to in § 321.423, 321.482A
         Flashing lights, see § 321.423
         Penalties for violations causing serious injury or death, see
      §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.325  PEDESTRIANS SUBJECT TO SIGNALS.
         Pedestrians shall be subject to traffic-control signals at
      intersections as heretofore declared in this chapter, but at all
      other places pedestrians shall be accorded the privileges and shall
      be subject to the restrictions stated in sections 321.327 to 321.331.
      

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5027.01; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.325]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(9)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 9
         StartOfSec321.326  PEDESTRIANS ON LEFT.
         Pedestrians shall at all times when walking on or along a highway,
      walk on the left side of such highway.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5027.02; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.326]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(9)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 9
         StartOfSec321.327  PEDESTRIANS' RIGHT-OF-WAY.
         Where traffic-control signals are not in place or in operation the
      driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way, slowing down or
      stopping if need be to so yield, to a pedestrian crossing the roadway
      within any marked crosswalk or within any unmarked crosswalk at an
      intersection, except as otherwise provided in this chapter.
         A person convicted of a violation of this section is guilty of a
      simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section
      805.8A, subsection 7, paragraph "b".  

         Section Historyarly Form

         [C39, § 5027.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.327] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2000 Acts, ch 1203, §13; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5
         Referred to in § 321.325, 321.482A, 805.8A(7b)
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.328  CROSSING AT OTHER THAN CROSSWALK.
         1.  Every pedestrian crossing a roadway at any point other than
      within a marked crosswalk or within an unmarked crosswalk at an
      intersection shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the
      roadway except that cities may restrict such a crossing by ordinance.

         2.  Any pedestrian crossing a roadway at a point where a
      pedestrian tunnel or overhead pedestrian crossing has been provided
      shall yield the right-of-way to all vehicles upon the roadway.
         3.  Where traffic-control signals are in operation at any place
      not an intersection pedestrians shall not cross at any place except
      in a marked crosswalk.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5027.04; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.328]
         Referred to in § 321.325, 321.329, 805.8A(9)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 9
         StartOfSec321.329  DUTY OF DRIVER -- PEDESTRIANS CROSSING OR
      WORKING ON HIGHWAYS.
         1.  Notwithstanding the provisions of section 321.328 every driver
      of a vehicle shall exercise due care to avoid colliding with any
      pedestrian upon any roadway and shall give warning by sounding the
      horn when necessary and shall exercise due care upon observing any
      child or any confused or incapacitated person upon a roadway.
         2.  Every driver of a vehicle shall yield the right-of-way to
      pedestrian workers engaged in maintenance or construction work on a
      highway whenever the driver is notified of the presence of such
      workers by a flagman or a warning sign.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5027.05; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.329]
         Referred to in § 321.325, 321.482A, 805.8A(7b)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 7,
      paragraph b
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.330  USE OF CROSSWALKS.
         Pedestrians shall move, whenever practicable, upon the right half
      of crosswalks.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5027.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.330]
         Referred to in § 321.325
         StartOfSec321.331  PEDESTRIANS SOLICITING RIDES.
         1.  No person shall stand in a roadway for the purpose of
      soliciting a ride from the driver of any private vehicle.
         2.  Nothing in this section or this chapter shall be construed so
      as to prevent any pedestrian from standing on that portion of the
      highway or roadway, not ordinarily used for vehicular traffic, for
      the purpose of soliciting a ride from the driver of any vehicle.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5027.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.331]
         Referred to in § 321.325, 805.8A(9)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 9
         StartOfSec321.332  WHITE CANES RESTRICTED TO BLIND PERSONS.
         For the purpose of guarding against accidents in traffic on the
      public thoroughfares, it shall be unlawful for any person except
      persons wholly or partially blind to carry or use on the streets,
      highways, and public places of the state any white canes or walking
      sticks which are white in color or white tipped with red.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.332]
         Referred to in § 216C.8, 321.334, 805.8A(9)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 9; see also
      §321.334
         StartOfSec321.333  DUTY OF DRIVERS.
         Any driver of a vehicle or operator of a motor-driven vehicle who
      approaches or comes in contact with a person wholly or partially
      blind carrying a cane or walking stick white in color or white tipped
      with red, or being led by a guide dog wearing a harness and walking
      on either side of or slightly in front of said blind person, shall
      immediately come to a complete stop, and take such precautions as may
      be necessary to avoid accident or injury to the person carrying a
      cane or walking stick white in color or white tipped with red or
      being led by a guide dog.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.333]
         Referred to in § 216C.8, 321.482A, 805.8A(7b)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 7,
      paragraph b
         Additional penalties for violations causing serious injury or
      death, see §321.482A
         StartOfSec321.334  PENALTIES.
         Any person who shall carry a cane or walking stick such as
      prescribed in section 321.332 contrary to the provisions hereof, or
      who shall fail to heed the approach of a person lawfully so carrying
      a cane or walking stick white in color or white tipped with red, or
      being led by a guide dog, or who shall fail to immediately come to a
      complete stop, and take such precautions against accident or injury
      to such person, shall be fined not less than one dollar nor more than
      one hundred dollars for each offense.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.334]
         For scheduled fine applicable to §321.332 violations, see §805.8A,
      subsection 9
         StartOfSec321.335 THROUGH 321.339  Repealed by 75 Acts, ch
      170, § 33.
         StartOfSec321.340  DRIVING THROUGH SAFETY ZONE.
         No vehicle shall at any time be driven through or within a safety
      zone.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5028.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.340]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(6c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph c
         StartOfSec321.341  OBEDIENCE TO SIGNAL OF TRAIN.
         1.  When a person driving a vehicle approaches a railroad grade
      crossing and warning is given by automatic signal, crossing gates, a
      flag person, or otherwise of the immediate approach of a train, the
      driver of the vehicle shall stop within fifty feet but not less than
      fifteen feet from the nearest rail and shall not proceed until the
      driver can do so safely.
         2.  The driver of a vehicle shall stop and remain standing and not
      traverse such a grade crossing when a crossing gate is lowered or
      when a human flagman gives or continues to give a signal of the
      approach or passage of a train.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5029.01; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.341] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 170, §9
         Referred to in § 321.208, 321.343A, 321.344A, 321.344B, 321.484,
      805.8A(14h)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 14,
      paragraph h
         StartOfSec321.342  STOP AT CERTAIN RAILROAD CROSSINGS -- POSTING
      WARNING.
         1.  The driver of any vehicle approaching a railroad grade
      crossing across which traffic is regulated by a stop sign, a railroad
      sign directing traffic to stop or an official traffic control signal
      displaying a flashing red or steady circular red colored light shall
      stop prior to crossing the railroad at the first opportunity at
      either the clearly marked stop line or at a point near the crossing
      where the driver has a clear view of the approaching railroad
      traffic.
         2.  The department, city or county shall be required to post the
      standard sign as prescribed by the manual on uniform traffic-control
      devices adopted by the department pursuant to section 321.252 in
      advance of each railroad grade crossing to warn the motorist that the
      motorist is approaching a railroad grade crossing.  Upon properly
      posting all railroad grade crossings within its jurisdiction and upon
      implementing the standards established in accordance with section
      307.26, the department, city, or county shall not have any other
      affirmative duty to warn a motor vehicle operator approaching or at
      the railroad grade crossing.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5029.02; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.342]
         Referred to in § 321.344A, 321.344B, 321.484, 805.8A(14h)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 14,
      paragraph h
         StartOfSec321.343  CERTAIN VEHICLES MUST STOP.
         1.  The driver of a motor vehicle carrying passengers for hire, a
      school bus, or a vehicle carrying hazardous material and required to
      stop before crossing a railroad track by motor carrier safety rules
      adopted under section 321.449, before crossing at grade any track of
      a railroad, shall stop the vehicle within fifty feet but not less
      than fifteen feet from the nearest rail.  While stopped, the driver
      shall listen and look in both directions for an approaching train,
      and for signals indicating the approach of a train, and shall not
      proceed until the driver can do so safely.
         2.  The driver of a commercial motor vehicle shall comply with all
      of the following provisions that apply to the driver:
         a.  If the driver is not always required to stop at a railroad
      crossing, slow down when approaching the crossing and check that the
      railroad tracks are clear of an approaching train before proceeding.

         b.  If the driver is not always required to stop at a railroad
      crossing, stop before reaching the crossing if the railroad tracks
      are not clear.
         c.  Refrain from proceeding through a railroad crossing if
      sufficient space is not available to drive completely through the
      crossing without stopping.
         d.  Obey a traffic-control device or the directions of an
      enforcement official at a railroad crossing.
         e.  Have sufficient undercarriage clearance before negotiating
      a railroad crossing.
         3.  No stop need be made at a crossing where a peace officer or a
      traffic-control device directs traffic to proceed.  No stop need be
      made at a crossing designated by an "exempt" sign.  An "exempt" sign
      shall be posted only where the tracks have been partially removed on
      either side of the roadway.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C27, 31, 35, § 5105-a33; C39, § 5029.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.343; 82 Acts, ch 1200, § 1] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 170, §10; 2001 Acts, ch 132, §10
         Referred to in § 321.208, 321.343A, 321.344A, 321.344B, 321.484,
      805.8A(14h)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 14,
      paragraph h
         StartOfSec321.343A  EMPLOYER VIOLATIONS -- PENALTY.
         An employer shall not knowingly allow, require, permit, or
      authorize a driver to operate a commercial motor vehicle in violation
      of section 321.341 or 321.343 or any other federal or local law or
      regulation pertaining to railroad grade crossings.  An employer who
      violates this section shall be subject to a fine of not more than ten
      thousand dollars.  

         Section History: Recent Form

         2008 Acts, ch 1021, §11
         StartOfSec321.344  HEAVY EQUIPMENT AT CROSSING.
         1.  No person shall operate or move any caterpillar tractor, steam
      shovel, derrick, roller, or any equipment or structure having a
      normal operating speed of six or less miles per hour or a vertical
      body or load clearance of less than nine inches above the level
      surface of a roadway upon or across any tracks at a railroad grade
      crossing without first complying with this section.
         2.  Notice of any such intended crossing shall be given to a
      superintendent of such railroad and a reasonable time be given to
      such railroad to provide proper protection at such crossing.
         3.  Before making any such crossing the person operating or moving
      any such vehicle or equipment shall first stop the same not less than
      ten feet nor more than fifty feet from the nearest rail of such
      railway and while so stopped shall listen and look in both directions
      along such track for any approaching train and for signals indicating
      the approach of a train, and shall not proceed until the crossing can
      be made safely.
         4.  No such crossing shall be made when warning is given by
      automatic signal or crossing gates or a flagman or otherwise of the
      immediate approach of a railroad train or car.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5029.04; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.344]
         Referred to in § 321.344A, 321.344B, 321.484, 805.8A(14h)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 14,
      paragraph h
         StartOfSec321.344A  REPORTED VIOLATIONS FOR FAILURE TO STOP AT A
      RAILROAD CROSSING -- CITATIONS.
         1.  The employee of a railroad who observes a violation of section
      321.341, 321.342, 321.343, or 321.344 may prepare a written report on
      a form provided by the department of public safety indicating that a
      violation has occurred.  The railroad employee may deliver the report
      not more than seventy-two hours after the violation occurred to a
      peace officer of the state or a peace officer of the county or
      municipality in which the violation occurred.  The report shall state
      the time and the location at which the violation occurred and shall
      include the registration plate number and a description of the
      vehicle involved in the violation.
         2.  A peace officer may initiate an investigation not more than
      seven calendar days after receiving a report of a violation pursuant
      to this section.  The peace officer may request that the owner of the
      vehicle supply information identifying the driver of the vehicle in
      accordance with section 321.484, or in the case of a commercial motor
      vehicle, the peace officer may request that the employer of the
      driver provide information identifying the driver of the vehicle.
         a.  If from the investigation, the peace officer is able to
      identify the driver of the vehicle and has reasonable cause to
      believe a violation has occurred, the peace officer shall prepare a
      uniform traffic citation for the violation and shall serve it
      personally or by certified mail on the driver of the vehicle.
         b.  If, from the investigation, the peace officer has
      reasonable cause to believe that a violation occurred but is unable
      to identify the driver, the peace officer shall serve a uniform
      traffic citation for the violation on the owner of the motor vehicle
      or, in the case of a commercial motor vehicle, on the employer of the
      driver.  Notwithstanding section 321.484, in a proceeding where the
      peace officer who conducted the investigation was not able to
      identify the driver of the motor vehicle, proof that the motor
      vehicle described in the uniform traffic citation was used to commit
      the violation of section 321.341, 321.342, 321.343, or 321.344,
      together with proof that the defendant named in the citation was the
      owner of the motor vehicle or, in the case of a commercial motor
      vehicle, the employer of the driver, at the time the violation
      occurred, constitutes a permissible inference that the owner or
      employer was the person who committed the violation.
         c.  For purposes of this subsection, "owner" means a
      person who holds the legal title to a motor vehicle; however, if the
      motor vehicle is the subject of a security agreement with a right of
      possession in the debtor, the debtor shall be deemed the owner for
      purposes of this subsection, or if the motor vehicle is leased as
      defined in section 321.493, the lessee shall be deemed the owner for
      purposes of this subsection.  

         Section History: Recent Form

         92 Acts, ch 1152, § 1; 2005 Acts, ch 92, §1; 2008 Acts, ch 1021,
      §12
         StartOfSec321.344B  IMMEDIATE SAFETY THREAT -- PENALTY.
         A violation of section 321.341, 321.342, 321.343, or 321.344 which
      creates an immediate threat to the safety of a person or property is
      a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under
      section 805.8A, subsection 14, paragraph "h".  

         Sectioistory: Recent Form

         2000 Acts, ch 1134, §2; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5
         Referred to in § 805.8A(14h)
         StartOfSec321.345  STOP OR YIELD AT HIGHWAYS.
         The department, based on an engineering study, with reference to
      primary highways, and local authorities with reference to other
      highways under their jurisdiction may designate through highways and
      erect stop signs or yield signs, in accordance with specifications
      established by the department at specified entrances to the highway
      or may designate any intersection as a stop intersection or as a
      yield intersection and erect like signs at one or more entrances to
      such intersection.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C27, § 5079-b3, -b4; C31, 35, § 5079-b3, -b4, -d3, -d4; C39, §
      5029.05; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.345]
         Analogous provision, § 321.253
         StartOfSec321.346  COST OF SIGNS.
         The cost of the signs on primary highways shall be paid out of the
      primary road fund.  The cost of the signs on secondary roads shall be
      paid by the county.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C27, § 5079-b4; C31, 35, § 5079-b4, -d4; C39, § 5029.06; C46,
      50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.346] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 123, § 128, 209
         StartOfSec321.347  EXCEPTIONS.
         Provided that at intersections of such through highways with
      boulevards or heavy traffic streets in cities, the council, subject
      to the approval of the department, may determine that the through
      highway traffic shall come to a stop, or may erect traffic-control
      signals, or may adopt such other means of handling the traffic as may
      be deemed practical and proper.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 5079-c1; C39, § 5029.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.347]
         Referred to in § 321.349
         StartOfSec321.348  LIMITATIONS ON CITIES.
         It shall be unlawful for any city to close or obstruct any street
      or highway which is used as the extension of a primary road within
      such city, except at times of fires or for the purpose of doing
      construction or repair work on such street or highway, or for other
      reasons with the consent of the department, and it shall also be
      unlawful for any city to erect or cause to be erected or maintained
      any traffic sign or signal inconsistent with the provisions of this
      chapter.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 5079-c2; C39, § 5029.08; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.348]
         Referred to in § 321.349
         StartOfSec321.349  EXCEPTIONS.
         The provisions of sections 321.347 and 321.348 as concerns the
      erection and maintenance of "stop" and "go" signals shall not apply
      to cities with a population of four thousand or over where said
      signals are situated within business districts of said city.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 5079-c3; C39, § 5029.09; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.349]
         StartOfSec321.350  PRIMARY ROADS AS THROUGH HIGHWAYS.
         Primary roads, and extensions of primary roads within cities are
      hereby designated as through highways.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C27, 31, 35, § 5079-b1; C39, § 5029.10; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.350]
         StartOfSec321.351  Reserved.
         StartOfSec321.352  ADDITIONAL SIGNS -- COST.
         The county board of supervisors shall, at places deemed by them
      unusually dangerous on the local county roads, furnish and erect
      suitable warning signs.  The cost of the signs shall be paid by the
      county.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 5079-d5; C39, § 5029.12; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.352] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 123, § 129, 209
         Referred to in § 331.362
         StartOfSec321.353  STOP BEFORE CROSSING SIDEWALK --
      RIGHT-OF-WAY.
         1.  The driver of a vehicle emerging from a private roadway,
      alley, driveway, or building shall stop such vehicle immediately
      prior to driving onto the sidewalk area and thereafter the driver
      shall proceed into the sidewalk area only when the driver can do so
      without danger to pedestrian traffic and the driver shall yield the
      right-of-way to any vehicular traffic on the street into which the
      driver's vehicle is entering.
         2.  The driver of a vehicle about to enter or cross a highway from
      a private road or driveway shall stop such vehicle immediately prior
      to driving on said highway and shall yield the right-of-way to all
      vehicles approaching on said highway.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m18; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5035; C39, § 5026.05,
      5029.13; C46, § 321.323, 321.353; C50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75,
      77, 79, 81, § 321.353]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(6c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph c
         StartOfSec321.354  STOPPING ON TRAVELED WAY.
         Upon any highway outside of a business district, rural residence
      district or residence district a person shall not stop, park, or
      leave standing a vehicle, whether attended or unattended:
         1.  Upon the paved part of the highway when it is practical to
      stop, park, or leave the vehicle off that part of the highway,
      however, a clear and unobstructed width of at least twenty feet of
      the paved part of the highway opposite the standing vehicle shall be
      left for the free passage of other vehicles.  As used in this
      subsection, "paved highway" includes an asphalt surfaced highway.

         2.  Upon the main traveled part of a highway other than a paved
      highway when it is practical to stop, park, or leave the vehicle off
      that part of the highway.  However, a clear and unobstructed width of
      that part of the highway opposite the standing vehicle shall be left
      to allow for the free passage of other vehicles.
         A clear view of the stopped vehicle shall be available from a
      distance of two hundred feet in each direction upon the highway.
      However, school buses may stop on the highway for receiving and
      discharging pupils and all other vehicles shall stop for school buses
      which are stopped to receive or discharge pupils, as provided in
      section 321.372.  This section does not apply to a vehicle making a
      turn as provided in section 321.311.  This section also does not
      apply to the stopping or parking of a maintenance vehicle operated by
      a highway authority on the main traveled way of any roadway when
      necessary to the function being performed and when early warning
      devices are properly displayed.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5066; C39, § 5030.01; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.354] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1022, § 2; 86 Acts, ch 1056, § 4; 98 Acts, ch 1075,
      §23
         Referred to in § 321.210, 321.355, 321.356, 805.8A(6c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph c
         StartOfSec321.355  DISABLED VEHICLE.
         Section 321.354 shall not apply to the driver of any vehicle which
      is disabled while on the paved or improved or main traveled portion
      of a highway in such manner and to such extent that it is impossible
      to avoid stopping and temporarily leaving such disabled vehicle in
      such position.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5030.02; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.355]
         Referred to in § 321.210, 321.356
         StartOfSec321.356  OFFICERS AUTHORIZED TO REMOVE.
         Whenever any peace officer finds a vehicle standing upon a highway
      in violation of any of the provisions of sections 321.354 and
      321.355, such officer is hereby authorized to move such vehicle, or
      require the driver or other person in charge of the vehicle to move
      the same, to a position off the paved or improved or main traveled
      part of such highway.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5030.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.356] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2009 Acts, ch 41, §117
         Referred to in § 321.210
         StartOfSec321.357  REMOVED FROM BRIDGE.
         Whenever any peace officer finds a vehicle unattended upon any
      bridge or causeway or in any tunnel where such vehicle constitutes an
      obstruction to traffic, such officer is hereby authorized to provide
      for the removal of such vehicle to the nearest garage or other place
      of safety.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5030.04; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.357]
         Referred to in § 321.210
         StartOfSec321.358  STOPPING, STANDING OR PARKING.
         No person shall stop, stand, or park a vehicle, except when
      necessary to avoid conflict with other traffic or in compliance with
      the directions of a police officer or traffic-control device, in any
      of the following places:
         1.  On a sidewalk, except a bicycle may stop, stand, or park on a
      sidewalk if not prohibited by a local jurisdiction.
         2.  In front of a public or private driveway.
         3.  Within an intersection.
         4.  Within five feet of a fire hydrant.
         5.  On a crosswalk.
         6.  Within ten feet upon the approach to any flashing beacon, stop
      sign, or traffic-control signal located at the side of a roadway.
         7.  Between a safety zone and the adjacent curb or within ten feet
      of points on the curb immediately opposite the ends of a safety zone,
      unless any city indicates a different length by signs or markings.
         8.  Within fifty feet of the nearest rail of a railroad crossing,
      except when parked parallel with such rail and not exhibiting a red
      light.
         9.  Within twenty feet of the driveway entrance to any fire
      station and on the side of a street opposite the entrance to any fire
      station within seventy-five feet of said entrance when properly
      signposted.
         10.  Alongside or opposite any street excavation or obstruction
      when such stopping, standing, or parking would obstruct traffic.
         11.  On the roadway side of any vehicle stopped or parked at the
      edge or curb of a street.
         12.  Upon any bridge or other elevated structure upon a highway
      outside of cities or within a highway tunnel.
         13.  At any place where official signs prohibit stopping or
      parking.
         14.  Upon any street within the corporate limits of a city when
      the same is prohibited by a general ordinance of uniform application
      relating to removal of snow or ice from the streets.
         15.  In front of a curb cut or ramp which is located on public or
      private property in a manner which blocks access to the curb cut or
      ramp.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m18; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5057, 5058, 5060; C39, §
      5030.05; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.358] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 40, §4; 89 Acts, ch 247, §7
         Referred to in § 321.210, 602.8103, 602.8106, 805.8A(1a)
         For fines applicable to offenses charged as scheduled violations,
      see §805.8A, subsection 1, paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.359  MOVING OTHER VEHICLE.
         No person shall move a vehicle not owned by such person into any
      such prohibited area or away from a curb such distance as is
      unlawful.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5030.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.359]
         Referred to in § 321.210
         StartOfSec321.360  THEATERS, HOTELS AND AUDITORIUMS.
         A space of not to exceed fifty feet is hereby reserved at the side
      of the street in front of any theater, auditorium, hotel having more
      than twenty-five sleeping rooms, or other buildings where large
      assemblages of people are being held, within which space, when
      clearly marked as such, no motor vehicle shall be left standing,
      parked, or stopped except in taking on or discharging passengers or
      freight, and then only for such length of time as is necessary for
      such purpose.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m18; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5059; C39, § 5030.07;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.360]
         Referred to in § 321.210, 602.8103, 602.8106, 805.8A(1a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 1,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.361  ADDITIONAL PARKING REGULATIONS.
         1.  Except as otherwise provided in this section every vehicle
      stopped or parked upon a roadway where there are adjacent curbs shall
      be so stopped or parked with the right-hand wheels of such vehicle
      parallel to and within eighteen inches of the right-hand curb.
         2.  Local authorities may by ordinance permit parking of vehicles
      with the left-hand wheels adjacent to and within eighteen inches of
      the left-hand curb of a one-way roadway.
         3.  Local authorities may by ordinance permit angle or center
      parking on any roadway under their jurisdiction.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m18; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4997, 5056; C39, §
      5030.08; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.361]
         Referred to in § 321.210, 602.8103, 602.8106, 805.8A(1a)
         For fines applicable to offenses charged as scheduled violations,
      see §805.8A, subsection 1, paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.362  UNATTENDED MOTOR VEHICLE.
         No person driving or in charge of a motor vehicle shall permit it
      to stand unattended without first stopping the engine, or when
      standing upon any perceptible grade without effectively setting the
      brake thereon and turning the front wheels to the curb or side of the
      highway.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m18; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5038; C39, § 5031.01;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.362]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(1a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 1,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.363  OBSTRUCTION TO DRIVER'S VIEW.
         1.  No person shall drive a vehicle when it is so loaded, or when
      there are in the front seat such number of persons, exceeding three,
      as to obstruct the view of the driver to the front or sides of the
      vehicle or as to interfere with the driver's control over the driving
      mechanism of the vehicle.
         2.  No passenger in a vehicle shall ride in such position as to
      interfere with the driver's view ahead or to the sides, or to
      interfere with the driver's control over the driving mechanism of the
      vehicle.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5031.02; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.363]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(6b)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph b
         StartOfSec321.364  PREVENTING CONTAMINATION OF FOOD BY HAZARDOUS
      MATERIAL.
         Food intended for human consumption shall not be shipped in a
      vehicle or container which has been used to transport a hazardous
      material unless the vehicle or container has been purged of any
      hazardous material or the transportation is made in a manner that
      prevents any contact between the food and the hazardous material.  

         Section History: Early Form


         [S13, § 1571-m18; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5031, 5043; C39, §
      5031.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.364] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 170, §11
         Referred to in §805.8A(13c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 13,
      paragraph c
         StartOfSec321.365  COASTING PROHIBITED.
         The driver of a motor vehicle shall not drive with the source of
      motive power disengaged from the driving wheels except when
      disengagement is necessary to stop or to shift gears.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5031.04, 5031.05; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, § 321.365,
      321.366; C66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.365] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 170, §12
         Referred to in § 805.8A(6b)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph b
         StartOfSec321.366  ACTS PROHIBITED ON FULLY CONTROLLED-ACCESS
      FACILITIES.
         It is unlawful for a person, except a person operating highway
      maintenance equipment or an authorized emergency vehicle, to do any
      of the following on a fully controlled-access facility:
         1.  Drive a vehicle over, upon, or across a curb, central dividing
      section, or other separation or dividing line.
         2.  Make a left turn or a semicircular or U-turn at a maintenance
      cross-over where an official sign prohibits the turn.
         3.  Drive a vehicle except in the proper lane provided for that
      purpose and in the proper direction and to the right of the central
      dividing curb, separation, section, or line.
         4.  Drive a vehicle into the facility from a local service road.
         5.  Stop, park, or leave standing a vehicle, whether attended or
      unattended, upon the paved portion.
         6.  Stop, park, or leave standing a vehicle, whether attended or
      unattended, upon the shoulders, or the right-of-way except at
      designated rest areas or in case of an emergency or other dire
      necessity.
         For the purpose of this section, fully controlled-access facility
      is a highway which gives preference to through traffic by providing
      access connections at interchanges with selected public roads only
      and by prohibiting crossings at grade or direct access at driveway
      connections.
         Violations of this section are punishable as a scheduled violation
      under section 805.8A, subsection 6, paragraph "d".  

         Sion History: Early Form

         [C58, 62, § 306A.9; C66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.366] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1022, § 8; 84 Acts, ch 1219, § 27; 2000 Acts, ch 1203,
      §14; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5
         Referred to in § 321.210, 805.8A(6d)
         StartOfSec321.367  FOLLOWING FIRE APPARATUS.
         The driver of any vehicle other than one on official business
      shall not follow any fire apparatus traveling in response to a fire
      alarm closer than five hundred feet or drive into or park such
      vehicle within the block where fire apparatus has stopped in answer
      to a fire alarm.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5031.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.367]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(11)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 11,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.368  CROSSING FIRE HOSE.
         No vehicle shall be driven over any unprotected hose of a fire
      department when laid down on any street, private driveway, or
      streetcar track, to be used at any fire or alarm of fire, without the
      consent of the fire department official in command.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5031.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.368]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(11)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 11,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.369  PUTTING DEBRIS ON HIGHWAY.
         A person shall not throw or deposit upon a highway any glass
      bottle, glass, nails, tacks, wire, cans, trash, garbage, rubbish,
      litter, offal, or any other debris.  A person shall not throw or
      deposit upon a highway a substance likely to injure any person,
      animal, or vehicle upon the highway.  A person who violates this
      section or section 321.370 commits a misdemeanor punishable as a
      scheduled violation under section 805.8A, subsection 14, paragraph
      "d".  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 4808-a, -b; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 13118; C39, § 5031.08;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.369] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         97 Acts, ch 147, §3; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5
         Referred to in § 321.370, 602.8108, 805.8A(14d)
         See § 455B.363
         StartOfSec321.370  REMOVING INJURIOUS MATERIAL.
         Any person who drops, or permits to be dropped or thrown, upon any
      highway any destructive or injurious material and other material as
      defined in section 321.369 shall immediately remove the same or cause
      it to be removed.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5031.09; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.370]
         Referred to in § 321.369, 602.8108, 805.8A(14d)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 14,
      paragraph d
         StartOfSec321.371  CLEARING UP WRECKS.
         Any person removing a wrecked or damaged vehicle from a highway
      shall remove any glass or other injurious substance dropped upon the
      highway from such vehicle.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5031.10; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.371]
         StartOfSec321.372  DISCHARGING PUPILS -- REGULATIONS.
         1.  The driver of a school bus used to transport children to and
      from a public or private school shall, when stopping to receive or
      discharge pupils, turn on flashing warning lamps at a distance of not
      less than three hundred feet nor more than five hundred feet from the
      point where the pupils are to be received or discharged from the bus
      if the speed limit at that point is forty-five miles per hour or
      greater and shall turn on flashing warning lamps at a distance of not
      less than one hundred fifty feet from the point where the pupils are
      to be received or discharged from the bus if the speed limit at that
      point is less than forty-five miles per hour.  At the point of
      receiving or discharging pupils the driver of the bus shall bring the
      bus to a stop, turn off the amber flashing warning lamps, turn on the
      red flashing warning lamps, and extend the stop arm.  After receiving
      or discharging pupils, the bus driver shall turn off all flashing
      warning lamps, retract the stop arm and proceed on the route.  Except
      to the extent that reduced visibility is caused by fog, snow, or
      other weather conditions, a school bus shall not stop to receive or
      discharge pupils unless there is at least three hundred feet of
      unobstructed vision in each direction.  However, the driver of a
      school bus is not required to use flashing warning lamps and the stop
      arm when receiving or discharging pupils at a designated loading and
      unloading zone at a school attendance center or at extracurricular or
      educational activity locations where students exiting the bus do not
      have to cross the street or highway.
         If a school district contracts with an urban transit system to
      transport children to and from a public or private school, the school
      bus which is provided by the urban transit system shall not be
      required to be equipped with flashing warning lights and a stop arm.
      If the school bus provided by an urban transit system is equipped
      with flashing warning lights and a stop arm, the driver of the school
      bus shall use the flashing warning light and stop arm as required by
      law.
         A school bus, when operating on a highway with four or more lanes
      shall not stop to load or unload pupils who must cross the highway,
      except at designated stops where pupils who must cross the highway
      may do so at points where there are official traffic control devices
      or police officers.
         A school bus shall, while carrying passengers, have its headlights
      turned on.
         2.  All pupils shall be received and discharged from the right
      front entrance of every school bus and if said pupils must cross the
      highway, they shall be required to pass in front of the bus, look in
      both directions, and proceed to cross the highway only on signal from
      the bus driver.
         3.  The driver of a vehicle, including the driver of a vehicle
      operating on a private road or driveway, when meeting a school bus
      with flashing amber warning lamps shall reduce the vehicle's speed to
      not more than twenty miles per hour, and shall bring the vehicle to a
      complete stop when the school bus stops and the stop signal arm is
      extended.  The vehicle shall remain stopped until the stop signal arm
      is retracted after which time the driver may proceed with due
      caution.
         The driver of a vehicle, including the driver of a vehicle
      operating on a private road or driveway, overtaking a school bus
      shall not pass a school bus when red or amber warning signal lights
      are flashing.  The driver shall bring the vehicle to a complete stop
      no closer than fifteen feet from the school bus when it is stopped
      and the stop arm is extended, and the vehicle shall remain stopped
      until the stop arm is retracted and the school bus resumes motion.
         4.  The driver of a vehicle upon a highway providing two or more
      lanes in each direction need not stop upon meeting a school bus which
      is traveling in the opposite direction even though the school bus is
      stopped.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 5079-c8, -c10, -c11; C39, § 5032.01, 5032.03; C46,
      § 321.372, 321.374; C50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.372; 81 Acts, ch 108, § 2, 3] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         91 Acts, ch 70, §1; 95 Acts, ch 118, §24
         Referred to in § 321.354, 321.372A, 321.373, 321.378, 321.380,
      321.423, 321.484, 331.653, 805.8A(10)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 10
         StartOfSec321.372A  PROMPT INVESTIGATION OF REPORTED VIOLATION
      OF FAILING TO OBEY SCHOOL BUS WARNING DEVICES -- CITATION ISSUED TO
      DRIVER OR OWNER.
         1.  The driver of a school bus who observes a violation of section
      321.372, subsection 3, may prepare a written report on a form
      provided by the department of public safety indicating that a
      violation has occurred.  The school bus driver or a school official
      may deliver the report not more than seventy-two hours after the
      violation occurred to a peace officer of the state or a peace officer
      of the county or municipality in which the violation occurred.  The
      report shall state the time and the location at which the violation
      occurred and shall include the registration plate number and a
      description of the vehicle involved in the violation.
         2.  Not more than seven calendar days after receiving a report of
      a violation of section 321.372, subsection 3, from a school bus
      driver or a school official, the peace officer shall initiate an
      investigation of the reported violation and contact the owner of the
      motor vehicle involved in the reported violation and request that the
      owner supply information identifying the driver in accordance with
      section 321.484.
         a.  If, from the investigation, the peace officer is able to
      identify the driver and has reasonable cause to believe a violation
      of section 321.372, subsection 3, has occurred, the peace officer
      shall prepare a uniform traffic citation for the violation and shall
      serve it personally or by certified mail to the driver of the
      vehicle.
         b.  If, from the investigation, the peace officer has
      reasonable cause to believe that a violation of section 321.372,
      subsection 3, occurred but is unable to identify the driver, the
      peace officer shall serve a uniform traffic citation for the
      violation to the owner of the motor vehicle.  Notwithstanding section
      321.484, in a proceeding where the peace officer who conducted the
      investigation was not able to identify the driver of the motor
      vehicle, proof that the motor vehicle described in the uniform
      traffic citation was used to commit the violation of section 321.372,
      subsection 3, together with proof that the defendant named in the
      citation was the owner of the motor vehicle at the time the violation
      occurred, constitutes a permissible inference that the owner was the
      driver who committed the violation.
         c.  For purposes of this subsection, "owner" means a
      person who holds the legal title to a motor vehicle; however, if the
      motor vehicle is the subject of a security agreement with a right of
      possession in the debtor, the debtor shall be deemed the owner for
      purposes of this subsection, or if the motor vehicle is leased as
      defined in section 321.493, the lessee shall be deemed the owner for
      purposes of this subsection.  

         Section History: Recent Form

         88 Acts, ch 1203, §1; 90 Acts, ch 1101, § 1; 2004 Acts, ch 1164,
      §1; 2005 Acts, ch 92, §2, 3
         Referred to in § 321.378, 321.380, 331.653
         StartOfSec321.373  REQUIRED CONSTRUCTION -- RULES ADOPTED.
         1.  Every school bus except private passenger vehicles used as
      school buses shall be constructed and equipped to meet safety
      standards prescribed in rules adopted by the state board of
      education.  Such rules shall conform to safety standards set forth in
      federal laws and regulations and shall conform, insofar as
      practicable, to the minimum standards for school buses recommended by
      the national conference on school transportation administered by the
      national commission on safety education and published by the national
      education association.
         2.  Rules prescribed for school buses shall provide standards for
      structural strength, materials, and insulation of the school bus
      body; color; seat and aisle arrangement; dimension and construction
      of service door; control of the front door or doors; emergency door
      and its location and construction; windows; roof ventilators;
      heaters; location, filling, and draining of the fuel tank; bumpers
      and how they shall be attached to the bus; lettering and
      identification of the bus; stop signal arm; warning lights and
      flashing lights.
         3.  The rules prescribed for school buses shall include special
      rules for passenger automobiles, and other vehicles designed to carry
      eight or fewer pupils, when used as school buses.
         4.  Every school bus shall be equipped with a comfortable seat for
      each child.
         5.  Vehicles owned by private parties and used as school buses
      shall have reversed or covered the words "school bus" wherever they
      appear on the vehicle when the vehicle is not in use as a school bus.
      It shall be unlawful to operate flashing stop warning signals on such
      privately owned vehicles except as provided in section 321.372.
         6.  No vehicle except a school bus shall be operated on a public
      highway if the vehicle is painted the color known as national school
      bus glossy yellow. A school bus which has been permanently converted
      for a purpose other than transporting pupils to or from school shall
      be painted a color other than national school bus glossy yellow, and
      shall have the "school bus" signs, stop arm, and the special signal
      lamps removed.
         7.  A school bus may be equipped with a white flashing strobe
      light mounted on the roof of the bus to afford optimum visibility
      during periods of inclement weather.  The light shall be installed
      and operated in accordance with rules promulgated by the department
      of education.  Each new school bus put into initial service after
      January 1, 1977, shall be equipped with such a light.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 5079-c9, -c10, -c11; C39, § 5032.02; C46, 50, 54,
      58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.373] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         97 Acts, ch 108, §19
         Referred to in § 321.378, 321.379, 321.380, 321.423, 331.653
         StartOfSec321.374  INSPECTION -- SEAL OF APPROVAL.
         No vehicle shall be put into service as a school bus until it is
      given an original inspection to determine if it meets all legal and
      established uniform standards of construction for the protection of
      the health and safety of children to be transported.  Vehicles which
      are approved shall be issued a seal of approval by the director of
      the department of education.  All vehicles used as school buses shall
      be given a safety inspection at least once a year.  Buses passing the
      inspection shall be issued an inspection seal of approval by the
      director of the department of education.  The seal of original
      inspection and the annual seal of inspection shall be affixed to the
      lower right hand corner of the windshield.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.374] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         92 Acts, ch 1082, § 1, 2
         Referred to in § 321.378, 321.380, 331.653
         StartOfSec321.375  SCHOOL BUS DRIVERS -- QUALIFICATIONS --
      GROUNDS FOR SUSPENSION.
         1.  A driver of a school bus must meet all of the following
      requirements:
         a.  Be at least eighteen years of age.
         b.  Be physically and mentally competent.
         c.  Not possess personal or moral habits which would be
      detrimental to the best interests of the safety and welfare of the
      children transported.
         d.  Possess a current certificate of qualification for
      operation of a commercial motor vehicle issued by a physician
      licensed pursuant to chapter 148, physician's assistant, advanced
      registered nurse practitioner, or chiropractor or any other person
      identified by federal and state law as authorized to perform physical
      examinations.
         2.  Any of the following shall constitute grounds for the
      immediate suspension from duties of a school bus driver, including a
      part-time or substitute bus driver, pending a termination hearing by
      the board of directors of a public school district or the authorities
      in charge in a nonpublic school, or pending confirmation of the
      grounds by the employer of the school bus driver if the employer is
      not a school district or accredited nonpublic school:
         a.  Use of nonprescription controlled substances or alcoholic
      beverages during working hours.
         b.  Operating a school bus while under the influence of
      nonprescription controlled substances or alcoholic beverages.
         c.  Fraud in the procurement or renewal of a school bus
      driver's authorization to operate a school bus.
         d.  The commission of or conviction for a public offense as
      defined by the Iowa criminal code, if the offense is relevant to and
      affects driving ability, or if the offense includes sexual
      involvement with a minor student with the intent to commit acts and
      practices proscribed under sections 709.2 through 709.4, section
      709.8, and sections 725.1 through 725.3, or is a violation of the
      rules of the department of education adopted to implement section
      280.17.
         e.  A change in circumstances indicating that the driver is no
      longer physically or mentally competent.  For the purpose of an
      insulin-dependent diabetic, a change in circumstances includes the
      following:
         (1)  Results of a glycosylated hemoglobin test indicating values
      less than 6.0 percent or greater than 9.5 percent unless accompanied
      by the required medical opinion that the event was incidental and not
      an indication of failure to control glucose levels.
         (2)  Results of self-monitoring indicate glucose levels less than
      one hundred milligrams per deciliter or greater than three hundred
      milligrams per deciliter, until self-monitoring indicates compliance
      with specifications.
         (3)  Experiencing a loss of consciousness or control relating to
      diabetes.
         (4)  Failing to maintain or falsifying the required reports.
         3. a.  Notwithstanding any provision to the contrary, an
      insulin-dependent diabetic may qualify under subsection 1, paragraph
      "d", for purposes of operating a school bus under this section if
      a person identified by federal or state law as authorized to perform
      physical examinations annually provides a signed statement indicating
      that based upon an annual physical examination the individual is
      physically able to perform the required functions despite insulin
      dependency.  The insulin-dependent diabetic shall not qualify to
      operate a school bus if, at minimum, the individual results of a
      glycosylated hemoglobin test indicate values less than 6.0 percent or
      greater than 9.5 percent on other than an incidental basis and not as
      a result of failure to control glucose levels.  The statement shall
      also indicate that within the past three years the insulin-dependent
      diabetic has completed instruction to address diabetes management and
      driving safety, signs and symptoms of hypoglycemia and hyperglycemia,
      and what procedures must be followed if complications arise.
         b.  A school district or authorities in charge of the
      nonpublic school that employs or otherwise secures the services of an
      individual with an authorization who is an insulin-dependent diabetic
      shall monitor the insulin-dependent diabetic to determine that they
      are in compliance with all of the following:
         (1)  Self-monitoring blood glucose and demonstrating conformance
      with requirements, more than one hundred milligrams per deciliter and
      less than three hundred milligrams per deciliter, within one hour
      before driving a school bus and approximately every four hours while
      on duty using a United States food and drug administration approved
      device.
         (2)  Reporting immediately to the school district or school any
      failure to comply with specific glucose level requirements as listed
      in subparagraph (1) or loss of consciousness or control.
         (3)  Carrying a source of readily absorbable, fast-acting glucose
      while on duty.
         (4)  Maintaining a daily log of all glucose test results for the
      previous six-month period and providing copies to the school district
      or school, the examining physician, and the department of education
      upon request.
         (5)  Submitting all required department of education forms within
      the prescribed timelines.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4960-d10; C39, § 5032.04; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.375] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         89 Acts, ch 210, §13; 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 70; 93 Acts, ch 127, §
      8; 2002 Acts, ch 1140, §35; 2002 Acts, ch 1140, §34, 48; 2003 Acts,
      ch 180, §57--59; 2006 Acts, ch 1152, §50; 2008 Acts, ch 1088, §121
         Referred to in § 321.376, 321.378, 321.380, 331.653
         StartOfSec321.376  LICENSE -- AUTHORIZATION -- INSTRUCTION
      REQUIREMENT.
         1.  The driver of a school bus shall hold a driver's license
      issued by the department of transportation valid for the operation of
      the school bus and a certificate of qualification for operation of a
      commercial motor vehicle issued by a physician or osteopathic
      physician licensed pursuant to chapter 148, physician's assistant,
      advanced registered nurse practitioner, or chiropractor or any other
      person identified by federal and state law as authorized to perform
      physical examinations, and shall successfully complete an approved
      course of instruction in accordance with subsection 2.  A person
      holding a temporary restricted license issued under chapter 321J
      shall be prohibited from operating a school bus.  The department of
      education shall refuse to issue an authorization to operate a school
      bus to any person who, after notice and opportunity for hearing, is
      determined to have committed any of the acts proscribed under section
      321.375, subsection 2.  The department of education shall take
      adverse action against any person who, after notice and opportunity
      for hearing, is determined to have committed any of the acts
      proscribed under section 321.375, subsection 2.  Such action may
      include a reprimand or warning of the person or the suspension or
      revocation of the person's authorization to operate a school bus.
      The department of education shall recommend, and the state board of
      education shall adopt under chapter 17A, rules and procedures for
      issuing and suspending or revoking authorization to operate a school
      bus in this state.  Rules and procedures adopted shall include but
      are not limited to provisions for the revocation or suspension of, or
      refusal to issue, authorization to persons who are determined to have
      committed any of the acts proscribed under section 321.375,
      subsection 2.
         2.  A person applying for employment or employed as a school bus
      driver shall successfully complete a department of education approved
      course of instruction for school bus drivers before or within the
      first six months of employment and at least every twenty-four months
      thereafter.  If an employee fails to provide an employer with a
      certificate of completion of the required school bus driver's course,
      the driver's employer shall report the failure to the department of
      education and the employee's authorization to operate a school bus
      shall be revoked.  The department of education shall send notice of
      the revocation to both the employee and the employer.  A person whose
      school bus authorization has been revoked under this section shall
      not be issued another authorization until certification of the
      completion of an approved school bus driver's course is received by
      the department of education.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5032.05; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.376] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         89 Acts, ch 222, § 1; 90 Acts, ch 1230, § 71; 91 Acts, ch 201, §
      1; 92 Acts, ch 1163, § 76; 93 Acts, ch 127, § 9; 2002 Acts, ch 1140,
      §36; 2006 Acts, ch 1152, §51; 2009 Acts, ch 133, §120
         Referred to in § 285.8, 321.378, 321.380, 331.653
         StartOfSec321.377  REGIONAL TRANSIT SYSTEM TRANSPORTATION.
         A vehicle operated by a regional transit system as defined in
      section 324A.1 may only provide school transportation services
      pursuant to rules adopted by the state department of transportation
      in consultation with the department of education.  

         Section History: Recent Form

         99 Acts, ch 13, §15
         Referred to in §321.378, 321.380, 331.653
         StartOfSec321.378  APPLICABILITY.
         The provisions of sections 321.372 to 321.380, shall apply to all
      public and nonpublic schools where children are transported to and
      from school.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5032.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.378]
         Referred to in § 321.380, 331.653
         StartOfSec321.379  VIOLATIONS.
         No school board, individual, or organization shall purchase,
      construct, or contract for use, to transport pupils to or from
      school, any school bus which does not comply with the minimum
      requirements of section 321.373 and any individual, or any member or
      officer of such board or organization who authorizes, the purchase,
      construction, or contract for any such bus not complying with these
      minimum requirements shall be guilty of a misdemeanor punishable as
      provided in section 321.482.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 5079-c9, -c10, -c11; C39, § 5032.08; C46, 50, 54,
      58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.379]
         Referred to in § 321.378, 321.380, 331.653
         StartOfSec321.380  ENFORCEMENT.
         It shall be the duty of all peace officers and of the state patrol
      to enforce the provisions of sections 321.372 to 321.379.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5032.09; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.380] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         98 Acts, ch 1074, §24; 2005 Acts, ch 35, §31
         Referred to in § 321.378
         StartOfSec321.381  MOVEMENT OF UNSAFE OR IMPROPERLY EQUIPPED
      VEHICLES.
         It is a simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation
      under section 805.8A, subsection 3, paragraph "f", for any person
      to drive or move or for the owner to cause or knowingly permit to be
      driven or moved on any highway any vehicle or combination of vehicles
      which is in such unsafe condition as to endanger any person, or which
      does not contain those parts or is not at all times equipped with
      such lamps and other equipment in proper condition and adjustment as
      required in this chapter, or which is equipped with one or more
      unsafe tires or which is equipped in any manner in violation of this
      chapter.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5033.01; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.381] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2000 Acts, ch 1203, §15; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5
         Referred to in § 805.8A(3f)
         StartOfSec321.381A  OPERATION OF LOW-SPEED VEHICLES.
         A low-speed vehicle shall not be operated on a street with a
      posted speed limit greater than thirty-five miles per hour.  This
      section shall not prohibit a low-speed vehicle from crossing a street
      with a posted speed limit greater than thirty-five miles per hour.
      

         Section History: Recent Form

         2000 Acts, ch 1005, §4
         Referred to in § 805.8A(3f)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph f
         StartOfSec321.382  UPGRADE PULLS -- MINIMUM SPEED.
         A motor vehicle or combination of vehicles, which cannot proceed
      up a three percent grade, on dry concrete pavement, at a minimum
      speed of twenty miles per hour, shall not be operated upon the
      highways of this state.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5033.02; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.382] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 101, § 70
         Referred to in § 321.23, 805.8A(3c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph c
         StartOfSec321.383  EXCEPTIONS -- SLOW VEHICLES IDENTIFIED.
         1.  This chapter with respect to equipment on vehicles does not
      apply to implements of husbandry, road machinery, or bulk spreaders
      and other fertilizer and chemical equipment defined as special mobile
      equipment, except as made applicable in this section.  However, the
      movement of implements of husbandry on a roadway is subject to safety
      rules adopted by the department.  The safety rules shall prohibit the
      movement of any power unit towing more than one implement of
      husbandry from the manufacturer to the retail seller, from the retail
      seller to the farm purchaser, or from the manufacturer to the farm
      purchaser.
         2.  When operated on a highway in this state at a speed of
      thirty-five miles per hour or less, every farm tractor, or tractor
      with towed equipment, self-propelled implement of husbandry, road
      construction or maintenance vehicle, road grader, horse-drawn
      vehicle, or any other vehicle principally designed for use off the
      highway and any such tractor, implement, vehicle, or grader when
      manufactured for sale or sold at retail after December 31, 1971,
      shall be identified with a reflective device in accordance with the
      standards of the American society of agricultural engineers; however,
      this provision shall not apply to such vehicles when traveling in an
      escorted parade.  If a person operating a vehicle drawn by a horse or
      mule objects to using a reflective device that complies with the
      standards of the American society of agricultural engineers for
      religious reasons, the vehicle may be identified by an alternative
      reflective device that is in compliance with rules adopted by the
      department.  The reflective device or alternative reflective device
      shall be visible from the rear.  A vehicle other than those specified
      in this section shall not display a reflective device or an
      alternative reflective device.  On vehicles operating at speeds above
      thirty-five miles per hour, the reflective device or alternative
      reflective device shall be removed or hidden from view.
         3.  Garbage collection vehicles, when operated on the streets or
      highways of this state at speeds of thirty-five miles per hour or
      less, may display a reflective device that complies with the
      standards of the American society of agricultural engineers.  At
      speeds in excess of thirty-five miles per hour the device shall not
      be visible.
         Any person who violates any provision of this section shall be
      fined as provided in section 805.8A, subsection 3, paragraph "d".
      

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5033.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.383; 82 Acts, ch 1254, § 2] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 186, §3; 96 Acts, ch 1152, § 18; 97 Acts, ch 108, §
      20; 98 Acts, ch 1080, §3; 99 Acts, ch 102, §2; 99 Acts, ch 108, §5;
      2001 Acts, ch 137, §5
         Referred to in § 321.1, 321.288, 321.398, 321.438, 805.8A(3d)
         See also § 321.423(6)
         StartOfSec321.384  WHEN LIGHTED LAMPS REQUIRED.
         1.  Every motor vehicle upon a highway within the state, at any
      time from sunset to sunrise, and at such other times when conditions
      such as fog, snow, sleet, or rain provide insufficient lighting to
      render clearly discernible persons and vehicles on the highway at a
      distance of five hundred feet ahead, shall display lighted headlamps
      as provided in section 321.415, subject to exceptions with respect to
      parked vehicles as hereinafter stated.
         2.  Whenever requirement is hereinafter declared as to the
      distance from which certain lamps and devices shall render objects
      visible or within which such lamps or devices shall be visible, said
      provisions shall apply during the times stated in subsection 1 of
      this section upon a straight level unlighted highway under normal
      atmospheric conditions unless a different time or condition is
      expressly stated.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m17; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5044; C39, § 5033.04;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.384]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 321.235A, 321.392, 321.394, 321.395,
      321.397, 321.398, 321.405, 321.415, 321.418, 321.419, 456A.12,
      805.8A(3d)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph d
         StartOfSec321.385  HEADLAMPS ON MOTOR VEHICLES.
         Every motor vehicle other than a motorcycle or motorized bicycle
      shall be equipped with at least two headlamps with at least one on
      each side of the front of the motor vehicle, which headlamps shall
      comply with the requirements and limitations set forth in this
      chapter.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m17; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5044; C39, § 5033.05;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.385]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 321.385A, 321.404A, 456A.12, 805.8A(3d)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph d
         StartOfSec321.385A  CITATION FOR UNLIGHTED HEADLAMP OR REAR
      LAMP.
         A citation issued for failure to have headlamps as required under
      section 321.385 shall first provide for a seventy-two hour period
      within which the person charged with the violation shall replace or
      repair the headlamp.  If the person complies with the directive to
      replace or repair the headlamp within the allotted time period, the
      citation shall be expunged.  If the person fails to comply within the
      allotted time period, the citation shall be processed in the same
      manner as other citations.  A citation issued under this section
      shall include a written notice of replacement or repair which shall
      indicate the date of replacement or repair and the manner in which
      the replacement or repair occurred and which shall be returned to the
      issuing authority within the seventy-two hour time period.
         A citation issued for failure to have rear lamps as required under
      section 321.387 or a rear registration plate light as required under
      section 321.388 shall first provide for a seventy-two hour period
      within which the person charged with the violation shall replace or
      repair the lamps or light.  If the person complies with the directive
      to replace or repair the lamps or light within the allotted time
      period, the citation shall be expunged.  If the person fails to
      comply within the allotted time period, the citation shall be
      processed in the same manner as other citations.  

         Section History: Recent Form

         92 Acts, ch 1175, § 34
         Referred to in § 321.1, 456A.12
         StartOfSec321.386  HEADLAMPS ON MOTORCYCLES AND MOTORIZED
      BICYCLES.
         Every motorcycle and motorized bicycle shall be equipped with at
      least one and not more than two headlamps which shall comply with the
      requirements and limitations of this chapter.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m17; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5047; C39, § 5033.06;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.386]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 321.404A, 456A.12, 805.8A(3a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.387  REAR LAMPS.
         Every motor vehicle and every vehicle which is being drawn at the
      end of a train of vehicles shall be equipped with a lighted rear lamp
      or lamps, exhibiting a red light plainly visible from a distance of
      five hundred feet to the rear.  All lamps and lighting equipment
      originally manufactured on a motor vehicle shall be kept in working
      condition or shall be replaced with equivalent equipment.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m17; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5045, 5046; C39, §
      5033.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.387] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         92 Acts, ch 1175, § 35
         Referred to in § 321.1, 321.385A, 321.404A, 456A.12, 805.8A(3a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.388  ILLUMINATING PLATES.
         Either the rear lamp or a separate lamp shall be so constructed
      and placed as to illuminate with a white light the rear registration
      plate and render it clearly legible from a distance of fifty feet to
      the rear.  When the rear registration plate is illuminated by an
      electric lamp other than the required rear lamp, the two lamps shall
      be turned on or off only by the same control switch at all times when
      headlamps are lighted.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m17; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5045; C39, § 5033.08;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.388] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 195, §38
         Referred to in § 321.1, 321.385A, 456A.12, 805.8A(3a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.389  REFLECTOR REQUIREMENT.
         Every new motor vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer hereafter sold
      and every commercial vehicle hereafter operated on a highway shall
      also carry at the rear, either as a part of the rear lamp or
      separately, a red reflector meeting the requirements of this chapter.
      

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5033.09; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.389]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 456A.12, 805.8A(3a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.390  REFLECTOR REQUIREMENTS.
         Whenever a red reflector is required or permitted to be used in
      substitution of lamps upon a vehicle under any one of the provisions
      of this chapter, such reflector shall be mounted upon the vehicle at
      a height not to exceed forty-two inches nor less than twenty inches
      above the ground upon which the vehicle stands, and every such
      reflector shall be so designed and maintained as to be visible at
      night from all distances within three hundred feet to fifty feet from
      such vehicle, except that on a commercial vehicle the reflector shall
      be visible from all distances within five hundred feet to fifty feet
      from such vehicle when directly in front of a motor vehicle
      displaying lawfully lighted headlamps as provided in section 321.409.
      

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 4863; C39, § 5033.10; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71,
      73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.390]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 456A.12, 805.8A(3a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.391  Repealed by 97 Acts, ch 108, § 49.
         StartOfSec321.392  CLEARANCE AND IDENTIFICATION LIGHTS.
         Every motor truck, and every trailer or semitrailer of over three
      thousand pounds gross weight, shall be equipped with the following
      lighting devices and reflectors in addition to other requirements of
      this chapter, and such devices shall be lighted at the times
      mentioned in section 321.384.
         1.  Every motor truck, whatever its size shall have the following:

         a.  On each side, one reflector, at or near the rear; and
         b.  On the rear, two reflectors, one at each side.
         2.  Every motor truck, eighty inches or more in width shall have
      the following in addition to the requirements of subsection 1:
         a.  If thirty feet or less in overall length:
         (1)  On the front, two clearance lamps, one at each side; and
         (2)  On the rear, two clearance lamps, one at each side.
         b.  If more than thirty feet in overall length:
         (1)  On the front, two clearance lamps, one at each side;
         (2)  On each side, two side-marker lamps, one at or near the
      front, and one at or near the rear, and an additional reflector at or
      near the front; and
         (3)  On the rear, two clearance lamps, one at each side.
         3.  Every truck tractor or road tractor shall have the following:
         a.  On the front, two clearance lamps, one at each side if the
      tractor cab is as wide as, or wider than, the widest part of the
      vehicle or vehicles towed;
         b.  On each side, one side-marker lamp at or near the front;
      and
         c.  On the rear, one tail lamp.
         4.  Every trailer or semitrailer having a gross weight in excess
      of three thousand pounds shall have the following:
         a.  On the front, two clearance lamps, one at each side, if
      the trailer is wider in its widest part than the cab of the vehicle
      towing it;
         b.  On each side, one side-marker lamp at or near the rear;
      two reflectors, one at or near the front and one at or near the rear;
      and
         c.  On the rear, two clearance lamps, one at each side; one
      stop light; one tail lamp; and two reflectors, one at each side.
         5.  Every motor truck or combination of motor truck and trailer
      having a length in excess of thirty feet or a width in excess of
      eighty inches shall be equipped with three identification lights on
      both front and rear.  Each such group shall be evenly spaced not less
      than six nor more than twelve inches apart along a horizontal line
      near the top of the vehicle.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 5044-d1, -d2, 5105-c19; C39, § 5034.01; C46, 50,
      54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.392]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 456A.12, 805.8A(3a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.393  COLOR AND MOUNTING.
         1.  A lighting device or reflector, when mounted on or near the
      front of a motor truck or trailer, except a school bus, shall not
      display any other color than white, yellow, or amber.
         2.  No lighting device or reflector, when mounted on or near the
      rear of any motor truck or trailer, shall display any other color
      than red, except that the stop light may be red, yellow, or amber.
         3.  Clearance lamps shall be mounted on the permanent structure of
      the vehicle in such manner as to indicate the extreme width of the
      vehicle or its load.
         4.  The provisions of this section shall not prohibit the use of a
      lighting device or reflector displaying an amber light when such
      lighting device or reflector is mounted on a motor truck, trailer,
      tractor, or motor grader owned by the state, or any political
      subdivision of the state, or any municipality therein, while such
      equipment is being used for snow removal, sanding, maintenance, or
      repair of the public streets or highways.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5034.02; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.393] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         89 Acts, ch 83, §44
         Referred to in § 321.1, 456A.12, 805.8A(3a)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.394  LAMP OR FLAG ON PROJECTING LOAD.
         Whenever the load upon any vehicle extends to the rear four feet
      or more beyond the bed or body of such vehicle there shall be
      displayed at the extreme rear end of the load, at the times specified
      in section 321.384, a red light or lantern plainly visible from a
      distance of at least five hundred feet to the sides and rear.  The
      red light or lantern required under this section shall be in addition
      to the red rear light required upon every vehicle.  At any other time
      there shall be displayed at the extreme rear end of such load a red
      flag or cloth not less than sixteen inches square.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5034.03; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.394]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 456A.12, 805.8A(12a)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 12,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.395  LAMPS ON PARKED VEHICLES.
         Whenever a vehicle is parked or stopped upon a roadway or shoulder
      adjacent to the roadway, outside of a business district whether
      attended or unattended during the times mentioned in section 321.384,
      such vehicle shall be equipped with one or more lamps which shall
      exhibit a white or amber light on the roadway side visible from a
      distance of five hundred feet to the front of such vehicle and a red
      light visible from a distance of five hundred feet to the rear,
      except that local authorities may provide by ordinance or resolution
      that no lights need be displayed upon any such vehicle when stopped
      or parked in accordance with local parking regulations upon a highway
      where there is sufficient light to reveal any person or object within
      a distance of five hundred feet upon such highway.  Any lighted
      headlamps upon a parked vehicle shall be depressed or dimmed.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5054; C39, § 5034.04; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.395] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         98 Acts, ch 1178, §4
         Referred to in § 321.1, 321.396, 456A.12, 805.8A(6c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 6,
      paragraph c
         StartOfSec321.396  EXCEPTION.
         Section 321.395 shall not apply when an accident extinguishes said
      light and renders a vehicle incapable of use, and when the person in
      control of the vehicle erects, at the earliest opportunity after the
      accident, such proper light at or near the vehicle as will give
      warning of the presence of said vehicle.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5055; C39, § 5034.05; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.396]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 456A.12
         StartOfSec321.397  LAMPS ON BICYCLES.
         Every bicycle shall be equipped with a lamp on the front
      exhibiting a white light, at the times specified in section 321.384,
      visible from a distance of at least three hundred feet to the front
      and with a lamp on the rear exhibiting a red light visible from a
      distance of three hundred feet to the rear; except that a red
      reflector may be used in lieu of a rear light.  A peace officer
      riding a police bicycle is not required to use either front or rear
      lamps if duty so requires.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 5045-d1; C39, § 5034.06; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.397] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         97 Acts, ch 71, § 3; 97 Acts, ch 108, § 21
         Referred to in § 321.1, 456A.12, 805.8A(9)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 9
         StartOfSec321.398  LAMPS ON OTHER VEHICLES AND EQUIPMENT.
         All vehicles, including animal-drawn vehicles and including those
      referred to in section 321.383 not hereinbefore specifically required
      to be equipped with lamps, shall at the times specified in section
      321.384 be equipped with at least one lighted lamp or lantern
      exhibiting a white light visible from a distance of five hundred feet
      to the front of such vehicle and, except for animal-drawn vehicles,
      with a lamp or lantern exhibiting a red light visible from a distance
      of five hundred feet to the rear. Animal-drawn vehicles shall be
      equipped with a flashing amber light visible from a distance of five
      hundred feet to the rear of the vehicle during the time specified in
      section 321.384.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 5045-d1; C39, § 5034.07; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.398]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 321.423, 456A.12, 805.8A(3d)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see §805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph d
         StartOfSec321.399 THROUGH 321.401  Repealed by 75 Acts, ch
      182, § 1.
         StartOfSec321.402  SPOT LAMPS.
         Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not to exceed one spot lamp
      and every lighted spot lamp shall be so aimed and used upon
      approaching another vehicle that no part of the high-intensity
      portion of the beam will be directed to the left of the prolongation
      of the extreme left side of the vehicle nor more than one hundred
      feet ahead of the vehicle.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5051; C39, § 5034.11; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.402]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 456A.12, 805.8A(3d)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph d
         StartOfSec321.403  AUXILIARY DRIVING LAMPS.
         Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not to exceed three
      auxiliary driving lamps mounted on the front at a height not less
      than twelve inches nor more than forty-two inches above the level
      surface upon which the vehicle stands, and every such auxiliary
      driving lamp or lamps shall meet the requirements and limitations set
      forth in this chapter.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5050; C39, § 5034.12; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.403]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 456A.12, 805.8A(3d)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see § 805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph d
         StartOfSec321.404  SIGNAL LAMPS AND SIGNAL DEVICES.
         Every motor vehicle shall be equipped with a signal lamp or signal
      device which is so constructed and located on the vehicle as to give
      a signal of intention to stop, which shall be red or yellow in color,
      which signal shall be plainly visible and understandable in normal
      sunlight and at night from a distance of one hundred feet to the rear
      but shall not project a glaring or dazzling light.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5034.13; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.404]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 321.404A, 456A.12, 805.8A(3d)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see § 805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph d
         StartOfSec321.404A  LIGHT-RESTRICTING DEVICES PROHIBITED.
         1.  A person shall not operate a motor vehicle, motorcycle, or
      motorized bicycle on the highways of this state if it is equipped
      with a device that restricts the light output of a headlamp required
      under section 321.385 or 321.386, a rear lamp required under section
      321.387, a signal lamp or signal device required under section
      321.404, or a directional signal device as described in section
      321.317.
         2.  A person who violates this section shall be subject to a
      scheduled fine under section 805.8A, subsection 3, paragraph "c".
      

         Section History: Recent Form

         99 Acts, ch 13, §16; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5
         Referred to in §321.1, 456A.12, 805.8A(3c)
         StartOfSec321.405  SELF-ILLUMINATION.
         All mechanical signal devices shall be self-illuminated when in
      use at the times mentioned in section 321.384.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5034.14; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.405]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 456A.12
         StartOfSec321.406  COWL LAMPS.
         Any motor vehicle may be equipped with not more than two side cowl
      or fender lamps which shall emit an amber or white light without
      glare.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5050; C39, § 5034.15; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.406]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 456A.12
         StartOfSec321.407  Repealed by 89 Acts, ch 296, § 96.
         StartOfSec321.408  BACK-UP LAMPS.
         Any motor vehicle may be equipped with a back-up lamp either
      separately or in combination with another lamp; except that no such
      back-up lamp shall be continuously lighted when the motor vehicle is
      in forward motion.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5050; C39, § 5034.17; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.408]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 456A.12
         StartOfSec321.409  MANDATORY LIGHTING EQUIPMENT.
         Except as hereinafter provided, the headlamps or the auxiliary
      driving lamp or the auxiliary passing lamp or combination thereof on
      motor vehicles other than motorcycles or motorized bicycles shall be
      so arranged that the driver may select at will between distributions
      of light projected to different elevations and the lamps may, in
      addition, be so arranged that selection can be made automatically,
      subject to the following limitations:
         1.  There shall be an uppermost distribution of light, or
      composite beam, so aimed and of sufficient intensity to reveal
      persons and vehicles at a distance of at least three hundred fifty
      feet ahead for all conditions.
         2.  There shall be a lowermost distribution of light, or composite
      beam so aimed and of sufficient intensity to reveal persons and
      vehicles at a distance of at least one hundred feet ahead.  On a
      straight level road under any condition of loading none of the
      high-intensity portion of the beam shall be directed to strike the
      eyes of an approaching driver.
         3.  Every new motor vehicle, other than a motorcycle or motorized
      bicycle which has multiple-beam road-lighting equipment shall be
      equipped with a beam indicator, which shall be lighted whenever the
      uppermost distribution of light from the headlamps is in use, and
      shall not otherwise be lighted.  The indicator shall be so designed
      and located that when lighted it will be readily visible without
      glare to the driver of the vehicle.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5049, 5052; C39, § 5034.18--5034.22; C46,
      50, 54, § 321.409--321.413; C58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.409]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 321.275, 321.390, 321.415, 321.418,
      456A.12, 805.8A(3d)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see § 805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph d
         StartOfSec321.410 THROUGH 321.414  Reserved.
         StartOfSec321.415  REQUIRED USAGE OF LIGHTING DEVICES.
         1.  Whenever a motor vehicle is being operated on a roadway or
      shoulder during the times specified in section 321.384, the driver
      shall use a distribution of light, or composite beam, directed high
      enough and of sufficient intensity to reveal persons and vehicles at
      a safe distance in advance of the vehicle, subject to the following
      requirements and limitations:
         a.  Whenever a driver of a vehicle approaches an oncoming
      vehicle within one thousand feet, the driver shall use a distribution
      of light, or composite beam, so aimed that the glaring rays are not
      projected into the eyes of the oncoming driver.  The lowermost
      distribution of light, or composite beam, specified in section
      321.409, subsection 2, shall be deemed to avoid glare at all times,
      regardless of road contour and loading.
         b.  Whenever the driver of a vehicle follows another vehicle
      within four hundred feet to the rear, except when engaged in the act
      of overtaking and passing, the driver shall use a distribution of
      light permissible under this chapter other than the uppermost
      distribution of light specified in section 321.409, subsection 1.
         2.  The provisions of subsection 1, paragraphs "a" and
      "b", do not apply to motorcycles or motorized bicycles being
      operated between sunrise and sunset.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5034.23--5034.25; C46, 50, 54, § 321.414--321.416;
      C58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.415] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         92 Acts, ch 1175, § 36
         Referred to in § 321.1, 321.384, 321.418, 456A.12, 805.8A(3d)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see § 805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph d
         StartOfSec321.416  Reserved.
         StartOfSec321.417  SINGLE-BEAM ROAD-LIGHTING EQUIPMENT.
         Headlamps arranged to provide a single distribution of light not
      supplemented by auxiliary driving lamps shall be permitted on motor
      vehicles manufactured and sold prior to July 1, 1938, in lieu of
      multiple-beam road-lighting equipment herein specified if the single
      distribution of light complies with the following requirements and
      limitations:
         The headlamps shall be so aimed that when the vehicle is not
      loaded none of the high-intensity portion of the light shall at a
      distance of twenty-five feet ahead project higher than a level of
      five inches below the level of the center of the lamp from which it
      comes, and in no case higher than forty-two inches above the level on
      which the vehicle stands at a distance of seventy-five feet ahead.
         The intensity shall be sufficient to reveal persons and vehicles
      at a distance of at least two hundred feet.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5049; C39, § 5034.26; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.417]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 321.418
         StartOfSec321.418  ALTERNATE ROAD-LIGHTING EQUIPMENT.
         Any motor vehicle may be operated under the conditions specified
      in section 321.384 when equipped with two lighted lamps upon the
      front thereof capable of revealing persons and objects seventy-five
      feet ahead in lieu of lamps required in sections 321.409 and 321.415,
      or section 321.417, provided, however, that at no time shall it be
      operated at a speed in excess of twenty miles per hour.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5034.27; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.418]
         Referred to in § 321.1
         StartOfSec321.419  NUMBER OF DRIVING LAMPS REQUIRED OR
      PERMITTED.
         At all times specified in section 321.384 at least two lighted
      lamps, except where one only is permitted, shall be displayed, one on
      each side at the front of every motor vehicle except when such
      vehicle is parked subject to the regulations governing lights on
      parked vehicles.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5034.28; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.419]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 805.8A(3d)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see § 805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph d
         StartOfSec321.420  NUMBER OF LAMPS LIGHTED.
         Whenever a motor vehicle equipped with headlamps as herein
      required is also equipped with any auxiliary lamps or a spot lamp or
      any other lamp on the front thereof projecting a beam of an intensity
      greater than three hundred candlepower, not more than a total of four
      of any such lamps on the front of a vehicle shall be lighted at any
      one time when upon a highway.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5034.29; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.420]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 805.8A(3d)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see § 805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph d
         StartOfSec321.421  SPECIAL RESTRICTIONS ON LAMPS.
         Any lighted lamp or illuminating device upon a motor vehicle other
      than headlamps, spot lamps, or auxiliary driving lamps which projects
      a beam of light of an intensity greater than three hundred
      candlepower shall be so directed that no part of the beam will strike
      the level of the roadway on which the vehicle stands at a distance of
      more than seventy-five feet from the vehicle.
         A person convicted of a violation of this section is guilty of a
      simple misdemeanor punishable as a scheduled violation under section
      805.8A, subsection 3, paragraph "d".  

         Section Historyarly Form

         [C39, § 5034.30; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.421] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         2000 Acts, ch 1203, §16; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5
         Referred to in § 321.1, 805.8A(3d)
         StartOfSec321.422  RED LIGHT IN FRONT.
         No person shall drive or move any vehicle or equipment upon any
      highway with any lamp or device thereon displaying or reflecting a
      red light visible from directly in front thereof.  This section shall
      not apply to authorized emergency vehicles, or school buses and
      vehicles as provided in section 321.423, subsection 6.  No person
      shall display any color of light other than red on the rear of any
      vehicle, except that stop lights and directional signals may be red,
      yellow, or amber.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5034.31; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.422]
         Referred to in § 321.1, 805.8A(3a)
         See also § 321.383
         For applicable scheduled fine, see §805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.423  FLASHING LIGHTS.
         1.  Definitions.  As used in this section, unless the context
      otherwise requires:
         a.  "Emergency medical care provider" means as defined in
      section 147A.1.
         b.  "Fire department" means a paid or volunteer fire
      protection service provided by a benefited fire district under
      chapter 357B or by a county, municipality or township, or a private
      corporate organization that has a valid contract to provide fire
      protection service for a benefited fire district, county,
      municipality, township or governmental agency.
         c.  "Member" means a person who is a member in good standing
      of a fire department or a person who is an emergency medical care
      provider employed by an ambulance, rescue, or first response service.

         2.  Prohibited lights.  A flashing light on or in a motor
      vehicle is prohibited except as follows:
         a.  On an authorized emergency vehicle.
         b.  On a vehicle as a means of indicating a right or left
      turn, a mechanical failure, or an emergency stop or intent to stop.
         c.  On a motor vehicle used by a rural mail carrier when
      stopping or stopped on or near a highway in the process of delivering
      mail, if such a light is any shade of color between white and amber
      and if it is mounted as a dome light on the roof of the vehicle.
         d.  On a vehicle being operated under an excess size permit
      issued under chapter 321E.
         e.  A flashing blue light on a vehicle upon which a blue light
      is permitted pursuant to subsection 3 of this section.
         f.  A flashing white light is permitted on a vehicle pursuant
      to subsection 7.
         g.  Flashing red and amber warning lights on a school bus as
      described in section 321.372, and a white flashing strobe light
      mounted on a school bus as permitted under section 321.373,
      subsection 7.
         h.  A flashing amber light is permitted on a towing or
      recovery vehicle, a utility maintenance vehicle, a municipal
      maintenance vehicle, a highway maintenance vehicle, or a vehicle
      operated in accordance with subsection 6 or section 321.398 or
      321.453.
         i.  Modulating headlamps in conformance with 49 C.F.R. §
      571.108 S7.9.4. are permitted on a motorcycle.
         j.  On a vehicle being operated as an escort vehicle for a
      funeral procession as provided in section 321.324A.
         3.  Blue light.  A blue light shall not be used on any vehicle
      except for the following:
         a.  A vehicle owned or exclusively operated by a fire
      department.
         b.  A vehicle authorized by the chief of the fire department
      if the vehicle is owned by a member of the fire department, the
      request for authorization is made by the member on forms provided by
      the department, and necessity for authorization is demonstrated in
      the request.
         c.  An authorized emergency vehicle, other than a vehicle
      described in paragraph "a" or "b", if the blue light is
      positioned on the passenger side of the vehicle and is used in
      conjunction with a red light positioned on the driver side of the
      vehicle.
         A person shall not use only a blue light on a vehicle unless the
      vehicle meets the requirements of paragraph "a" or "b".
         4.  Expiration of authority.  The authorization shall expire
      at midnight on the thirty-first day of December five years from the
      year in which it was issued, or when the vehicle is no longer owned
      by the member, or when the member has ceased to be an active member
      of the fire department or of an ambulance, rescue, or first response
      service, or when the member has used the blue or white light beyond
      the scope of its authorized use.  A person issued an authorization
      under subsection 3, paragraph "b", shall return the authorization
      to the fire chief upon expiration or upon a determination by the fire
      chief or the department that the authorization should be revoked.
         5.  When used.  The certificate of authorization shall be
      carried at all times with the certificate of registration of the
      authorized vehicle and the operator of the vehicle shall not
      illuminate the blue or white light except in any of the following
      circumstances:
         a.  When the member is en route to the scene of a fire or is
      responding to an emergency in the line of duty requiring the services
      of the member.
         b.  When the authorized vehicle is transporting a person
      requiring emergency care.
         c.  When the authorized vehicle is at the scene of an
      emergency.
         d.  The use of the blue or white light in or on a private
      motor vehicle shall be for identification purposes only.
         6.  Amber flashing light.  A farm tractor, farm tractor with
      towed equipment, self-propelled implement of husbandry, road
      construction or maintenance vehicle, road grader, or other vehicle
      principally designed for use off the highway which, when operated on
      a primary or secondary road, is operated at a speed of thirty-five
      miles an hour or less, shall be equipped with and display an amber
      flashing light visible from the rear at any time from sunset to
      sunrise.  If the amber flashing light is obstructed by the towed
      equipment, the towed equipment shall also be equipped with and
      display an amber flashing light as required under this subsection.
      All vehicles specified in this subsection which are manufactured for
      sale or sold in this state shall be equipped with an amber flashing
      light in accordance with the standards of the American society of
      agricultural engineers.
         7.  Flashing white light.  Except as provided in section
      321.373, subsection 7, and subsection 2, paragraphs "c" and
      "i" of this section, a flashing white light shall only be used on
      a vehicle in the following circumstances:
         a.  On a vehicle owned or exclusively operated by an
      ambulance, rescue, or first response service.
         b.  On a vehicle authorized by the director of public health
      when all of the following apply:
         (1)  The vehicle is owned by a member of an ambulance, rescue, or
      first response service.
         (2)  The request for authorization is made by the member on forms
      provided by the Iowa department of public health.
         (3)  Necessity for authorization is demonstrated in the request.
         (4)  The head of an ambulance, rescue, or first response service
      certifies that the member is in good standing and recommends that the
      authorization be granted.
         c.  On an authorized emergency vehicle.
         The Iowa department of public health shall adopt rules to
      establish issuance standards, including allowing local emergency
      medical service providers to issue certificates of authorization, and
      shall adopt rules to establish certificate of authorization
      revocation procedures.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5034.32; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.423] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         85 Acts, ch 37, §2; 90 Acts, ch 1225, § 1--7; 91 Acts, ch 131,
      §2--4; 94 Acts, ch 1087, §2; 95 Acts, ch 41, §25; 95 Acts, ch 118,
      §25; 96 Acts, ch 1034, § 21--23; 97 Acts, ch 108, §22; 2000 Acts, ch
      1045, §2, 3; 2001 Acts, ch 32, §19; 2005 Acts, ch 8, §29--31; 2006
      Acts, ch 1070, §14
         Referred to in § 321.1, 321.422, 805.8A(3d)
         See also § 321.383
         For applicable scheduled fines, see § 805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph d
         StartOfSec321.424  Repealed by 97 Acts, ch 108, § 49.
         StartOfSec321.425 THROUGH 321.427  Reserved.
         StartOfSec321.428 AND 321.429.  Repealed by 97 Acts, ch 108, §
      49.
         StartOfSec321.430  BRAKE, HITCH AND CONTROL REQUIREMENTS.
         1.  Every motor vehicle, other than a motorcycle, or motorized
      bicycle, when operated upon a highway shall be equipped with brakes
      adequate to control the movement of and to stop and hold such
      vehicle, including two separate means of applying the brakes, each of
      which means shall be effective to apply the brakes to at least two
      wheels.  If these two separate means of applying the brakes are
      connected in any way, they shall be so constructed that failure of
      any one part of the operating mechanism shall not leave the motor
      vehicle without brakes on at least two wheels.
         2.  Every motorcycle and motorized bicycle, when operated upon a
      highway, shall be equipped with at least one brake, which may be
      operated by hand or foot.
         3.  Every trailer, semitrailer, or travel trailer of a gross
      weight of three thousand pounds or more shall be equipped with brakes
      adequate to control the movement of and to stop and hold such vehicle
      when operated on the highways of this state.  Every trailer,
      semitrailer, or travel trailer with a gross weight of three thousand
      pounds or more shall be equipped with a separate, auxiliary means of
      applying the brakes on the trailer, semitrailer, or travel trailer
      from the cab of the towing vehicle, or with self-actuating brakes,
      and shall also be equipped with a weight equalizing hitch with a sway
      control.  Trailers or semitrailers with a truck or truck tractor need
      only comply with the brake requirements.
         4.  Except as otherwise provided in this chapter, every new motor
      vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer hereafter sold in this state and
      operated upon the highways shall be equipped with service brakes upon
      all wheels of every such vehicle with the following exceptions:
         a.  Any motorcycle or motorized bicycle.
         b.  Any trailer or semitrailer of less than three thousand
      pounds gross weight need not be equipped with brakes.
         c.  Trucks and truck tractors equipped with three or more
      axles and manufactured before July 25, 1980, need not have brakes on
      the front wheels, except that such vehicles equipped with two or more
      front axles shall be equipped with brakes on at least one of the
      axles; however, the service brakes of the vehicle shall comply with
      the performance requirements of section 321.431.
         d.  Only such brakes on the vehicle or vehicles being towed in
      a driveaway-towaway operation need be operative as may be necessary
      to insure compliance by the combination of vehicles with the
      performance requirements of section 321.431.  The term
      "driveaway-towaway" operation as used in this subsection means
      any operation in which any motor vehicle or motor vehicles, new or
      used, constitute the commodity being transported, when one set or
      more of wheels of any such motor vehicle or motor vehicles are on the
      roadway during the course of transportation, whether or not any such
      motor vehicle furnishes the motive power.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m17; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5039; C39, § 5034.39;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.430] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         88 Acts, ch 1044, §1; 97 Acts, ch 108, §24; 2006 Acts, ch 1068,
      §29
         Referred to in § 321.189, 321.464, 805.8A(3e)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see § 805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph e
         StartOfSec321.431  PERFORMANCE ABILITY.
         1.  The service brakes upon any motor vehicle or combination of
      motor vehicles, when upon dry asphalt or concrete pavement surface
      free from loose material where the grade does not exceed one percent,
      when traveling twenty miles an hour shall be adequate:
         a.  To stop such vehicle or vehicles having a gross weight of
      less than five thousand pounds within a distance of thirty feet.
         b.  To stop such vehicle or vehicles having a gross weight in
      excess of five thousand pounds within a distance of forty-five feet.

         2.  Under the above conditions the hand brake shall be adequate to
      hold such vehicle or vehicles stationary on any grade upon which
      operated.
         3.  Under the above conditions the service brakes upon a motor
      vehicle equipped with two-wheel brakes only, and when permitted
      hereunder, shall be adequate to stop the vehicle within a distance of
      forty-five feet and the hand brake adequate to stop the vehicle
      within a distance of fifty-five feet.
         4.  All braking distances specified in this section shall apply to
      all vehicles mentioned, whether such vehicles are not loaded or are
      loaded to the maximum capacity permitted under this chapter.
         5.  All brakes shall be maintained in good working order and shall
      be so adjusted as to operate as equally as practicable with respect
      to the wheels on opposite sides of the vehicle.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m17; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5039; C39, § 5034.40;
      C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.431]
         Referred to in § 321.189, 321.430, 321.464
         StartOfSec321.432  HORNS AND WARNING DEVICES.
         Every motor vehicle when operated upon a highway shall be equipped
      with a horn in good working order and capable of emitting sound
      audible under normal conditions from a distance of not less than two
      hundred feet, but no horn or other warning device shall emit an
      unreasonably loud or harsh sound or a whistle.  The driver of a motor
      vehicle shall when reasonably necessary to insure safe operation give
      audible warning with the horn but shall not otherwise use such horn
      when upon a highway.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m17; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5040, 5041; C39, §
      5034.41; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.432]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(3a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see § 805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.433  SIRENS, WHISTLES, AND BELLS PROHIBITED.
         A vehicle shall not be equipped with and a person shall not use
      upon a vehicle any siren, whistle, or bell, except as otherwise
      permitted in this section.  It is permissible but not required that
      any commercial vehicle be equipped with a theft alarm signal device
      which is so arranged that it cannot be used by the driver as an
      ordinary warning signal.  Any authorized emergency vehicle may be
      equipped with a siren, whistle, or bell capable of emitting sound
      audible under normal conditions from a distance of not less than five
      hundred feet, but the siren, whistle, or bell shall not be used
      except when the vehicle is operated in response to an emergency call
      or in the immediate pursuit of an actual or suspected violator of the
      law, and the driver of the vehicle shall sound the siren, whistle, or
      bell when necessary to warn pedestrians and other drivers of the
      approach of the vehicle.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5034.42; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.433] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         98 Acts, ch 1080, §4
         Referred to in § 321.231, 805.8A(3d)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see § 805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph d
         StartOfSec321.434  BICYCLE SIRENS OR WHISTLES.
         A bicycle shall not be equipped with and a person shall not use
      upon a bicycle any siren or whistle.  This section shall not apply to
      bicycles ridden by peace officers in the line of duty.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5034.43; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.434] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         97 Acts, ch 71, §4
         Referred to in § 805.8A(9)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see § 805.8A, subsection 9
         StartOfSec321.435  Repealed by 78 Acts, ch 1113, § 47.
         StartOfSec321.436  MUFFLERS, PREVENTION OF NOISE.
         Every motor vehicle shall at all times be equipped with a muffler
      in good working order and in constant operation to prevent excessive
      or unusual noise and annoying smoke, and no person shall use a
      muffler cutout, bypass or similar device upon a motor vehicle on a
      highway.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-m18; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5061--5063; C39, §
      5034.45; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.436]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(3a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see § 805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.437  MIRRORS.
         1.  Every motor vehicle shall be equipped with a mirror so located
      as to reflect to the driver a view of the highway for a distance of
      at least two hundred feet to the rear of such vehicle.  Any motor
      vehicle so loaded, or towing another vehicle in such manner, as to
      obstruct the view in a rear view mirror located in the driver's
      compartment shall be equipped with a side mirror so located that the
      view to the rear will not be obstructed however when such vehicle is
      not loaded or towing another vehicle the side mirrors shall be
      retracted or removed.  All van or van type motor vehicles shall be
      equipped with outside mirrors of unit magnification, each with not
      less than nineteen point five square inches of reflective surface,
      installed with stable supports on both sides of the vehicle, located
      so as to provide the driver a view to the rear along both sides of
      the vehicle, and adjustable in both the horizontal and vertical
      directions to view the rearward scene.
         2.  Notwithstanding this chapter or chapter 321E, a combination of
      vehicles coupled together which is used exclusively for the
      transportation of passenger vehicles, light delivery trucks, panel
      delivery trucks, pickups, boats, and recreational chassis, may
      permanently attach a convex-type mirror on either or both of the
      vertical supports, forward of the steering axle of the power unit,
      provided that the mirror shall not extend beyond the limit of any
      other rearview mirror on the vehicle.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 5105-c20; C39, § 5034.46; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.437] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         86 Acts, ch 1210, § 5
         Referred to in § 805.8A(3b, 12b)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see § 805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph b, and subsection 12, paragraph b
         StartOfSec321.438  WINDSHIELDS AND WINDOWS.
         1.  A person shall not drive a motor vehicle equipped with a
      windshield, sidewings, or side or rear windows which do not permit
      clear vision.
         2.  A person shall not operate on the highway a motor vehicle
      equipped with a front windshield, a side window to the immediate
      right or left of the driver, or a side-wing forward of and to the
      left or right of the driver which is excessively dark or reflective
      so that it is difficult for a person outside the motor vehicle to see
      into the motor vehicle through the windshield, window, or sidewing.
      The department shall adopt rules establishing a minimum measurable
      standard of transparency which shall apply to violations of this
      subsection.
         3.  Every motor vehicle except a motorcycle, or a vehicle included
      in the provisions of section 321.383 or section 321.115 shall be
      equipped with a windshield in accordance with section 321.444.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5034.47; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.438] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         83 Acts, ch 125, § 5
         Referred to in § 805.8A(3c)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see § 805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph c
         StartOfSec321.439  WINDSHIELD WIPERS.
         The windshield on every motor vehicle shall be equipped with a
      device for cleaning rain, snow, or other moisture from the
      windshield, which device shall be so constructed as to be controlled
      or operated by the driver of the vehicle.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5034.48; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.439]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(3a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see § 805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.440  RESTRICTIONS AS TO TIRE EQUIPMENT.
         1.  Every solid rubber tire on a vehicle shall have rubber on its
      entire traction surface at least one inch thick above the edge of the
      flange of the entire periphery.  Any pneumatic tire on a vehicle
      shall be considered unsafe if it has:
         a.  Any part of the ply or cord exposed;
         b.  Any bump, bulge or separation;
         c.  A tread design depth of less than one-sixteenth of an inch
      measured in any two or more adjacent tread grooves, exclusive of tie
      bars or, for those tires with tread wear indicators, worn to the
      level of the tread wear indicators in any two tread grooves;
         d.  A marking "not for highway use", "for racing purposes
      only", "unsafe for highway use";
         e.  Tread or sidewall cracks, cuts or snags deep enough to
      expose the body cord;
         f.  Such other conditions as may be reasonably demonstrated to
      render it unsafe;
         g.  Been regrooved or recut below the original tread design
      depth, excepting special tires which have extra under tread rubber
      and are identified as such, or if a pneumatic tire was originally
      designed without grooves or tread.
         2.  A vehicle, except an implement of husbandry, equipped with
      either solid rubber or pneumatic tires shall not be operated where
      the weight per inch of tire width is greater than five hundred
      seventy-five pounds per inch of tire width based on the tire width
      rating, except on a steering axle, in which case six hundred pounds
      per inch of tire width is permitted based on the tire width rating.
      

         Section History: Early Form

         [C31, 35, § 5065-c1; C39, § 5034.49; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66,
      71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.440] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         97 Acts, ch 100, §2, 3, 12
         Referred to in § 805.8A(3a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see § 805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.441  METAL TIRES PROHIBITED.
         No person shall operate or move on a paved highway any motor
      vehicle, trailer, or semitrailer having any metal tire or metal track
      in contact with the roadway.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 4918, 4919; C39, § 5034.50; C46, 50, 54,
      58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.441]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(3a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see § 805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.442  PROJECTIONS ON WHEELS.
         No tire on a vehicle moved on a highway shall have on its
      periphery any block, stud, flange, cleat, or spike or any other
      protuberances of any material other than rubber which projects beyond
      the tread of the traction surface of the tire except that it shall be
      permissible to use:
         1.  Farm machinery with tires having protuberances which will not
      injure the highway.
         2.  Tire chains of reasonable proportions upon any vehicle when
      required for safety because of snow, ice, or other conditions tending
      to cause a vehicle to skid.
         3.  Pneumatic tires with inserted ice grips or tire studs
      projecting not more than one-sixteenth inch beyond the tread of the
      traction surface of the tire upon any vehicle from November 1 of each
      year to April 1 of the following year, except that a school bus and
      fire department emergency apparatus may use such tires at any time.
      

         Section History: Early Form

         [S13, § 1571-1a; C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5068, 5070; C39, §
      5034.51; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, §
      321.442]
         Referred to in § 805.8A(3a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see § 805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.443  EXCEPTIONS.
         The department and local authorities in their respective
      jurisdictions shall review any application for a special permit and
      may, with good cause being shown, issue special permits authorizing
      the operation upon a highway of traction engines or tractors having
      movable tracks with transverse corrugations upon the periphery of
      such movable tracks or farm tractors or other farm machinery, the
      operation of which upon a highway would otherwise be prohibited under
      this chapter.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C24, 27, 31, 35, § 5069; C39, § 5034.52; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62,
      66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.443]
         StartOfSec321.444  SAFETY GLASS.
         1.  No person shall sell any new motor vehicle nor shall any motor
      vehicle, manufactured since July 1, 1935, be registered, or operated
      unless such vehicle is equipped with safety glass wherever glass is
      used in doors, windows, and windshields.  Replacements of glass in
      doors, windows, or windshields shall be of safety glass.
         2.  "Safety glass" means any product composed of glass, so
      manufactured, fabricated, or treated as substantially to prevent
      shattering and flying of the glass when struck or broken.  Safety
      glass and glazing materials shall comply with federal motor vehicle
      safety standard number 205 as published in 49 C.F.R. § 571.205.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C35, § 4991-f1, -f4; C39, § 5034.53, 5034.54, 5034.55; C46,
      50, 54, 58, 62, § 321.444, 321.445, 321.446; C66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.444] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         97 Acts, ch 108, §25; 98 Acts, ch 1080, §5
         Referred to in § 321.438, 805.8A(3a)
         For applicable scheduled fine, see § 805.8A, subsection 3,
      paragraph a
         StartOfSec321.445  SAFETY BELTS AND SAFETY HARNESSES -- USE
      REQUIRED.
         1.  Except for motorcycles or motorized bicycles, 1966 model year
      or newer motor vehicles subject to registration in Iowa shall be
      equipped with safety belts and safety harnesses which conform with
      federal motor vehicle safety standard numbers 209 and 210 as
      published in 49 C.F.R. § 571.209--571.210 and with prior federal
      motor vehicle safety standards for seat belt assemblies and seat belt
      assembly anchorages applicable for the motor vehicle's model year.
         2.  The driver and front seat occupants of a type of motor vehicle
      that is subject to registration in Iowa, except a motorcycle or a
      motorized bicycle, shall each wear a properly adjusted and fastened
      safety belt or safety harness any time the vehicle is in forward
      motion on a street or highway in this state except that a child under
      eleven years of age shall be secured as required under section
      321.446.
         This subsection does not apply to:
         a.  The driver or front seat occupants of a motor vehicle
      which is not required to be equipped with safety belts or safety
      harnesses.
         b.  The driver and front seat occupants of a motor vehicle who
      are actively engaged in work which requires them to alight from and
      reenter the vehicle at frequent intervals, providing the vehicle does
      not exceed twenty-five miles per hour between stops.
         c.  The driver of a motor vehicle while performing duties as a
      rural letter carrier for the United States postal service.  This
      exemption applies only between the first delivery point after leaving
      the post office and the last delivery point before returning to the
      post office.
         d.  Passengers on a bus.
         e.  A person possessing a written certification from a health
      care provider licensed under chapter 148 or 151 on a form provided by
      the department that the person is unable to wear a safety belt or
      safety harness due to physical or medical reasons.  The certification
      shall specify the time period for which the exemption applies.  The
      time period shall not exceed twelve months, at which time a new
      certification may be issued unless the certifying health care
      provider is from a United States military facility, in which case the
      certificate may specify a longer period of time or a permanent
      exemption.
         f.  Front seat occupants of an authorized emergency vehicle
      while they are being transported in an emergency.  However, this
      exemption does not apply to the driver of the authorized emergency
      vehicle.
         The department, in cooperation with the department of public
      safety and the department of education, shall establish educational
      programs to foster compliance with the safety belt and safety harness
      usage requirements of this subsection.
         3.  The driver and front seat passengers may be each charged
      separately for improperly used or nonused equipment under subsection
      2.  The owner of the motor vehicle may be charged for equipment
      violations under subsection 1.
         4. a.  The nonuse of a safety belt or safety harness by a
      person is not admissible or material as evidence in a civil action
      brought for damages in a cause of action arising prior to July 1,
      1986.
         b.  In a cause of action arising on or after July 1, 1986,
      brought to recover damages arising out of the ownership or operation
      of a motor vehicle, the failure to wear a safety belt or safety
      harness in violation of this section shall not be considered evidence
      of comparative fault under section 668.3, subsection 1.  However,
      except as provided in section 321.446, subsection 6, the failure to
      wear a safety belt or safety harness in violation of this section may
      be admitted to mitigate damages, but only under the following
      circumstances:
         (1)  Parties seeking to introduce evidence of the failure to wear
      a safety belt or safety harness in violation of this section must
      first introduce substantial evidence that the failure to wear a
      safety belt or safety harness contributed to the injury or injuries
      claimed by the plaintiff.
         (2)  If the evidence supports such a finding, the trier of fact
      may find that the plaintiff's failure to wear a safety belt or safety
      harness in violation of this section contributed to the plaintiff's
      claimed injury or injuries, and may reduce the amount of plaintiff's
      recovery by an amount not to exceed five percent of the damages
      awarded after any reductions for comparative fault.
         5.  The department shall adopt rules pursuant to chapter 17A
      providing exceptions from application of subsections 1 and 2 for
      front seats and front seat passengers of motor vehicles owned,
      leased, rented, or primarily used by persons with physical
      disabilities who use collapsible wheelchairs.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79, 81, § 321.445] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1016, § 3; 86 Acts, ch 1009, § 2; 86 Acts, ch 1211, §
      43; 87 Acts, ch 120, § 5; 92 Acts, ch 1175, § 37; 96 Acts, ch 1129, §
      79; 97 Acts, ch 104, §21; 97 Acts, ch 108, §26; 98 Acts, ch 1080, §6,
      7; 2002 Acts, ch 1119, §50; 2004 Acts, ch 1113, §1; 2008 Acts, ch
      1088, §122
         Referred to in § 321.210, 321.446, 321.555, 805.8A(14c)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see § 805.8A, subsection 14,
      paragraph c
         StartOfSec321.446  CHILD RESTRAINT DEVICES.
         1. a.  A child under one year of age and weighing less than
      twenty pounds who is being transported in a motor vehicle subject to
      registration, except a school bus or motorcycle, shall be secured
      during transit in a rear-facing child restraint system that is used
      in accordance with the manufacturer's instructions.
         b.  A child under six years of age who does not meet the
      description in paragraph "a" and who is being transported in a
      motor vehicle subject to registration, except a school bus or
      motorcycle, shall be secured during transit by a child restraint
      system that is used in accordance with the manufacturer's
      instructions.
         2.  A child at least six years of age but under eleven years of
      age who is being transported in a motor vehicle subject to
      registration, except a school bus or motorcycle, shall be secured
      during transit by a child restraint system that is used in accordance
      with the manufacturer's instructions or by a safety belt or safety
      harness of a type approved under section 321.445.
         3.  This section does not apply to peace officers acting on
      official duty.  This section also does not apply to the
      transportation of children in 1965 model year or older vehicles,
      authorized emergency vehicles, buses, or motor homes, except when a
      child is transported in a motor home's passenger seat situated
      directly to the driver's right.  This section does not apply to the
      transportation of a child who has been certified by a physician
      licensed under chapter 148 as having a medical, physical, or mental
      condition that prevents or makes inadvisable securing the child in a
      child restraint system, safety belt, or safety harness.
         4.  An operator who violates subsection 1 or 2 is guilty of a
      simple misdemeanor and subject to the penalty provisions of section
      805.8A, subsection 14, paragraph "c".  However, if a child is
      being transported in a taxicab in a manner that is not in compliance
      with subsection 1 or 2, the parent, legal guardian, or other
      responsible adult traveling with the child shall be served with a
      citation for a violation of this section in lieu of the taxicab
      operator.
         5.  A person who is first charged for a violation of subsection 1
      and who has not purchased or otherwise acquired a child restraint
      system shall not be convicted if the person produces in court, within
      a reasonable time, proof that the person has purchased or otherwise
      acquired a child restraint system which meets federal motor vehicle
      safety standards.
         6.  Failure to use a child restraint system, safety belts, or
      safety harnesses as required by this section does not constitute
      negligence nor is the failure admissible as evidence in a civil
      action.
         7.  For purposes of this section, "child restraint system"
      means a specially designed seating system, including a
      belt-positioning seat or a booster seat, that meets federal motor
      vehicle safety standards set forth in 49 C.F.R. § 571.213.  

         Section History: Recent Form

         84 Acts, ch 1016, § 1; 86 Acts, ch 1069, § 1; 2000 Acts, ch 1133,
      §11; 2001 Acts, ch 132, §11; 2001 Acts, ch 137, §5; 2004 Acts, ch
      1113, §2, 3; 2005 Acts, ch 8, §32; 2008 Acts, ch 1088, §123
         Referred to in § 321.210, 321.445, 321.555, 805.8A(14c)
         StartOfSec321.447 AND 321.448  Repealed by 87 Acts, ch 170, §
      20.
         StartOfSec321.449  MOTOR CARRIER SAFETY RULES.
         1.  A person shall not operate a commercial vehicle on the
      highways of this state except in compliance with rules adopted by the
      department under chapter 17A.  The rules shall be consistent with the
      federal motor carrier safety regulations promulgated under United
      States Code, Tit. 49, and found in 49 C.F.R. pts. 385, 390--399 and
      adopted under chapter 17A.
         The department shall also adopt rules concerning hours of service
      for drivers of vehicles operated for hire and designed to transport
      seven or more persons, including the driver.  The rules shall not
      apply to vehicles offered to the public for hire that are used
      principally in intracity operation and that are regulated by local
      authorities pursuant to section 321.236.
         2.  Rules adopted under this section concerning driver
      qualifications, hours of service, and recordkeeping requirements do
      not apply to the operators of public utility trucks, trucks hauling
      gravel, construction trucks and equipment, trucks moving implements
      of husbandry, and special trucks, other than a truck tractor,
      operating intrastate.  Except as otherwise provided in this section,
      trucks for hire on construction projects are not exempt from this
      section.
         3.  Rules adopted under this section concerning driver age
      qualifications do not apply to drivers for private and for-hire motor
      carriers which operate solely intrastate except when the vehicle
      being driven is transporting a hazardous material in a quantity which
      requires placarding.  The minimum age for the exempted intrastate
      operations is eighteen years of age.
         4.  Notwithstanding other provisions of this section, rules
      adopted under this section for drivers of commercial vehicles shall
      not apply to a driver of a commercial vehicle who is engaged
      exclusively in intrastate commerce, when the commercial vehicle's
      gross vehicle weight rating is twenty-six thousand pounds or less,
      unless the vehicle is used to transport hazardous materials requiring
      a placard or if the vehicle is designed to transport more than
      fifteen passengers, including the driver.  For the purpose of
      complying with the hours of service recordkeeping requirements under
      49 C.F.R. § 395.1(e)(1)(v)(A--D), a driver's report of daily
      beginning and ending on-duty time submitted to the motor carrier at
      the end of each workweek shall be considered acceptable motor carrier
      time records.  In addition, rules adopted under this section shall
      not apply to a driver operating intrastate for a farm operation as
      defined in section 352.2, or for an agricultural interest when the
      commercial vehicle is operated between the farm as defined in section
      352.2 and another farm, between the farm and a market for farm
      products, or between the farm and an agribusiness location.  A driver
      or a driver-salesperson for a private carrier, who is not for hire
      and who is engaged exclusively in intrastate commerce, may drive
      twelve hours, be on duty sixteen hours in a twenty-four-hour period,
      and be on duty seventy hours in seven consecutive days or eighty
      hours in eight consecutive days.  For-hire drivers who are engaged
      exclusively in intrastate commerce and who operate trucks and truck
      tractors exclusively for the movement of construction materials and
      equipment to and from construction projects may also drive twelve
      hours, be on duty sixteen hours in a twenty-four-hour period, and be
      on duty seventy hours in seven consecutive days or eighty hours in
      eight consecutive days.  A "driver-salesperson" means as defined
      in 49 C.F.R. § 395.2, as adopted by the department by rule.
         5. a.  Notwithstanding other provisions of this section, rules
      adopted under this section concerning physical and medical
      qualifications for drivers of commercial vehicles engaged in
      intrastate commerce shall not be construed as disqualifying any
      individual who was employed as a driver of commercial vehicles
      engaged in intrastate commerce whose physical or medical condition
      existed prior to July 29, 1996.
         b.  Notwithstanding other provisions of this section, rules
      adopted under this section concerning physical and medical
      qualifications for a driver shall not apply to a farmer or a farmer's
      hired help when operating a vehicle owned by the farmer while it is
      being used in connection with the intrastate transportation of
      fertilizers and chemicals used in the farmer's crop production.
         c.  Notwithstanding other provisions of this section, rules
      adopted under this section concerning physical and medical
      qualifications for a driver shall not apply to a farmer or a farmer's
      hired help when operating a vehicle owned by the farmer while it is
      being used in connection with the intrastate transportation of
      agricultural commodities or feed.
         6.  Notwithstanding other provisions of this section, rules
      adopted under this section shall not impose any requirements which
      impose any restrictions upon a person operating an implement of
      husbandry or pickup to transport fertilizers and pesticides in that
      person's agricultural operations.
         7.  Rules adopted under this section shall not apply to vehicles
      engaged in intrastate commerce and used in combination, provided the
      gross vehicle weight rating of the towing unit is ten thousand pounds
      or less and the gross combination weight rating is twenty-six
      thousand pounds or less.
         8.  In the course of enforcing the motor carrier safety rules
      adopted by the department under chapter 17A, the department's peace
      officers are authorized, at reasonable times and places and with
      reasonable notice, to enter a motor carrier's place of business for
      the purpose of performing a motor carrier safety audit or compliance
      review.  Nothing in this subsection by itself permits the seizure of
      the property of a motor carrier.  Any audit or review shall be
      conducted in compliance with the federal motor carrier safety
      regulations in 49 C.F.R. pts. 105--185, 382, 383, 385, and 390--399.
      A peace officer of the department is authorized to inspect and copy
      motor carrier records required by 49 C.F.R. pts. 105--185, 382, 383,
      385, and 390--399.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5034.58; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.449] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 170, § 13; 88 Acts, ch 1083, § 3--7; 88 Acts, ch 1278,
      § 50; 92 Acts, ch 1175, § 38; 93 Acts, ch 47, § 15; 95 Acts, ch 171,
      §1; 96 Acts, ch 1063, § 1; 99 Acts, ch 13, §17, 29; 99 Acts, ch 96,
      §34; 2000 Acts, ch 1134, §3; 2001 Acts, ch 132, §12; 2003 Acts, ch 8,
      §17, 18; 2005 Acts, ch 8, §33; 2009 Acts, ch 130, §40, 41
         Referred to in § 321.288, 321.343, 321.450, 325A.2, 805.8A(13b)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see § 805.8A, subsection 13,
      paragraph b
         StartOfSec321.450  HAZARDOUS MATERIALS TRANSPORTATION
      REGULATIONS.
         1.  A person shall not transport or have transported or shipped
      within this state any hazardous material except in compliance with
      rules adopted by the department under chapter 17A.  The rules shall
      be consistent with the federal hazardous materials regulations
      adopted under United States Code, Title 49, and found in 49 C.F.R. §
      107, 171 to 173, 177, 178, and 180.
         2.  Notwithstanding other provisions of this section, rules
      adopted under this section concerning physical and medical
      qualifications for drivers of commercial vehicles engaged in
      intrastate commerce shall not be construed as disqualifying any
      individual who was employed as a driver of commercial vehicles
      engaged in intrastate commerce, and whose physical or medical
      condition existed, prior to July 29, 1996.
         3.  Notwithstanding other provisions of this section, or the age
      requirements under section 321.449, the age requirements under
      section 321.449 and the rules adopted under this section pertaining
      to compliance with regulations adopted under United States Code,
      Title 49, and found in 49 C.F.R. § 177.804, shall not apply to retail
      dealers of fertilizers, petroleum products, and pesticides and their
      employees while delivering fertilizers, petroleum products, and
      pesticides to farm customers within a one-hundred-mile radius of
      their retail place of business.
         4.  Notwithstanding other provisions of this section, rules
      adopted under this section shall not apply to a farmer or employees
      of a farmer when transporting an agricultural hazardous material,
      except class 2 material, between the sites in the farmer's
      agricultural operations unless the material is being transported on
      the interstate highway system.  As used in this subsection,
      "farmer" means a person engaged in the production or raising of
      crops, poultry, or livestock; "farmer" does not include a person
      who is a commercial applicator of agricultural chemicals or
      fertilizers.
         5.  Notwithstanding other provisions of this section to the
      contrary, a driver who is engaged exclusively in intrastate commerce
      and who operates a truck or truck tractor exclusively for the
      movement of refined oil products may drive twelve hours, be on duty
      sixteen hours in a twenty-four-hour period, and be on duty seventy
      hours in seven consecutive days, or eighty hours in eight consecutive
      days.  

         Section History: Early Form

         [C39, § 5034.59; C46, 50, 54, 58, 62, 66, 71, 73, 75, 77, 79,
      81, § 321.450] 

         Section History: Recent Form

         87 Acts, ch 170, §14; 88 Acts, ch 1083, §8; 89 Acts, ch 70, §1, 2;
      89 Acts, ch 186, §1; 91 Acts, ch 127, §1; 97 Acts, ch 108, §27, 28;
      98 Acts, ch 1178, §5, 17; 2001 Acts, ch 32, §20; 2003 Acts, ch 8, §19

         Referred to in §325A.2, 805.8A(13c)
         For applicable scheduled fines, see § 805.8A, subsection 13,
      paragraph c
         StartOfSec321.451  EMERGENCY VEHICLES -- CERTIFICATE OF
      DESIGNATION.
         1.  The director or the director's designee may designate a
      privately owned vehicle as an authorized emergency vehicle and issue
      a certificate of designation for the vehicle, upon written request
      being made on forms provided by the department and showing necessity
      for the designation.  A certificate of designation may be issued for
      the following privately owned vehicles:
         a.  An ambulance or fire or rescue vehicle.
         b.  A state or county medical examiner vehicle.
         c.  A vehicle owned by a sheriff or full-time paid deputy
      sheriff if the authorized emergency vehicle d